AMV is easily transmissible manually. Field spread occurs predominantly by aphid transmission. At least 15 aphid species are known to transmit the virus in the stylet-borne or nonpersistent manner. Acquisition of the virus occurs within 10—30 s and is followed by immediate transmission without a latent period. The ability to continue transmission is lost by the aphid within 1 h. The variability of individual aphid species in their capacity to transmit different AMV strains suggests a specific virus—vector relationship which is probably governed by the structural properties of the CP. Seed transmission of AMV has been reported for alfalfa and seven other plant species with rates of transmission varying from 0.1% to 50%. Transmission of the virus between plants by parasitic dodder has been observed with five Cuscuta species.

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