Conclusion and Perspective

Viruses of the gammaherpesvirus genera Lymphocryptovirus and Rhadinovirus can be found in New World and Old World primates, including humans. Although several members of both genera are closely associated with viral oncogenesis, the simian viruses do not generally provide a straightforward model for multifaceted human diseases. The direct transforming action of viral oncogenes, as well as a chronic inflammatory reaction that may be affected by KSHV-encoded or KSHV-induced cytokines or angiogenic factors, may contribute to the genesis of KS. The KSHV-related simian rhadinoviruses do not provide a corresponding animal model as yet. Historically, interest in the rhadinoviruses has focused on the long-established prototype, HVS. Although a comparable virus-associated, acute, peripheral, pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma is not known yet in humans, this disease, which is induced reproducibly by HVS within weeks, can serve as an experimental model for general tumor development. The ability of certain HVS strains to transform human T lymphocytes to stable proliferation in culture provides a valuable tool for laboratory studies of T-cell immunology, including inherited and acquired immunodeficiency. In addition to their use as an immunological and biochemical T-cell model, HVS-transformed T cells can provide a source for the purification of specifically over-expressed cytokines or chemokines from culture super-natants. A detailed analysis of differential gene expression will lead to identification of signaling pathways that lead

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