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Single Parentings Guide

Single Parentings Guide

Finally! You Can Put All Your Worries To Rest! You Can Now Instantly Learn Some Little-Known But Highly Effective Tips For Successful Single Parenting! Understand Your Role As A Single Motherfather, And Learn How To Give Your Child The Love Of Both Parents Single Handedly.

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Smart Parenting Guide

This ebook from Daniel Dwase gives you the very best tips and information about how to raise your children in such a way as to get smart, responsible, caring, and loving children. If you have problems disciplining your children, this is the book for you. You don't have to be concerned about your children running amok; Dwase gives you the insight that you need to make sure that your children turn out well in the end. This ebook lets you give your child the best gift that you ever could: a loving, nurturing, healthy and loving childhood. By building a quality relationship with them, you will be able to raise a child that continues that relationship into adulthood. Building a quality relationship is the best way to give your child a healthy future and a loving family. You will both empower your child to succeed and reduces behavioral problems Start building your child's future today!

Smart Parenting Guide Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Daniel Dwase
Price: $27.00

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Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of websites have asked me about this manual, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I decided to buy a copy myself to figure out what all the publicity was about.

All the modules inside this e-book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

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Designed for Teaching Children at Risk

Beth Slingerland (1977) developed a closely related guide for teaching children with specific reading disabilities that uses a multisensory approach. In many respects, the Slingerland procedures are very similar to the Orton-Gillingham approach. In fact, Slingerland spent some time with Anna Gillingham and Bessie Stillman, authors of the Orton-Gillingham method.

Child Development

7 years and 10 months, respectively 51, 52 . Pop et al. 53 have also shown a significant decrement in IQ in children aged 5 years whose mothers were known to have circulating anti-TPO antibodies at 32 weeks gestation and were biochemically euthyroid. Haddow et al. 51 found that the full IQ scores of children whose mothers had a high TSH during gestation were 7 points lower than controls (p < 0.005) and that 19 of them had scores of less than 85 compared to 5 of controls (p < 0.007). More recently, the Dutch group 54 have again confirmed that maternal hypothyroxinaemia during early gestation is an independent determinant of neurodevelopmental delay. Further, they have suggested that when FT4 concentrations increase during gestation in women who have had low FT4 in early pregnancy infant development is not adversely affected 54 . The neurodevelopmental impairment is similar to that seen in iodine-deficient areas and implies that iodine status should be normalised in regions of...

Risk Factors For Child Abuse And Neglect

There are a number of risk factors associated with maltreatment. Some factors increase the child's vulnerability to abuse outside the home, while others increase the likelihood of familial abuse or neglect. Finkelhor (1994), in a review of studies on child sexual abuse, notes the following risk factors unavailability of parents, poor parent-child relationships, and parental instability. He also cites a need for caution, however, as some abused children have none of these risks. Specific risk factors for neglect have also been identified. Peerson (2001) examined differences between neglectful and abusive families and found that neglectful mothers were younger when they had their children, had less education, and had higher levels of depression and parenting stress than the mothers of children who had been abused. In a recent review of the literature, Gaudin and Dubowitz (1996) identified the following risk factors for neglect Poor knowledge of child development

Identification Of Child Maltreatment

Although there is no one cluster of symptoms, a number of behavioral problems have been associated with child maltreatment. Table 1 is adapted from two reviews of research on maltreated children (Crosson-Tower, 2002 Veltman & Browne, 2001). The problems noted in Table 1 are not singular to maltreatment and may signal other concerns. Further, while some symptoms are associated with a particular form of maltreatment, many children are exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment and may exhibit an array of these problems. One final caveat is that these behaviors are based on data collected after the identification of abuse or neglect. Thus, these characteristics distinguish maltreated children from nonmaltreated children after the fact but we do not know about differences between these children prior to their abuse or neglect.

The Etiology Of Aggression

One of the most widely discussed theories of aggressive behavior is Albert Bandura's (1973) social learning theory. According to this theory, children develop repertoires of aggressive behavior by observing and or imitating aggressive models (e.g., family members and television). Early research conducted by Bandura demonstrated that preschoolers imitated an adult female's aggressive actions toward an inflatable Bobo doll that was decorated as a clown.

Other Types Of Diabetes

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) refers to diabetes that occurs in childhood or adolescence (before age twenty-five) and is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion that is, if you have the condition, half of your children are also likely to have it. About one in one hundred people with diabetes have MODY. There are six known genetic defects for this kind of diabetes. One of the genetic defects (called MODY 2) is in the gene that enables the beta cells to sense the body's glucose level (the glucose kinase gene) and so regulate insulin release. MODY 2 is usually easily controlled with oral medications that stimulate insulin release. People with this type of diabetes are usually not obese.

Basic Care Plan Well Child Introduction

Healthy children are assessed at regular intervals to monitor growth and development, prevent disease through immunization, promote wellness, and provide families with anticipatory guidance. The nursing care plan for a well child is based on a thorough nursing history, assessment, and review of medical and laboratory findings. The child's parent (or caretaker) is included in all aspects of the child's care. Specific client-related data should be inserted within parentheses and whenever possible.

Schoolbased Bullying Prevention

Finally, effective bullying prevention requires a sustained, consistent schoolwide coordination of effort. A high level of school commitment requires the buy-in of administrative and teaching staff, as well as students, and the resources to develop and support bullying prevention efforts over time. Effective interventions require sustained and coordinated schoolwide effort, increased adult effectiveness in dealing with bullying, and a focus on teaching children the social-emotional skills to support healthy peer networks.

Alternatives To Corporal Punishment

If punishment appears necessary, use withdrawal of favored objects, use time-out, and make consequences relate to the misbehavior. For example, if children make a mess, they should clean it up. When possible, teach children acceptable behavior rather than punish them as this is more effective in preventing further misbehavior. Finally, infants and toddlers should be redirected when engaging in inappropriate behavior as they do not yet understand right from wrong. Overall, nearly 100 of pediatricians surveyed believe using alternative disciplinary measures, such as removal of privileges and time-out, are more effective than hitting children (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1998).

Role Of School Psychologists

School psychologists can be instrumental in helping children navigate the tasks of bereavement through the use of systems consultation, program development, and crisis intervention as well as assessment, counseling, and consultation. School psychologists can help to develop a curriculum addressing death and dying and assist in developing district policy to address crises. They can assist by writing grants to expand bereavement services in the classroom and in small group counseling sessions, which can be cofacilitated by bereavement counselors.

Repeating Polysyllables

Among the more difficult words at the end of the Schonell Word Recognition test (Schonell and Schonell, 1952) is the word preliminary. What I have found with dyslexic children and adults is that responses which I had not believed were relevant to the diagnosis suddenly 'hit me in the eye' as having a significance which I had hitherto not appreciated. In this particular case I do not know how many times I had given the later part of the Schonell Word Recognition test to my subjects before I realised that stumbles over the word preliminary might be of diagnostic relevance. From then on I made a point of trying to notice whether such stumbling occurred. In this connection I consulted with my colleague Gill Cotterell, who had been teaching children at the Word-Blind Centre in Coram's Fields (see Chapter 4), and asked her if she had encountered anything similar. She said she had, and told me of a boy who had said 'par cark' for car park. Soon afterwards Elaine and I were giving lessons to...

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

The first reports of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) were published almost 15 years ago 37,38 . The main purpose of PGD is to perform genetic testing before pregnancy and in order to avoid the termination of pregnancy which is a major limitation of conventional prenatal diagnosis. To date more than 7000 PGD have been performed with the birth of almost 1000 healthy children. The list of disorders to which PGD has been applied now number more than 100 with the most frequent ones being cystic fibrosis and haemoglobin disorders (see review by Kuliev and Verlinsky) 39 . PGD is an attractive option for couples carrying translocations because of their poor reproductive outcome. There is a four fold reduction of spontaneous abortions in women undergoing PGD compared to those not undertaking PGD 40,41 .

Gender Ethnicracial And Life Span Considerations

Children under age 2 are more susceptible to infectious gastroenteritis because their immune system is not yet fully developed. Rotavirus gastroenteritis is usually confined to infants and children under 3 years of age. By age 3, most children develop antibodies against the rotaviruses. Both men and women with low levels of antibody can be infected, particularly family members of affected infants. Severe, prolonged diarrhea may be fatal in elderly persons and infants when severe fluid and electrolyte imbalance occurs. Infants become dehydrated very rapidly. The worldwide incidence is uncertain, and no ethnic and racial consideratins are known wide variations exist in global estimates of mortality and morbidity.

Insulin like Growth Factor IGFI

IGF-I is a polypeptide showing high similarity to insulin. Two different forms are distinguished IGF-I and IGF-II. IGF-I circulates in blood in the form of IGF-binding protein (IGF-BP), probably inhibiting activity of free IGF. IGF-I is a pivotal growth factor secreted as a result of stimulation by human growth hormone. Both in vivo and in vitro studies indicate its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties (Goes et al., 1996 Sukhanov et al., 2007 Sun et al., 2010). There are reports that IGF-I has protective actions in ischaemic rat kidney due to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production (Goes et al., 1996) and anti-apoptotic in Parkinson disease via inhibition of GSK-3P signalling pathway (Sun et al., 2010). IGF-I exerts its protective actions also in central nervous system and cardiomyocytes (Sun et al., 2010). In premature babies a small concentration of IGF-I is a risk factor of retinopathy of prematurity (Perez-Munuzuri et al., 2010). IGF-I deficiency after birth may...

Medias Impact On Achievement Preschool Level

Committed to children's best interests, the producers of Sesame Street use child development principles to teach concepts. Fisch (2002) reviewed educational TV and noted improvements in students' language skills from shows including Barney & Friends, Between the Lines, Blue's Clues, and Electric Company. Reading comprehension skills were improved in students watching Reading Rainbow with increases in library usage noted.

Research On Memory Learning Difficulties And Intervention

A large body of research suggests that remembering becomes easier with age because control processes become more automatic through repeated use. Control processes in memory reflect choices as to which information to scan as well as choices of what and how to rehearse and or organize information. Rehearsal refers to the conscious repetition of information, either vocally or subvocally, to enhance recall at a later time. Learning a telephone number or a street address illustrates the primary purpose of rehearsal. Other control processes include organization (such as ordering, classifying, or tagging information to facilitate retrieval) and mediation (such as comparing new items with information already in memory). Various organizational strategies studied that have been linked to helping children with learning difficulties include

Parent Education And Parent Training

Parent education (PE) refers to programs designed to enhance general parenting skills, usually independent of specific child behavior problems. Parent training (PT) is a general term that refers to several related interventions designed to help parents address child noncompliance and or disruptive behaviors. Both PE and PT programs promote parenting skills that are consistent with Baumrind's (1971) conceptualization of authoritative parenting (i.e., parenting that is responsive to the child's emotional needs, and yet requires child compliance with parents' instructions and directions). An impressive body of research suggests that authoritative parenting is associated with better child compliance, child psychosocial adjustment, and social competence. Longitudinal studies also indicate better long-term outcomes among children raised by authoritative parents, as compared to children of parents that use other child-rearing styles (e.g., authoritarian, in which parents demonstrate high...

What the patient wants to know

Ideally, it should be couples who should be encouraged to discuss all of theimplications. Theadvicewill vary according to the pathology and the clinical setting. Nevertheless, the questions are straightforward Should I get pregnant Will my pregnancy be complicated Will I have a live and healthy baby Will I have problems after my pregnancy The answers should be equally straightforward and must be based on fact, not on anecdote. Even if some of the answers are not favourable, many women will choose to go ahead for a pregnancy or with the pregnancy, in an effort to re-establish a normal life in the face of chronic illness. In some cases this may bring them into conflict with their medical advisers and indeed, some women do not seek advice until already pregnant. This may lead to ethical dilemmas regarding clinicians' duties of care towards women who ignore advice. Attempts are being made to differentiate 'healthy' and 'pathological' levels of assumed risk and to understand the psychology...

Academic Achievement And Socialemotional Development

Parental involvement in academic activities fosters good school performance. There are many styles of parenting that foster different degrees of parental involvement. Baumrind (1967) identified a parenting classification system that has generated a great deal of research and has exerted much influence on generations of parenting researchers. Baumrind put forward four parenting styles According to this schematization, an authoritative parenting style is characterized by high parental warmth, high behavioral expectations, and high use of democratic parenting strategies whereas an authoritarian style also espouses high behavioral expectations, but exhibits low parental warmth and low use of democratic strategies. Although each of these styles predicts children's academic achievement, the relationship is complex. For example, authoritative parenting is more successful than authoritarian methods in promoting academic achievement in middle-class children. However, it has been found that...

The School Psychologists Role

The school psychologist plays an important role in facilitating parenting practices that support children and youths. School psychologists serve several clients simultaneously school personnel, pupils, and parents. Promoting parental participation in schools and working together with parents, pupils, and school personnel is one of the functions and responsibilities of school psychologists. The more involved parents are in their child's school, the greater the child's academic success, attitudes toward school, academic engagement, and the higher the child's self-concept. School psychologists can promote parental activities such as fund raising, serving as advocates for teachers and the school, and working collaboratively with school board members. Parents benefit from a partnership with the school by acquiring added knowledge about their child's development, learning about the school's goals, and developing means to advocate for their children. Through scientific investigations school...

Positive Behavior Support

The term positive behavior support first appeared in the late 1980s and early 1990s and was largely identified with research in special education as distinguished from applied behavior analysis, which has been from its outset more closely identified with clinical and child psychology. With its focus on problem behavior, often associated with disabilities in the broader context of schools, PBS distanced itself from the use of punishers, or aversive consequences for management of problem behavior. The positive in PBS reflects the emerging theoretical perspective that even the most challenging behavior can be managed without resorting to all but the mildest forms of punishment. This position has engendered controversy that continues in various forms to the present day. Many researchers and practitioners associated with applied behavior analysis argue that punishment has always been a small and decreasing part of that applied science, and that PBS, with its broader context of application...

The Normal Impulse Gradient Murmur and the Increased Flow Murmur

About 90 of healthy children up to age 14 have ejection murmurs on ordinary clinical examination in a quiet but not soundproof room 2 . 'These murmurs are usually maximal at the left sternal border. About 15 of adults under age 40 have an innocent ejection murmur.

Clinical Management

The management of OI focuses on minimizing fractures and maximizing function in all aspects of the child's life. Until recently, the correction of deformities, intramedul-lary rodding of long bones, orthotic support, muscle strengthening, and mobility devices, such a wheelchairs, were the mainstays of treatment. 11 The recombinant human growth hormone has been used to augment growth and bone mass. The greatest potential currently resides in bisphosphonate therapy. Bisphosphonates as potent inhibitors of bone resorption have been shown to be highly effective in improving bone mass in children with severe forms of OI. 12 As a consequence, the fracture rate was reduced significantly and quality of life increased in all patients. However, in long-term therapy, bone turnover is suppressed to levels lower than those in healthy children, and the consequences of chronically low bone turnover in children with OI are unknown.

Trends And Future Directions In School Psychology Research

Has promoted the well-being of children and society as a whole. Research is exciting in that countless problems that have confronted our society, once deemed too insurmountable, have become more manageable through ongoing research efforts. Research has improved our knowledge of and ability to intervene with certain disorders, reduce the prevalence of other disorders, assist children to learn more effectively, facilitate parenting skills, enhance self-esteem, reduce violence, and so forth. There will always be a great need for more research because there will always be new questions to answer research will, over time, provide those answers. What needs to be done and how it can be done remain unanswered, yet all questions may be answered via research in school psychology.

Your Role as a Parent

When you discover that your child has diabetes, you will probably be very upset. Being a parent is hard work in the best of circumstances, and your child's diabetes will add a whole other dimension to being a parent. You will need to learn everything you can about diabetes in addition to all your other parenting duties. This may be overwhelming, but with patience and perseverance and the support of your child's diabetes care team, you will be able to help your child manage the disease so that he or she can have the disease but still do all a child needs to do. Your child's diabe tes care team (ideally a pediatric endocrinologist, diabetes educator, nutritionist, and psychologist) will help you, your child, and your family learn the following survival skills for managing the diabetes How to treat the diabetes when your child is ill How to involve other family members, other caregivers, and the staff at your child's school How to transfer responsibilities as your child grows up

Children Ages Three to Seven

Quite often, children this age participate in their diabetes management by helping with glucose monitoring and choosing foods. This is also the age when parents will need to involve other caregivers or school staff in the diabetes management. The ADA has set out recommendations on how schools and day care centers should respond (see Resources) and how to set up a Diabetes Health Care Plan for your child. In addition to providing all the supplies (insulin and syringes, log book, glucose meter, testing strips, glucagon injection, ketone testing strips, and glucose tablets or gel) for caring for your child's diabetes, you should also provide the following information to the caregivers at your child's day care or school How and when your child's blood glucose should be monitored When your child should eat (meal and snack schedule) and how much insulin should be given before these meals if there are parties and special events at school, provide instructions on how much extra insulin should...

Public Schools and Diabetes Training

In the United States, the schools or day care centers that receive public funds are legally required to provide training to school staff on treating diabetes. The ADA has literature for teachers and child-care providers. Your health-care team can also help ensure that the staff members at your child's school are adequately trained. The degree of supervision by the staff of the school will vary with your child's age and abilities. Late adolescence ages fifteen to nineteen At this age your child will manage his or her diabetes fairly independently. You can help by guiding your teen to improve his or her coping skills and transition to full independence for college or work. With diabetes intruding into the teenager's struggle to separate from parents and the need to be accepted by peers, depression can occur, and if your child shows any signs of depression, he or she should get professional help.

Adjusting Insulin Doses

Insulin dosages are based on weight of your child in kilograms (1 kg is equal to 2.2 pounds). The doses vary based on whether the child is in the honeymoon phase or not and whether he or she is going through puberty. During the honeymoon phase, your child will need very little insulin, and a simple insulin regimen with two or three injections a day may suffice. The basal insulin needs may be as low as 0.125 units per kilogram. The ratio for carbohydrate might be 1 unit of insulin for 60 to 75 grams carbohydrate, and your child may not need any insulin for corrections. Once the honeymoon phase is over, your child's basal insulin needs may go up to 0.25 units per kilogram, and the insulin to carbohydrate ratio may go up to 1 unit for 15 to 60 grams carbohydrate. He or she may also need insulin for correction, for example, 1 unit for every 50 to 200 mg dl blood glucose over her target. When your child goes through puberty, the insulin needs go up substantially this is principally because...

Singlecell Fish Analysis

The overall experience of preimplantation FISH analysis currently involves more than 5000 clinical cycles, approximately half performed by FISH analysis of blastomeres and half by FISH analysis of PB1 and PB2, which resulted in hundreds of unaffected pregnancies and healthy children born at the present time. The follow-up confirmation studies of the preselected abnormal embryos, and the babies born following the procedure, demonstrated an acceptable accuracy of the FISH analysis. 3,17

Singleparent Families

As elevations in the rates of divorce and non-marital childbearing have altered the social landscape, the single-parent family is increasingly being blamed for germinating many of the nation's social issues, including delinquency, adolescent pregnancy, and welfare dependency. In 2000, 28 of all family households were single-parent families, and 84 of children living with a single parent resided with their mother (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000). Considering the implications for single parenting more broadly, it is estimated that 50 of children born in the 1980s and 1990s will reside in a one-parent situation during some period prior to reaching adulthood. These national demographics underscore the importance of understanding the effects of single-parent life on educational, social, and behavioral outcomes for children.

Characteristics Of Singleparent Families

The generally accepted definition of a single-parent home is a household in which one biological or adoptive parent raises at least one child under 18 years of age without the presence of a second adult. However, this general definition of single parenthood does not address the diversity in family form and basis. Considerable variations in a single-parent family exist, including the (Jones & Unger, 2000) In addition, ethnic diversity emerges as an especially important factor to consider in the incidence of single-parent homes. African American children are most likely to live in a single mother-child family (53 in 2000) compared to Hispanic (28 ) and European American (21 ) children. These differences reflect the heightened prevalence of nonmarital childbirth, higher rates of divorce, and lower remarriage rates among African American women compared with European American women (U.S. Bureau of Census, 2000). However, these statistics are misleading, as in the aggregate, the majority...

Family Factors And Youth Wellbeing

The findings thus far suggest that economic destitution is a significant contributor to the difficulties demonstrated by children raised in single-parent homes. Murry and colleagues (2001) and Kleist (1999) analyzed the extant research that has attempted to disentangle the relationship between poverty and child developmental outcomes in single-mother households. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest that financial strain influenced children's adaptive development indirectly through its pernicious grip on maternal psychological functioning and parenting quality. Specifically, the results reveal that a single mother's educational attainment is associated positively with better economic conditions (i.e., higher income level and less financial strain), which, in turn, foster parental involvement (e.g., spending time with children and effective supervision) and supportive, cognitively stimulating (e.g., reading books) parenting practices. Such positive parenting practices were...

Clinical And School Psychology Practice Implications

As the challenges confronting single parents are numerous, several researchers in the field recommend a comprehensive, competency-based approach to intervention. Rather than a focus on remediating a single caregiver's deficits, a normative, nondeficit approach aimed at enhancing the skills of single parents (who, on average, may be more permissive and less involved in their child's schooling) is suggested. Specifically, it is important for clinicians to be aware of the effects of limited adult resources within single-parent households, and thus, to provide single parents with the help and support needed to promote resiliency and adaptive child developmental outcomes. Approaching single-parent families within a normative stress and coping framework also facilitates moving the focus of prevention and intervention from altering a deviant family structure to enhancing coping ability, optimizing parenting resources, and clarifying critical family roles and responsibilities regarding the...

Type 2 Diabetes in Children

Your child might be diagnosed with diabetes during routine screening or because she may be unwell. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening any overweight child (more than 120 percent ideal body weight, body mass index greater than 85 percent) who has two of the following features

Prevention Strategies

Families, schools, and communities need to implement a balance of prevention and tobacco cessation programs. First, parents must endorse a tobacco-free lifestyle, even if they smoke. Authoritative parenting, characterized by parental warmth, firm limits, and autonomy to pursue ideas, is a protective factor against smoking. Tobacco-free friends, especially best friends, also help youngsters to internalize a tobacco-free norm.

Which Genetic Disorders Can Be Detected During

PGD can detect many though not all genetic diseases or defects. Following is a partial list of those that can be identified using the PGD technique. If you and your partner are not affected by one of these but instead are carriers, you could still pass the disorder on to your child. Here's a list of genetic disorders that can be detected using PGD

Using Pgd To Determine The Sex Of Your Baby

If you are looking to use PGD technology to choose the gender of your child, find out ahead of time if this is an option at your fertility clinic. Couples may desire a child of a specific gender for a variety of reasons. The euphemistic term for this gender selection is family balancing.

Screening For Complications

Still, your child should get a foot examination yearly starting at puberty. The younger your child, the more involved you will to be in the day-to-day management of the diabetes. Make sure you know how to deal with the diabetes when your child is sick Children with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for other autoimmune diseases, and your child will be screened for celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid disease.

Warning Signs And Risk Factors

A third risk factor is impaired social and family relationships, which includes peer and parent-child relationships. Research shows that social support by peers and parents acts as a protective factor and reduces the likelihood of adolescents engaging in suicidal behavior. Peer relationships become increasingly important in high school as adolescents begin to use

Teacherstudent Relationships

Research indicates two overlapping but distinct aspects of the teacher-student relationship conflict and closeness. Although both aspects have been related to children's social and academic development, there are indications that conflict in relationships is more closely associated with child outcomes than is closeness. In early elementary school, teachers' reports of the quality of their relationships with students is relatively high (i.e., marked by low levels of conflict and high levels of closeness). Initial research has shown a trend toward relationships becoming less intense (in both conflict and closeness) as children move from preschool through the early elementary school grades. Furthermore, relationships that children develop with different teachers across their early school experiences are moderately stable, but demonstrate enough variability to indicate that each new teacher represents a new relational opportunity for students.

Raising A Child Conceived With Donor Material

Of course, you must decide if you will explain your child's conception to him or her. And you'll also want to discuss your wishes with close family members and friends so that they will abide by your wishes. In the case of donor sperm, eggs, or embryos, you'll also need to decide if you want to explain this to your child. If you do decide to be open about the conception, consider how much information to share with the child. Some people choose to portray the donor in the same way as a biological parent who placed the child for adoption. Others explain that the donor was more of a helper who assisted in conception but has no further role. At some point, will the child be able to find out about the donor Should they meet and form a relationship Many agencies keep this information on file, and so it may become available to the child once he or she reaches age 18. Ideally, this type of information should be spelled out in your donor agreement prior to conception. At the very least, the...

Iodine Deficiency and Supplementation

Six randomized, controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy have been published, involving 450 women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. In all six trials, supplementation resulted in a significant increase in maternal urinary iodine. Iodine doses varied between 50 and 230 xg day, and the data indicate no clear dose-response relationship for urinary iodine, TSH, thyroglobulin, thyroid hormone or thyroid volume. For the newborn, most data suggest supplementation is safe and efficacious. The studies also suggest an increase in newborn thyroid volume and thyroglobulin can be prevented or minimized by supplementation, which has little or no impact on newborn total or free thyroid hormone levels. There are no clinical data on the effect of supplementation on birth weight or prematurity, and no data on long-term outcomes, such as thyroid autoimmunity, or child development.

Prevention and Control

The live, attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain) was licensed in the USA in 1995 and is recommended for vaccination of all children and some susceptible adults. The vaccine protects normal children and adults, as well as children with malignancies, from clinical varicella. Most children develop adequate humoral and cellular immunity to varicella after a single dose of vaccine additional doses enhance the degree of immunity and are recommended for adults. A rash may follow vaccination. It is usually mild, but can be severe if the vaccine is given to patients experiencing periods of profound cellular immune impairment. The live vaccine virus establishes neural latency and can reactivate. Thus, zoster has been reported in vaccinees, especially those who are immunocompromised, but the rate appears to be no higher than that following natural infection. Vaccination may be combined with VZIG for postexposure prophylaxis.

GO vocabularies are DAGs

GO vocabularies are structured as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), wherein any term may have one or more parent as well as zero, one, or more children (Fig. 7.2.1). Within each vocabulary, terms are defined, and parent-child relationships between terms are specified. A child term is a subset of its parent(s). Thus, for example, the fact that the nucleolus is part of the nucleus, which in turn is part of the (eukaryotic) cell, can be captured further, the DAG structure permits GO to represent endoribonuclease as a subcategory of both endonuclease and ribonuclease.

Multiple Cutaneous Leiomyomas

There is a spectrum of fumarate hydratase gene defects described in different clinical settings, but the type of defect does not appear to correlate with disparate clinical manifestations (4). Fumarate hydratase mutations cause multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis (MCUL) syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome, and autosomal recessive FH deficiency, which manifests as severe developmental delay, and death in childhood. Autosomal recessive FH deficiency does not appear to be associated with development of malignancy. However, short life expectancy may not allow for its expression. Some parents of FH-deficient children develop leiomyomas as may be expected in the heterozygous state (2). In HLRCC and MCUL, the devel

Middle ear and mastoid

This disease has a propensity for the mastoid portion of the temporal bone in children and young adults. It presents as a lytic process, and clinically involves loss of hearing without pain or tenderness. The patients are afebrile, otherwise healthy children. The lesion is hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense with enhancement on T2-weighted images

Sociometric Assessment

The applications of sociometric assessment methods have resulted in controversy and ethical concerns regarding their use. These concerns center on the use of negative nominations and the possibility that children will compare responses, which may result in negative social and emotional consequences for children who are not positively perceived by their peers. These concerns have contributed to the decline in the use of sociometric assessment methods, particularly in school settings. However, researchers have found no evidence that negative consequences occur. Therefore, sociometric assessment continues to be used as a research tool for understanding children's social relationships.

Childrens Bereavement From A Developmental Perspective

Children's understanding of death, family, and cultural influences, family stability, personal characteristics, relationship with the deceased, and the circumstances of the death affect the bereavement process. There is no specific model that targets the bereavement process based on child development, although theories of Freud, Piaget, and Erikson are evident in discussions of a child's ability to grieve, to understand the finality of death, or to create an identity after the death of a parent.

Testing For Autoimmune Diseases

When your child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, he should also be screened for autoimmune thyroid disease. His doctor will do these thyroid tests at intervals or if there is a problem with your child's growth, because low thyroid hormone levels can slow down growth. In celiac disease, eating foods containing gluten (that is, those derived from wheat, oats, rye, and barley) cause an autoimmune damage to the wall of the small bowel. This damage leads to diarrhea, abdominal pain, tiredness, problems absorbing vitamins such as vitamin B12, poor weight gain, and decreased growth. It can also affect the absorption of carbohydrates, causing hypoglycemia. The treatment is a gluten-free diet. Screening for celiac disease is done when a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is made, and then again if the child has problems such as growth failure or weight loss or gastrointestinal problems. The blood test that is done is called tissue transglutaminase IgA autoantibody. If the blood test is positive,...

Point Versus Counterpoint Media and Children

Media ranging from television, radio, Internet, e-mail, and video games are universally available. They function as important communication, education, and entertainment tools. However, the question is how would you like your children to spend the 1,000 hours the average child spends each year engaged with media Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of media requires active parent oversight. Parke, R. D., & Slaby, R. G. (1983). The development of aggression. In P. H. Mussen (Series ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 4). New York Wiley.

Pathogenesis and Immunity

That cross-reacts with several other serotypes. Young children develop a more homotypic response, whereas older children and adults tend to develop a more heterotypic response. This age difference in the specificity of the antibody response probably reflects exposure to a greater number of serotypes with increasing age. The heterotypic response may reflect the presence of epitopes that are shared among multiple serotypes, but the actual mechanism is unknown. The presence of antibody does not prevent infection or primary virus replication, but it is sufficient to protect from disease, probably by limiting spread of the virus to secondary sites such as the CNS. Infection also elicits a T-cell response which helps clear the virus, but the cell-mediated immune response is not required for protection from disease.

K12 Educator

Educators who teach children from kindergarten to 12 th grade have many responsibilities. They must prepare lesson plans for all of their classes, tailoring their plans to the instructional backgrounds and abilities of the children in each class. Class sizes may range from twenty to thirty-five students, and a teacher may be assigned as many as six different classes. Thus, in addition to teaching, educators at this level must be skilled in classroom management, for they must often deal with behavioral problems and even act as surrogate parents for younger children.

Angell George T

Angell traveled and lectured frequently on the importance of teaching children about kindness to animals. On July 28, 1882, he helped to organize the first American ''Band of Mercy.'' These children's clubs met in schools, helped children learn about animals, and encouraged activities to protect animals. In 1889 Angell organized the American Humane Education Society (AHES) with a special charter granted by the Massachusetts legislature. AHES endured as part of Angell's mission to promote humane education and sponsored the American publication of the classic book Black Beauty by Anna Sewell.*

NOC Parenting

Refer to community agencies that offer parenting classes and support groups. Initiate referrals to social services, parenting classes, or counseling as appropriate. Inform parents that Provides information about parent-child relationship and parenting styles that may lead to child abuse identifies parents at risk for violence or other abusive behavior. Promotes development of parenting skills by imitation. Provides education in parenting skills.

Previous Vasectomy

Right now is the best time to be embarking on your journey of fertility and parenthood. That's because medical technology is continuing to advance and has come so far that you have many choices and options. As you read further in this book, you'll learn about basic male and female anatomy and how they work, various tests and procedures, and medications you may be offered. If practical, you may want to try a natural approach to fertility first we'll discuss natural ways to conceive with nutrition choices, lifestyle changes, and alternative techniques. Of course, the assisted reproductive technologies are discussed in detail. These techniques are explained in plain English so that you'll feel comfortable understanding the ins and outs of IVF and other important technologies. So many new and emerging fertility technologies exist today that anyone who dreams of becoming a mommy or daddy has good reason to feel hopeful and optimistic.

British Origins

Galton identified those fit folk who should have children and stigmatized those he deemed unfit for parenthood. He also believed then-accepted notions of racial superiority and inferiority, had more to do with class and cultural prejudice than with biological difference. Galton assumed that wealthy people like himself were fit, whereas poor folk were unfit. Northern European white people stood atop the evolutionary scale of fitness, followed by whites from southeast Europe, Asians, Native Americans, Africans, and Australian Aborigines.


School psychologists may help the student with a language disorder by designing opportunities within the classroom to incorporate communication skills and addressing social skills problems by teaching children how to interact with others, take turns, and make friends. Language production may be improved by engaging in role-play and storytelling activities in which the child tells a story about a picture and or names objects. Comprehension may be enhanced by minimizing classroom distractions, obtaining the child's full attention, having the student repeat directions, and, finally, cueing the child to improve listening.

Donor Gametes

Ethical issues arising in sperm donation include the extent to which parents have the right to choose desirable characteristics in the genetic father of the child, and the right of the child to eventually learn the identity of the father. Each of these issues has precedent in nonassisted reproduction, since prospective parents do choose their mates, and anonymous parenthood occurs in many adoptions. Payment for the sperm sample is generally low enough that the incentive to donate is not thought to be coercive for the donor, and so is not a significant ethical issue.

Conduct Disorder

The social contexts of family, peers, and school interact with the child's biology over the course of a child's development. Certain children are apparently born with biological predispositions (e.g., neuropsy-chological deficits) that make them vulnerable to developing conduct problems. In the family context, maintaining a balance of warmth and control has long been considered a hallmark of effective parenting. Children who develop CD are more likely to experience parenting strategies that are harsh and ineffective (Patterson, 1982). Through these strategies, children learn to use coercive behavior (e.g., temper tantrums, whining) to get what they want. Parents, in turn, learn to escape the coercive behavior of their children by failing to discipline and monitor them (Patterson, 1982). Ironically, parents of children with conduct disorder may actually monitor their children less closely than do parents of children without CD to avoid highly aversive conflicts with them. As a result,...

Inter Pro

InterPro (Mulder et al., 2003) integrates diagnostic protein signatures from PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs. Signatures from the different databases that describe the same protein family, domain, repeat or post-translational modification (PTM) are integrated into a single InterPro entry with a unique InterPro accession number. The guidelines for integration are that the signatures must overlap, at least in part, in position on the protein sequence they should have at least 75 per cent overlap in the protein match lists and they must all describe the same biological entity, whether it be a family, domain etc. New signatures from member databases are manually integrated by biologists using a list of protein matches for the new signatures and a list of overlaps between new and existing signatures. New signatures are either integrated into existing InterPro entries or assigned unique InterPro accession numbers, following the guidelines described above. Each InterPro...


Etiology refers to the presumed cause of an individual's difficulties. Typically with children and adolescents, the range of potential single or multiple causes to explain the difficulties these individuals encounter is often extensive (Kamphaus & Frick, 2002). For example, a host of etiologies have been suggested to explain the occurrence of an attention deficit hyperac-tivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, including neurological factors (e.g., prenatal and perinatal complications abnormalities in brain structure, function, or chemistry exposure to environmental toxins and infections), genetic factors, and environmental factors (e.g., certain parenting characteristics and parenting styles, chaotic home environment, and poverty). The etiologies of some difficulties or disorders may be solely biological, psychological, social, or a combination of the three. Knowledge of the etiology is relevant to school psychologists engaged in educational and psychological practice...


Teaching children to self-instruct and self-monitor are other ways to support generalization. For example, teaching children to state rules that describe the desired behavior will increase the probability that those skills will be performed in the teacher's absence. If students in a social studies class are taught the self-instruction, Take out a sheet of paper and a pencil when the bell rings, they are more likely to state the rule in math class and follow it.

Research Issues

Measuring the success of treatment is just one challenge of gene therapy. Research is fraught with practical and ethical challenges. As with clinical trials for drugs, the purpose of human gene therapy clinical trials is to determine if the therapy is safe, what dose is effective, how the therapy should be administered, and if the therapy works. Diseases are chosen for research based on the severity of the disorder (the more severe the disorder, the more likely it is that it will be a good candidate for experimentation), the feasibility of treatment, and predicted success of treatment based on animal models. This sounds reasonable. However, imagine you or your child has a serious condition for which no other treatment is available. How objective would your decision be about participating in the research

Defining Head Start

Often mistaken as a Department of Education preschool program, Head Start is actually a comprehensive child development program administered by the Department of Health and Human Services through the Head Start Bureau, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, and the Administration for Children and Families. Public and private agencies (e.g., city government, community action agency, school system, Native American tribe, private preschool provider) submit grants to operate Head Start in a community. In addition to preschool education, programs must provide a range of individualized health care services, family social services, and parent involvement components. Head Start programs also work with local school systems to ensure a smooth transition into elementary school. Programs are monitored through an extensive system of performance standards that define the nature and quality of the many services provided to children and families. These standards can be enhanced and modified...

Program Goals

The Head Start Planning Committee, a multidisci-plinary group representing medicine, health, nursing, social work, education, and psychology, designed the Head Start program to be a multidimensional program focusing on both adult family members and children. The program fosters healthy development in low-income children and their families through the delivery of individualized, comprehensive services in the areas of child development and school readiness, parent involvement, social services, nutrition, and medical, dental, and mental health.


We do not understand the mechanisms of why some children develop disease in the CNS. Pathological studies suggest that leukemic cells line the walls of arachnoid veins and proliferate slowly. They subsequently infiltrate and destroy the arachnoid trabeculae and penetrate the channels for CSF circulation. As the brain does not have lymphatic tissue, the cells that are detected originate from reticuloendothelial tissue outside the CNS. ALL is a disseminated systemic disease and it is likely that all children have subclinical CNS disease at presentation. The key to preventing CNS disease is the use of effective systemic therapy to eliminate the source of the disease. As many of the drugs used do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier well, the early use of adjunctive intrathecal therapy facilitates the eradication of subclinical or overt CNS disease. We have also begun to appreciate that technical administration of intrathecal medication is important. This requires avoidance of traumatic...

Montessori Schools

Maria Montessori, born in Italy in 1870, developed her own theories of child development and learning, which serve as the foundation for Montessori schools. Montessori believed that schools should be designed to facilitate the natural development and independence of children. Given the freedom to choose their activities and work at their own pace, children take responsibility for their own learning. Opportunities for learning are


Specific types of thoughts and beliefs that are related to motivation and learning include an individual's self-perceptions of competence, self-efficacy beliefs, causal attributions, and achievement goals. Self-perceptions of competence refer to people's estimates of their ability. These perceptions influence a student's choice of tasks, effort, persistence, causal attributions, and achievement. Young children tend to overestimate their abilities and, accordingly, often maintain high expectations for future success even in the face of failure. As children develop, their perceptions of competence decline, but become more accurate. Self-efficacy is the belief that one is capable of performing in specific areas such as language arts, biology, or gym. Self-efficacy beliefs are task- or situation-specific and include the belief that one's actions can lead to desired outcomes (Bandura, 1997).

Parent Education

As the name implies, PE programs are didactic in nature, and may impart knowledge about children's physical, emotional, and social development parenting skills parenting stress management and children's home and school environment. Programs vary in their emphasis, but may include specific instruction about discipline strategies, child education and school readiness, nutrition, appropriate expectations for child social and physical development, and family role expectations. Specialized PE programs have also been described for parents of children in higher-risk situations (e.g., children at risk for abuse, children with developmental delays, families undergoing divorce). Corresponding to the wide variety in the content and scope of PE programs, there is considerable variety in the resulting outcomes. Several program evaluations have found positive changes in parenting-related distress, improved parental attitudes, and use of authoritative parenting practices. Other studies have found...


There are various and simultaneous contexts that must be included in any serious consideration of parenthood. A parent is nested in an immediate family, a neighborhood, a cultural norm, racial and ethnic currents, immigrant status, social and economic factors, a political climate, and a historical period. An even more finely grained rendering of the topic of parenting might concern itself with distinctions between mothering and fathering. Additionally, there are many potentially interesting questions such as the impact of single-parenting, dual-career parenting, gay and lesbian parenting, and so forth. Thus, there are numerous factors that come into play when one contemplates the meaning of parenthood. Clearly, parenting is a multilayered dynamic system of values, behaviors, and roles.

Cultural Variations

Parenting beliefs and practices are shaped by culture. One culture might promote independence and autonomy, while another might encourage less exploration and greater social courtesy. When discussing the impact of cultural variations in parenting practices, it is difficult to determine where stereotypes leave off and real distinctions among groups exist. Often, a distinct group subsumes many different subgroups that espouse different traditions. For example, the group considered to be Latino is quite varied. It includes Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Central and South American, as well as people of other Hispanic origin. Some groups do not share a common language. Among Asians, there are Taiwanese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Korean to mention a few. Asian parenting practices vary according to the ethnicity, culture, and language. Moreover, parenting practices change with increased assimilation into the dominant culture. vital to avoid the imposition of evaluative comparisons with...

Primary Prevention

The Child Development Project (CDP) (Battistich & colleagues, 1997) promotes social and moral development, community, and active caring for children within the school to improve mental health and academic success. The need for schools to become caring communities is most commonly identified at the middle and high school levels where preadolescent and adolescent disengagement and lack of connection to school goals are most marked. CDP involves extensive analysis and reshaping of the school environment as a prerequisite for changes sought at the classroom level. CDP interventions address concerns such as caring, relationships, student autonomy, and values needed at the classroom and the school levels.

Secondary Prevention

Project Fast Track has a focus on enhancing social and emotional competencies and reducing negative, aggressive behavior for children performing low on both behavioral and academic indicators. The approach is multifaceted, involving academic tutoring and social skills groups, and the classroom teachers' use of the Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum (Greenberg & colleagues, 1995). PATHS is designed to help children identify and label feelings and social interactions, reflect on those feelings and interactions, generate alternative behavior, and test such alternatives. Teachers are trained to add lessons to their first-grade curriculum that teach children emotional understanding, communication skills, self-control, and social participation. In the context of this multifaceted intervention, teachers who had a better understanding of the importance of teaching PATHS skills generalized the lessons taught in the PATHS curriculum to their interactions with...


You can increase your child's physical activity by Being a role model for your child by limiting your sedentary time Engaging your child in physical activities he or she enjoys go for walks, enroll in team sports, play hoops in the back yard, or join a martial arts academy The child should get a minimum of thirty to sixty minutes of physical exercise daily and yes, that's every day If your child is on sulfonylureas or insulin, hypo-glycemia can occur with exercise. See Chapter 9 for safe exercise guidelines.


The doses of insulin in children with type 2 diabetes are usually higher than in children with type 1 diabetes because of the insulin resistance. However, your child's doctor may start him off at doses similar to those used for children with type 1 diabetes and then increase the doses as needed, based on his glucose levels.

Diabetes Camps

I encourage children with diabetes and their families to attend diabetes camp. For a week or two, it is great for the child and his or her family to live among people for whom checking glucose and adjusting insulin doses is the norm rather than the exception. Your child can learn about the latest techniques in diabetes management. Parents can get some relief from the daily task of being diabetes manager. Adolescent camps and college preparation camps can help with the transition from close parental involvement to the independence of the young adult. The ADA and Children with Diabetes websites have information about diabetes camps (see Resources).

Ecological Focus

Drug prevention programs can be organized along an ecological continuum, with focus on the individual and or family, school, and community contexts. Individually oriented programs focus on psychological factors such as self-esteem. Family-oriented programs address socialization practices, structure and supervision, and parenting skills as critical factors in reducing likelihood of drug use. Family strengthening programs that emphasize parenting skills and parent involvement in schools have shown efficacy in reducing student drug use. Because peer influence is widely recognized as a major contributor to initiation and persistence of drug use, many school-based programs focus on deflecting peer influence through resistance skills (Botvin & colleagues, 1995). School performance and attachment are also considered important contributors to risk of drug use (Hawkins & colleagues, 1992). Thus some researchers argue that prevention programs should concentrate on improving school...

Prevalence Rates

Based on reports from AGI, more than 800,000 to 900,000 adolescents become pregnant each year, with more than half of those pregnancies leading to adolescent parenthood (AGI, 1994, 2004). For example, in the year 2000, 33 of pregnancies among 15- to 19-year-old girls ended in abortion. However, teen pregnancy rates and abortion rates vary considerably by ethnicity and by state. Among U.S. adolescent girls, 15 of all African American girls, 14 of Hispanic Americans, and 7 of European Americans become pregnant (AGI, 2004). The disproportionately higher incidence of adolescent pregnancy for young women of color is even more dramatic at younger ages. In 1997, 1.1 per 1,000 European American females younger than 15 years of age became pregnant compared to 3.9 per 1,000 Hispanic girls and 7.7 per 1,000 African American girls. Overall in 1995, 14 of all sexually experienced males 15 to 19 years were

Raising An Art Child

First, you must decide if you will explain your child's conception to him or her. Especially in cases where no outside donor is involved, some parents never tell their child that ART was used to achieve the pregnancy. Other parents feel obliged to explain the child's conception when the time seems right. If you do choose to tell your child, remember to explain only what your child can handle at his or her current age. Young children won't be able to fully grasp the concept of ART. Try to break it down into easy-to-understand terms. As your child matures, you'll be able to fill in the blanks and answer more questions because you've already opened this path of discussion. You might also want to discuss your wishes with close family members and friends. Explain to them whether or not you will be telling the child about the ART conception. Set the tone and the ground rules so that your family and friends don't violate your wishes. For example, you might say that you and your partner are...

Truepath rule

The multiple parentage allowed by the DAG structure is critical for accurately representing biology. GO developers impose an additional constraint on the parent-child relationships specified in the vocabularies. Every possible path from a specific node back to the root (most general) node must be biologically accurate.

Dare Program

Classroom lessons that teach children and adolescents from kindergarten through 12th grade. Officers are used to implement the program under the assumption that a curriculum on substance abuse prevention is more effective when the instructors represent legitimate authority figures within the community. Prior to implementing the elementary and middle junior high school programs, officers undergo 80 hours of special training in areas such as child development, classroom management, teaching techniques, and communication skills, which also certifies them as School Resource Officers. In addition, 40 hours of training are provided to DARE instructors to prepare them to teach the high school curriculum.

Parent Training

While PE programs are designed to improve general parenting skills, PT programs are designed to teach parents to address their children's disruptive behaviors. So, unlike many forms of child therapy, in which the child works directly with a therapist, PT programs teaches parents to serve as the primary therapist for their child, while the clinician serves as a consultant or trainer for the parent. In most PT programs, parents learn methods of positively reinforcing appropriate behaviors, methods of decreasing reinforcement of inappropriate child behaviors, techniques to increase the stimulus value of their instructions (i.e., increase the likelihood that children will attend to the parents' instructions), and, in some PT programs, methods of helping their children to appropriately communicate their feelings. Specific skills may include attending, rewarding, ignoring, giving directions, and time-out procedures. Incredible Years Parents Training Series (Webster-Stratton & Reid,...

Adjustment Disorder

A normal part of child development involves experiencing events that are unexpected or unpleasant and learning how to overcome these challenges. However, for some individuals, recovery after a stressful event is not so easy and distress appears long after the event is over. Children who exhibit problematic reactions to stressful experiences beyond typical levels may be demonstrating symptoms of an adjustment disorder.