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Industry Statistics The Pharma and Biotech Industries

The worldwide pharmaceutical marketplace is composed of four geographic areas the United States, Europe (European Union), Asia (Japan, China, Australia), and the rest of the world (ROW). In addition, pharmaceutical companies are generally divided into five categories pharmaceuticals (brand drugs, also known as ethical drugs), biotechnology products, generic drugs, over-the-counter (OTC) drugs (non-prescription), and devices. Support companies for the industry exist in many categories as well. Seven categories are suggested as follows research or discovery technology (e.g., high-throughput screening, genomics, antisense, monoclonal antibodies), venture capital companies (financing support especially for small companies), clinical research organizations (generally operations and management for clinical research), specialty services companies for conduct of clinical trials to supplement company staffing (e.g., statistics, patient recruitment, medical writers, regulatory), medical...

Thinking skills and critical thinking

Ennis believes that critical thinking depends essentially on two overarching dispositions caring to 'get it right' to the extent possible and caring to present positions honestly and clearly. It also depends on the process of evaluation (applying criteria to judge possible answers), a process implicit or explicit in most of the essential critical thinking abilities listed by Ennis (1987). The idea of evaluation is common to most, but not all, of the definitions we have found, but the overall impression is one of diversity and subjectivity rather than clarity. Each writer seems to have an individual conception of 'good' (i.e. 'critical') thinking, if not of'reason' and 'truth'.

Maps charts and diagrams

Various other terms have been used, sometimes loosely or metaphorically, to denote the fabric of a domain or field. For instance, a map can indicate relationships between categories by depicting a connection with a line. The strength of the connection may also be indicated by proximity or line density. Hence, various thinking skills may be depicted on paper and arranged so that they form clusters of related items. A map is a term applied to a wide range of depictions, pictorial and verbal, that may or may not constitute a taxonomy. Given the nature of a taxonomy, it would be perverse for a writer to call it something else unless it fell short of the mark. On the other hand, calling something a taxonomy does not make it one.

Report Writing and Scoring

Many of the most popular assessment batteries (i.e., the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement) have electronic programs that assist with scoring, interpretation, and report writing. These programs reduce the likelihood of scoring errors, provide interpretations that are consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of the assessment battery, collect data across students, and have report writers that may speed writing. Special care must be taken to ensure that data are kept confidential, that the generalized interpretations presented for individual students are carefully considered along with other data sources, and that the student's data are correctly entered.

Neuronal Representations Knowledge Stores

The shift toward this antilocalizationist view of brain organization was strongly propelled by the Harvard psychologist Karl Lashley, who removed different parts of rodents' brains to see if there were any specific areas of the brain that, when removed, caused a specific behavioral deficit. Because he found no localized regions where knowledge was stored but rather knowledge seemed to be diffusely represented, he formulated the theory of mass action. A corollary of this hypothesis is that whatever the location of a brain injury, the more tissue that is damaged, the poorer the animal performs on any task. Unfortunately, during this antilocalizationist period (1920s to 1962), clinical neurologists who presumably should have been interested in localization of function did little to advance knowledge in this field, and many of the British neurologists had a strong negative attitude toward localizationist thinking. Sir Henry Head, one of the leaders of British neurology, wrote inflammatory...

Historical Perspective

Although the vital nature of the cardiovascular system was clearly apparent to the ancients, its actual function was a mystery. An early attempt to explain the function of the heart and the blood was made by the Greek physician and writer Galen (130-201 A.D.). He taught that there was an ebb and flow of fluid between the heart and the abdominal viscera, where the natural spirits'' were formed between the heart and the brain, where the animal spirit'' was created and between the heart and the lungs, where vital spirits'' entered the body through the trachea. This erroneous concept remained a major cornerstone of medical thought for the next 14 centuries.

Pontinegeniculooccipital PGO waves preceding and during REM sleep

Figure 2.3 Changes in the membrane potential(MP) of a pontine tegmentalneuron over the sleep wake cycle in the cat. These EEG and neuronalrecordings illustrate the paucity of reticular activity during NREM sleep and the frenzy of activity during REM sleep. As well, the premonitory transition period of the approach of REM sleep is not visible in the corticalEEG. The first trace of the top panel(a) is EMG from the deep nuchalmuscles. The second trace is EEG from the frontalcortex. The third trace is LGN activity, showing PGO waves, which consist of high amplitude pre REM waves (REM T), irregular, high frequency waves during REM sleep, and rather high amplitude waves near the end of REM sleep. The fourth trace is EOG from the lateralrectus extraocular muscles. The fifth trace is the ink writer membrane potentialrecord of the pontine tegmentalneuron, in which the many single spike like deflections on the trace are prominent EPSPs, or compounds of EPSPs and actualaction potentials (the...

Creativity and Left Hand Preference

Authors-Writers In creative writing the ability to use techniques such as metaphor and inference is critical, but so is the overall organization of sentences and paragraphs. Delis, Waper, Gardner, and Moses's (1983) study of patients with right- and left-hemisphere damage showed that the patients with right-hemisphere damage were also impaired at organization. In regard to content, creative writers often portray emotional states and write humorous works. Bihrle, Brownell, Powelson, and Gardner (1986) studied the ability of patients with right- and left-hemisphere strokes to comprehend humor by showing them cartoons, On the basis of this brief review, we can see that creative writing requires the use of both hemispheres. Thus, writing with one hand versus the other would not confer any benefit. In addition, now many writers use keyboards where both hands are used. Because creative writing would require the use of both hemispheres, perhaps people who have better interhemispheric...

The enzyme commission classification

Given the goal of mapping a functional classification onto sequence and structure classifications, several problems associated with current functional categorizations are generally recognized. Gerlt and Babbitt (2000), who are among the most thoughtful writers on the subject, pointed out that 'no structurally contextual definitions of enzyme function exist'. They propose a general hierarchical classification of function better integrated with sequence and structure. For enzymes they define the following.

Tolstoy Leo Nikolayevich

Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828-1910) was a Russian aristocrat, novelist, and writer. Like Mohandas Gandhi,* he was deeply committed to the principle of nonviolence, which he also extended to the animal world. He translated Howard Williams's The Ethics of Diet into Russian with an accompanying essay The First Step'' (1892), in which he commends vegetarianism* as a step toward achieving the moral perfection required by Christ's teaching as illustrated by the Sermon on the Mount. Tolstoy corresponded with the Humanitarian League and eventually became a member. Although he was influenced by Orthodox spirituality, he was deeply critical of the established Orthodox Church, complaining that it legitimized violence and cruelty. His many novels illustrate the need for a spiritual life inclusive of respect for animals nowhere is this more powerfully stated than in the opening section of Resurrection (1904), where humans are pictured in their own physical and moral prison, unable to grasp that...

Writing Interventions And Strategies

Despite its importance, many children have difficulty mastering this basic skill. On the most recent National Assessment of Educational Progress (Greenwald & colleagues, 1999), only approximately 25 of the students in grades 4, 8, and 12 were classified as competent writers at their perspective grade levels. Although children's writing development is a complex process, it depends in large part on the methods and strategies used to teach it. In an effective writing program, teachers use a variety of instructional procedures to shape and transform students' writing knowledge, skills, wills, and self-regulation (Graham & Harris, 2002 Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1986). There are a variety of adaptations that teachers can make to support struggling writers. In a nationwide survey involving primary grade teachers, for instance, Graham and colleagues (in press) found that children experiencing writing difficulties were often provided extra one-on-one help, including individual assistance from...

Diagnostic Norm Referenced Assessment in Written Expression

Diagnostic standardized achievement tests in written language are typically designed to provide a broad estimate of written language achievement. Unlike standardized group testing, they are administered individually to a student. The intent of such tests is to compare a student's functioning to that of their peer group. Such information is useful in documenting a writer's progress through the school grades, providing a great deal of inter- and intra-achievement comparisons. Table 1 includes an analysis of several commonly used diagnostic achievement tests with written expression sections. Two types of writing formats commonly seen on such measures are contrived or spontaneous tasks. Contrived formats measure skills such as capitalization, punctuation, spelling, syntax, or word usage in isolation from the general written product. Spontaneous formats ask the student to produce a writing sample from a specific topic and function. The different aspects (e.g., spelling, organization,...

In which areas is knowledge very limited or highly contested

First, there are diverse views about the nature of knowledge and about how to access and use it. The power which people can exercise through thinking and communication also occupies many writers, who take positions ranging from various forms of elitism (intellectual, sociocultural or spiritual) to an egalitarian concern for human rights. There are also distinct moral and ethical belief systems - with some writers taking a pragmatic, technological view about the possible social and economic benefits of improved thinking some espousing the values of a liberal-humanistic tradition and others having a strong belief in rationalism.

Contract Research Organizations CROs

Investigators and initiates and monitors some portion of the study sites, (2) CRO X initiates and monitors the remainder of the sites, (3) CRO Y is responsible for clinical data management, (4) an independent contract statistician carries out data analysis, and (5) a freelance medical writer writes the clinical report. Unbundling, by contracting out only where a truly complementary role for the CRO exists, can be the most cost-effective approach for the sponsor. However, this benefit may be offset by the complexities, cost, and risk of managing multiple vendors.

Food Labelling Agenda

FLAG (Food Labelling Agenda) is a national consumer pressure organisation launched in June 1997 by a group of concerned food and health writers. The organisation campaigns for 'clear, comprehensive and meaningful labelling on all food and food products' and its first task in March 1998 was to deliver a petition calling for improved food labelling to Downing Street. It won support from a huge number of individuals and organisations, including those with interests in allergy, genetic engineering, infant feeding, heart disease, cancer, vegetarianism, eating disorders and green issues. The accurate labelling of potential allergens is one of FLAG's major concerns. The organisation is steered by Michelle Berriedale-Johnson and Sarah Stacey and their postal address is PO Box 25303, London NW5 1WN. A newsletter is produced for supporters.

Risk Taking and Substance Abuse

If the creative act brings satisfaction and fulfillment, why do creative people often have affective disorders such as depression In addition to having a high prevalence of affective disorders, creative people, especially writers, composer-musicians, and fine artists, have a very high rate of substance abuse, such as alcoholism (Post, 1994, 1996). As I mentioned in the chapter on neurotransmitters (chapter 8), although creative people often go through many trials and tribulations to accomplish creative endeavors, creativity itself probably does not induce affective disorders, but rather the people who are creative probably have some of the anatomic, physiological, or neurotransmitter abnormalities that Although there is a high incidence of substance abuse among some creative disciplines, there is a relatively low incidence in other disciplines. In addition, in every discipline there are people who have no problems with addiction. The reason why certain disciplines have a higher rate...

Entering the Profession

In addition, technical writing is a profession that pays well. According to a 2000 salary survey by the Society for Technical Communication, the average salary for a technical writer in the United States. is about 52,000. An entry-level technical writer makes about 37,000, which compares favorably with entry-level positions in other fields. The average salary for a seniorlevel technical writer with supervisory responsibilities is about 65,000. Salary level also depends on geographic location, level of education, and years of experience in the technical writing field. People interested in seeking employment as technical writers should pursue volunteer and internship opportunities, develop a portfolio of their work to show potential employers, check classified advertisements and company Web sites for job openings, write directly to personnel departments, and or sign up with a job placement agency that specializes in information technology. see also Science Writer.

Challenges Advantages and Drawbacks

Some challenges need to be considered when thinking about a career as a technical writer. For example, a person may have to invest considerable time and money to acquire the knowledge and skills needed. Also, it can be difficult to gain entry-level experience. Technical writing is typically a sedentary profession that does not involve travel. At the same time, it is a demanding profession that can take time and energy away from other, more creative writing pursuits. Working for a company with an established set of document guidelines can be frustrating, and the profession is sometimes criticized for being dry and unimaginative. Generally, however, the outlook for technical writers is bright. Technical writing is a job growth area More jobs are being created than are being filled, particularly in the high technology industry. Once employed, a technical writer works on a wide variety of projects, many of which represent the cutting edge of science and technology. The field is supportive...

Oncology Legitimates an Experimental Procedure

Additional indication that many, if not most, oncologists viewed HDC ABMT as no longer experimental was provided in a series of letters obtained from the litigation of the 1990s. A Seattle law firm (Culp, Guterson, and Grader), in 1992, had solicited the opinions of oncologists across the country on the status of HDC ABMT.9 A careful reading indicates clearly that the opinions expressed established policies and practices. Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation wrote that the procedure was generally accepted medical practice in our community for the treatment of certain patients (McMillan 1992, p. 1). The University of Michigan Medical Center wrote Sufficient data has accumulated to make us believe that high dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation for metastatic breast cancer which remains sensitive to chemotherapy, is an effective therapy. This therapy is generally accepted medical practice in the State of Michigan and is one of a number of standard therapies for...

Opportunities in Science Journalism

Opportunities for science writers continue to expand beyond such traditional media as newspapers, magazines, television, and radio. For example, there are on-line publications, some of which specialize only in research topics. Science writers are also hired as public information officers, to explain research at universities and government agencies. There are com The latter jobs mean writing for a science-literate audience. For the most part, however, science journalists explain a technical world to a nontechnical audience. Their goal is not to teach people how to do the science, just how to appreciate it, evaluate it, and even enjoy it. Continually learning new science, and explaining it to those who are interested, is one of the great benefits of being a science writer.

Preface To The First Edition

This book is intentionally entitled 'elements'. It is intended as an introductory account of what is now a vast and rapidly expanding subject. Indeed so rapid is the advance that any writer finds difficulty in steering between the Scylla of up-to-dateness (with its danger of rebuttal) and the Charybdis of received understanding (with its danger of obsolescence). I hardly expect to have safely navigated between these twin sirens at first attempt. But I hope to have avoided shipwreck to the extent that further attempts can be made in subsequent editions. To this end I would welcome critical (I hope constructively critical) comments so that the text can be updated and improved in the years ahead. Leonardo da Vinci annotated one of his anatomical drawings thus 'O Writer, with what words will you describe with like perfection the entire configuration as the design here makes . . . and the longer you write, minutely, the more you will confuse the mind of the auditor ' (trans. Keele)....

Scope For Future Research

In this writer's opinion our greatest future attention must be in the area of education and communication. Correct and reliable information, free of political pressure or competitive fears, must be disseminated to enable the consumer to make informed, independent choices and industry to make responsible decisions.

The Growth of Specialization

The fast pace of scientific and technological advance has led to an increasing demand for science writers who understand science, and who can make others understand it as well. The membership of the National Association of Science Writers is now nearly 2,500. Science writing programs have sprung up at Boston University, Northwestern University, the University of California in Santa Cruz, the University of Maryland, and many other institutions. Most of these programs are aimed at journalists who wish to learn how to write about science, to more deftly translate jargon, explain complex experiments, and illuminate the people and the politics behind the science. A few, such as the program at Santa Cruz, are geared for science majors who wish to learn about journalism.

Molecular Mechanism of Transcriptional Regulation and Epigenetic Propagation

(Lee et al. 2004 Ozsolak et al. 2007) prior to transcriptional initiation (Petesch and Lis 2008). It has long been known that functional DNA elements are hypersensitive to endonucleases, and such DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) (Wu et al. 1979) occur upon nucleosome depletion. Studies of IFNft gene activation during viral infection revealed that a nucleosome masking the transcription start site (TSS) and TATA box was remodeled by the histone acetylation-recruited SWI SNF chromatin remodeling complex, allowing for TFIID recruitment (Agalioti et al. 2000). Binding of the TFIID subunit TBP to the TATA box induced the nucleosome to slide further downstream, exposing the transcription start site and allowing for transcription (Lomvardas and Thanos 2001). Thus there is a complex interplay between chromatin marks, their readers, writers, and erasers, and sequence-specific transcription factors in the regulation of transcription.

Goals and Skills Required

The main aim of a technical writer is to communicate scientific and technical information to other people using easily understandable language. To be a technical writer, a person needs strong language skills, demonstrated by college-level training. A college degree in English, journalism, or communication is preferred, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. The Specially trained people began to be employed as technical writers in the late 1930s. Prior to the 1980s, however, most technical documents still were written by scientists, engineers, and other specialists, many of whom found it difficult to write for nontechnical audiences. With the rapid expansion of science and technology, however, the need increased for people who could both understand complex ideas and convey them effectively to a variety of audiences.

Motivation and Persistence

Because the frontal lobes are important for long-term goals they allow us to perform activities that might not always make us immediately happy but might provide long-term rewards. In his book, Creativity, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1996) called these behaviors exotelic. In the beginning of this chapter, however, I wrote that while some creative artists, writers, composers, and scientists do obtain fortune and fame, very few of these people get wealthy or famous by performing creative acts. Some, when they started their creative careers, might have thought that their creativity would bring them fame and fortune, but after several years many creative people realize that these aspirations will never be fulfilled. This knowledge, however, often does not stop them from continuing their creative activities. Creative people often continue to create because performing this act brings them enjoyment and fulfillment. This self-motivated behavior, which is not performed for any future or immediate

Editorial Staff

Contributions are worthy of special mention. Jennifer K. Nelson, R.D., M. Molly McMahon, M.D., and Robert A. Rizza, M.D., developed the material in Chapters 1 through 5. Kristine A. Kuhnert, R.D., contributed to Chapters 1 through 5 and served as project manager. Judith M. Ashley, Ph.D., R.D., provided the original draft for all of Part II (except the chapters on fruits and vegetables). Sydne J. Newberry, Ph.D., contributed to Chapters 1 and 2 and was the editor and major writer for the fruits and vegetables chapters. Dr. Rizza oversaw the entire process and served as one of the Editors-in-Chief. Other Editors-in-Chief were Vay Liang W. Go., M.D., M. Molly McMahon, M.D., and Gail G. Harrison, Ph.D., R.D.


The authors of any book always owe a debt of thanks to many people. Not in the slightly sycophantic way of the film awards, but in a very real sense, there truly are those without whom it would not have been possible to get the job done. The writers of this book are no exception and would like to say a public thank you to everyone who helped us along the way. To single anyone out always runs the risk of being divisive, but to omit a few particular individuals would be churlish in the extreme. We are particularly grateful to Lynne and David Lewis-Saunders for the use of our compact and bijou residence in the Dales, where so much of this book was written and to Linda Ormiston, OBE, for the loan of her coffee table, where most of the rest of it took shape.


Throughout this book there are many examples of dyslexics' writings. These have been reproduced in roman type ('dsgib'), while correct spellings for words have been reproduced in italic type (described). When reproducing dyslexics' writings, I have striven to be as faithful to the original work as possible. Therefore, there are a few instances when a word had been crossed out by its writer this crossing-out has been reproduced.


As Van Gogh, Picasso, and Rembrandt composers such as Beethoven, Mozart, and Tchaikovsky writers such as Vonnegut, Fitzgerald, and Steinbeck are also creative. Coleridge, as quoted by Bronowski (1972), provided an explanation of artistic creativity that is similar to the one discussed about scientific creativity Artistic beauty is a unity in variety.


Ovid's Metamorphoses, written around the time of the birth of Christ, is the main source of tales about the transformation from human to animal. Ovid drew upon folktales and the works of other writers to weave stories of people'' when they return to their own world. In the Haida tale Salmon Boy,'' as retold by Joseph Bruchac (Native American Animal Stories), a boy who has been disrespectful to salmon learns respect when he is transformed into one of them and goes with them to their home. In a Blackfoot tale, The Piqued Buffalo-Wife'' (in The Storytelling Stone, edited by Susan Feld-man), a human male has sexual relations with a buffalo and must pass through several trials, including death and resurrection, before his buffalo-wife and offspring can be changed permanently into human beings. Boundaries between human and animal are flexible in Native North American tradition. The boundary is flexible in Latin American traditions as well. Modern writers like Julio Cortazar and Carlos...


Lettuce has been used in the kitchen for thousands of years. Hippocrates and other Greek writers discussed it, and the Romans were fond of it. Because of its proven sleep-inducing or soporific qualities, it was originally eaten at the end of a meal, but later also with vinegar at the beginning as an appetite stimulant. In the Middle Ages lettuce appears to have played a minor role in European cookery, at least before 1400. By the sixteenth century, however, it was used for raw salads across the Continent. Part of the resistance to eating raw lettuce came from the medical community, which classified lettuce as so extremely cold and moist in nature that it was believed to be capable of quenching a person's thirst and even extinguishing any feelings of lust.


Growing wild in Europe and western Asia, the parsnip has been cultivated since antiquity and was an integral part of the Roman diet. Up to the early modern period writers did not always make a distinction between parsnips and carrots. Sweet and starchy, the white parsnip was used in the Middle Ages as a substitute for honey and sugar, which were substantially more expensive. Easily stored for the winter in a cool place, or left in the ground until needed, it was an important vegetable, especially for the peasants.

Fuga Daemonum

An old book name for ST JOHN'S WORT, englished into Devil's Flight (chasse diable in French), and given because of the many examples of its power to cure melancholy and to drive away all fantastical spirits . A 13th century writer tells of the wort of holy John whose virtue is to put demons to flight (see Summers. 1927). Aubrey. 1696 mentions a case where St John's Wort under the pillow rid a home of the ghost that haunted it. Langham. 1578 was another writer who advised his readers to keep some in the house, for it suffereth no wicked spirit to come there .

The Media

The media played a central role in both shaping the debate about HDC ABMT and encouraging women with breast cancer to demand it. The first story appeared on successive days, April 6 and 7, 1988. Daniel Haney, long-time science writer of the Associated Press, pegged his story to a New England Journal of Medicine article reporting the use of growth factor to reconstitute a functioning immune system after HDC. The Duke University study had been done at the Bone Marrow Transplant Program, headed by William Peters. The newspaper account lagged by more than a decade the initial research at the Sidney Farber Cancer Center, stimulated by Dr. Emil Frei, which had studied 17 patients with metastatic carcinoma, 3 of whom had carcinoma of the breast (Tobias et al. 1977). What Rosenthal could not have known was that her story, and the hundreds that followed, would help autologous transplants take off. By year's end, at least 15 stories about HDC had appeared in major newspapers, including the Wall...

Intrinsic Motivation

One way of portraying the subjective experience of being intrinsically motivated is with the concept of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997). The flow state is characterized by being so fully immersed in an activity that people lose track of time and become unaware of what is going on around them. Their attention is riveted and sharply focused, and there is a striking lack of self-consciousness. While observed in recreational activities such as chess, basketball, and painting, flow has also characterized the work of writers, inventors, and musicians. Among children, flow is most commonly seen at play, particularly with videogames, but may also be seen in learning activities such as reading, solving mathematical problems, or writing in a journal. Flow is not easily achieved in situations where there is little control over one's learning and the actions needed to perform the task such as those commonly found in schools.

Lewis C S

An English theologian and writer, fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, and subsequently professor of medieval and Renaissance literature at Cambridge, C. S. Lewis (1898-1963) held that the infliction of pain on animals was an evil and that carnivorousness was a result of the Satanic corruption

What do journals do

In 1984, the New England Journal of Medicine was the first medical journal to require authors of original articles to disclose potential conflicts of interest. This requirement was later expanded to writers of editorials. Initially, compliance with this policy was not very strict. Even the NEJM admitted failure to follow its own guidance for eighteen review articles.1


According to Eysenck (1995), Aristotle claimed, No great genius has ever been without some madness. According to Simonton (1999), Aristotle also wrote, Those who have become eminent in philosophy, politics, poetry and the arts all had tendencies toward melancholia. John Adams said, Genius is sorrow's child. In his book, Eysenck tried to make the argument that there is a strong relationship between creativity, psychosis, and schizophreniform thinking, but then quoted Eisenman's studies that demonstrate that schizophrenics are even less creative than normal hospital employees, who Eysenck noted are not particularly creative. Kraepelin in 1921 noted that manic-depressive psychosis was often associated with enhanced creativity (Weisberg, 1994). Post (1996) studied the biographies of a large group of world-famous creative people, such as composers, scientists, artists, and writers. To classify these people, Post used the diagnostic criteria found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of...


POKE-ROOT berries mixed with whisky form a Kentucky rheumatism cure. In the same area the practice was to use the dried berries made into a tea, or just eating the raw berries (Thomas & Thomas), while people in Kansas used to swear by cooked CRANBERRIES as an effective rheumatic pain reliever (Meade). Another American remedy was to boil MULLEIN root and mix it with whisky, to be drunk as needed, or to dip a cloth in mullein leaf tea, and bind it on the affected part (R B Browne). A tea from PUCCOON root used to be another treatment in the same area (R B Browne). The bark of CHINABERRY TREE was used in Indian domestic medicine for the complaint (Codrington). Older writers stressed the sulphur content of HORSERADISH, apparently the reason why it was used for chronic rheumatism, as a plaster instead of MUSTARD (Rohde. 1926), perhaps as a counter-irritant But a report in Notes and Queries 1935 shows a Welsh treatment of a very different kind. Like Poke-root berries in Kentucky, shredded...


Is WHITE CLOVER (Trifolium repens) the shamrock, the emblem of Ireland That belief is not as old as may be supposed. In fact, it is first mentioned in Tudor times. Campion's Historie of Ireland (1571) refers to shamrokes, water cresses and other herbs they feed on . A hundred years later, shamrock is clearly identified as an Irish emblem. Thomas Dinely, who made a tour of Ireland in 1681, wrote in his journal of shamroges (Sheehy). All this in spite of the legend that had St Patrick himself using the trefoil leaf of a clover as an illustration of the Holy Trinity (it is still used as the emblem of the Trinity (Haig) ). But, as Nelson says the shamrock had not been invented in 700 AD . Shamrock is actually Irish seamrog, the diminutive of seamar, clover (Lockwood). But the identity of the plant that truly bears the name has been a vexed question of a great many years. The white clover is, or used to be, worn as such on St Patrick's Day, though Medicago lupulina was also sold as the...


Pain mapping by laparoscopy under conscious sedation can be a useful procedure, particularly where the site of pain is unilateral, allowing comparison with a 'control' area, to assess the significance of adhesions, to identify unrecognized occult inguinal or femoral hernias and, in the negative sense, to identify individuals with a generalized hyperalgesic chronic pain state for whom further surgical intervention would be hazardous. The role of this procedure remains to be clarified in the overall context of pain assessment and management but reports of experience are now available in the literature 25 . Typical operative technique includes sedation with mida-zolam and fentanyl, infiltration of puncture sites with bupivicaine, use of a 5-mm laparoscope via a subumbil-ical puncture together with a fine suprapubic port for a probe. The maximum gas pressure is reduced to around 10 mmHg to minimize discomfort in the upper abdomen. Tenderness at specific sites is recorded on a 0-10 verbal...

Shaw George Bernard

Pearson, Hesketh, Bernard Shaw (London Collins, 1942 Four Square ed., 1964) Shaw, George Bernard, The Complete Plays (London Odhams Press, 1936) Shaw, George Bernard, The Dynamitards of Science pamphlet (London London Anti-Vivisection Society, 1900) Shaw, George Bernard, Preface to Henry S. Salt (Ed.), Killing for Sport Essays by Various Writers (London George Bell, 1915), xi-xxxiv Shaw, George Bernard, Prefaces to his plays (London Constable and Company, 1934) Shaw, George Bernard, Shaw on Vivisection, ed., G. H. Bowker (London George Allen and Unwin, 1949) Shaw, George Bernard, These Scoundrels Vivisection The ''Science'' of Imbeciles, Sunday Express, August 7, 1927.

Strewing Herbs

SWEET FLAG roots are aromatic, with a violet-like fragrance that is brought out as they are trodden on. Hence its former use for strewing on the floors of churches and the houses of the rich. Ely and Norwich cathedrals had their floors covered with it at festival times, as the plant grows in the Fens (Genders. 1971 Fletcher. 1997), where it was actually harvested, and not only for floor covering, for it seems that they were used for thatching too, especially for churches (A W Hatfield). One of the charges of extravagance brought against Cardinal Wolsey was that he ordered the floors of his palace at Hampton Court to be covered mch too often with rushes and flags, since they were expensive and difficult to get (Genders. 1972). Even more expensive was SAFFRON. He used rushes strongly impregnated with saffron to strew at Hampton Court (Dutton). But then he could afford it. BASIL was used, too (Brownlow). RAYLESS MAYWEED (Matricaria matricarioides) is a plant that gives off a pleasant...

Sketch 4 Edward

In view of what I had observed, I spoke to Edward's headmaster, and it was agreed that he should come to Bangor for further assessment. He read 84 out of 100 words correctly on the Schonell word recognition test, which in view of the norms suggested no problems with the reading of single words. However, his mother told me that he had been late in learning to read and still found reading aloud difficult. He was also a slow writer he had difficulty in learning German words and occasionally read car registration numbers the wrong way round. There was then the chance to give him the Bangor Dyslexia Test in full, not just the seven items used with the control group. His tally of positive indicators came to six there were 'pluses' on Polysyllables, Tables, Months Reversed, Digits Forwards and Digits Reversed, while there were 'zeros' on the Left-Right and Subtraction items. I found no positive evidence that anyone else in his family was dyslexic.

Informal Measures

Informal measures are critical to an assessment of written expression. Luria (1980) describes three informal task formats for assessing writing copying, dictation, and spontaneous. These different tasks allow the evaluator to examine different cognitive and linguistic processes required of an individual during the process of writing. Luria suggests that a writer be given different types of copying tasks (e.g., letters, single words, sentences, paragraphs). Spelling, sentence structure, and organizational deficits can be noted as the task demands increase the need for integration of cognitive and linguistic processes. The ability to complete a dictation task requires the individual to integrate phonological (sound awareness), orthography (sound symbol awareness), and word and sentence structure. Again, varying the type of task demands, such as dictating individual letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs, is important. To distinguish between linguistic and motor disorders, the...

Text Organization

The ability to organize ideas in written language and arrange them to create an organizational framework involves many linguistic and cognitive abilities. Writers' cognitive, linguistic, and reading abilities have a significant influence on the creation of different organizational patterns of text (Applebee, 1978 Gregg, 2004 Vygotsky, 1978). The two most commonly used genres in the schools are narrative and expository writing. Narrative is used in the early grades, but its influence is felt much less as students advance. The results of writing assessments that evaluate text organization using only narrative genre cannot be generalized to a student's ability with expository text. Professionals and students participating in the assessment of written language are integral to the integrated assessment process. Informal and criterion-and norm-referenced measures are simply the tools to investigate a writer's abilities. It is the collaboration of teachers, psychologists, and students...


(Aster tripolium) Ancient Greek writers reported that it changed its colour three times a day (hence tripolium), white in the morning, purple at noon and crimson in the afternoon (Pratt). One of the old names for this plant was Toadwort (Hulme. 1895). The Ortus Sanitatis has when a spider stings a toad and the toad is becoming vanquished, and the spider stings it thickly and frequently, and the toad cannot avenge itself, it bursts asunder. If such a burst toad be near the toad-wort, it chews it and becomes sound again but if it happens that the wounded toad cannot get to the plant, another toad fetches it and gives it to the wounded one . Topsell vouches for this having been actually witnessed The error seems to have been the confusion between bubo and bufo. The latter is the toad, but bubo is a swelling in the armpit or groin (Prior), presumably to be treated with this herb.


Saffron has been mentioned as a local remedy for tuberculosis (Fernie), but this is actually an old usage. Gerard, for instance, quotes it as a special remedy for those suffering from the disease, and are, as wee terme it, at deaths doore, . Even plague could be kept at bay, according to Gerard, with saffron as one of the ingredients of a concoction that preserveth from the pestilence, and expelleth it from those that are infected . Lesser ailments were also treated with it, boils, for instance (Wesley), or asthma (Wesley, again). The early writers were also quite sure that it strengtheneth the heart . That was Gerard, and Parkinson. 1629 agreed. It was apparently useful to sober people up. The Physicians of Myddfai had a remedy if you would remove a man's drunkenness, let him eat bruised saffron with spring water .

Horse Chestnut

(Aesculus hippocastanum) 'Horse' in a plant name usually denotes largeness and coarseness, and that is probably the case here, though the older writers obviously did not think so. Note, for example, the old name Castanea equina. Parkinson says The horse chestnits are given in the East country, and so through all Turkie, unto horses to cure them of the cough, shortnesse of winde, and such other diseases . Gerard also accounts for the name in the same way. Skinner suggests the derivation from the likeness to a horse's hoof in the leaf cicatrix, and it may have been from the doctrine of signatures that the nuts, crushed as meal, were given to horses for various diseases. Actually, horses do not seem to like them, though deer and cattle do (Barber & Phillips), and the nuts are a good food for sheep (Lindley). But they are definitely not for human consumption there have been cases of poisoning due to children eating the green outer cases of the nuts, and there have even been reports of...


The term ''misothery'' is derived from Greek misein, to hate, and therion, beast or animal, and literally means hatred and contempt for animals. Since animals are so representative of nature in general, misothery can mean hatred and contempt for nature, especially its animal-like aspects. One writer, for example, has described nature as ''red in tooth and claw,'' that is, bloodthirsty like a predatory animal. In another version of the same idea, we say, ''It is a dog-eat-dog world.'' These are misotherous ideas, for they see animals and nature as vicious, cruel, and base.


It was used also for mental disorders of various kinds, the idea being generally to produce sleep. Many ancient writers alluded to it as a remedy for insomnia (Randolph). The leaves have been used in various ways they have been read as tea leaves, applied to ulcers, taken as emetics (so has the root). Even today, they are sometimes used in ointments (Brownlow) they seem to have a soothing and cooling effect, good for erysipelas and other similar complaints (Randolph). But the modern mandrake of the pharmacists is that of the North American Podophyllum peltatum, the May-apple.

St Johns Wort

A 13th century writer tells of the wort of holy John whose virtue is to put demons to flight (see Summers. 1927), and Aubrey. 1696 mentions a case where St John's Wort under the pillow rid a home of a ghost that haunted it. Langham was another writer, some hundred years before Aubrey, who advised his readers to keep some in the house, for it suffereth no wicked spirit to come there . Fuga daemonum is an old book name, anglicised as Devil's Flight (chasse-diable in French). In Aberdeenshire, it was quite common to gather the plant on St John's Day, and put it under the pillow. The saint would appear in a dream and give his blessing, which would act as insurance against death for the year (Banks. 1937-41) indeed, gathering it on Midsummer Day and keeping it in the house would give luck to the family in all their undertakings, especially those begun on that day (Napier). It was quite a common practice to gather the plant before sunrise on St John's Eve, with the dew still on it, and then...


Beginning science writers may earn a starting salary of around 20,000 to 25,000, depending on their training, the type of job, the resources of the employer, and the region of the country. More experienced writers may earn between 35,000 and 60,000, and some writers earn even more. The highest salaries are paid to top-tier writers employed by major publications, or experienced medical writers working for pharmaceutical companies. see also Technical Writer. Blum, Deborah, and Mary Knudson, eds. A Field Guide for Science Writers. New York Oxford University Press, 1998. Gastel, Barbara. The Health Writers Handbook. Ames Iowa State University Press, 1998. National Association of Science Writers. .

Future Prospects

Technical Writer A technical writer (sometimes called a technical communicator) designs, writes, edits, and produces documents for scientific, technical, industrial, and government organizations. These documents can include technical reports, specifications, reference manuals, operating instructions, policies and procedures, proposals, presentations, brochures, and Web pages.

Treatment dilemmas

Many women seek complementary or alternative therapies for CPP. At present there is limited research evidence on which to base recommendations for specific treatments. Acupuncture has a place in the management of chronic pain in general, and there is supportive evidence for benefit in dysmenorrhoea 40 . Most importantly in this writer's view, many patients will appreciate a broad consideration of physical conditions, lifestyle factors, psychological stresses and advice on means of dealing with thoughts and feelings as part of a consultation for CPP, whether in 'conventional' or 'complementary' clinic settings.

Cardinal Flower

Caraways are often mentioned by old writers as an accompaniment to apples (Ellacombe). The custom of serving roast apples with a little saucerful of caraway seeds, well known in Shakespeare's time, is still kept up at Trinity College, Cambridge, and at some London livery dinners. And in Scotland a saucerful is put down at tea to dip the buttered side of bread into, and called salt water jelly (Grieve.1933). All in all, it is difficult to understand why caraway seed entered Lincolnshire dialect as something quite worthless. I wouldn't give a caraway seed to have it one way or the other (Peacock). An essential oil from the seed is used in perfumery, but consumption of it in Europe is far more important as a spice, or in the form of oil as an ingredient of alcoholic liquors (Fluckiger & Hanbury), Kummel for instance. A spice wine used to be made from the seeds, too - it was called Aqua compositis. Henry VIII was apparently very fond of it (Genders).


Horseradish roots are high in Vitamin C content, almost double per 100 grams as orange juice (G B Foster). Older writers stressed the sulphur content. This was apparently why it was used for chronic rheumatism, as a plaster instead of mustard (Rohde. 1926) - perhaps as a counter-irritant But a report in Notes and Queries 1935 shows a Welsh rheumatism cure that is very different - shredded horseradish in a bottle of whisky, which was then buried in the ground for nine days. Then the dose was three spoonfuls daily. Another method for the same complaint comes from Russian folk medicine. Equal amounts of horse radish and paraffin were mixed, to be used as a quick rub-down before going to bed (Kourennoff). Chilblains could be treated by wrapping grated horseradish round the finger toe, and kept in place with a piece of lint (Rohde. 1926).

The Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages, a number of writers made mention of diabetes, but not its neurological complications. Interestingly, none of them spoke of the sweet properties of urine either, and it was not until well into the 17th century when Thomas Willis recalled attention to it. Another century had passed before Dobson, in 1775, showed that the taste of diabetic urine depended on sugar, which he demonstrated by evaporating the urine and producing the sugar in crystals (9). The Middle Ages should also be remembered by the most poetic description of the diabetes-associated copious flow of urine ever. It was made by the English poet and physician Sir Richard Blackmore in 1727. .as when the Treasures of Snow collected in Winter on the Alpine Hills, and dissolved and thawed by the first hot Days of the returning Spring, flow down in Torrents through the abrupt Channels, and overspread the Vales with a sudden Inundation (10).