S

S41 virus 578t S45 virus 578t S50.2 virus 578t S4100 virus 578t S5100 virus 578t sag gene protein, mouse mammary tumor virus 301f 302, 307, 307f Saimirine herpesvirus 2 see Herpesvirus Saimiri (HVS) Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) 119, 375-381 classification 376 distribution 119, 375, 376f epidemiology 375, 376f 378 overwintering 378 virus reintroduction 379 geographic variation 376-377 clusters 376-377 history 375 lineages 376-377 multiple strain circulation 376-377 pathogenicity 378...

Ectromelia Virus

Marchal, as a spontaneous infection of laboratory mice at the National Institute of Medical Research in London. It was called infectious ectromelia because of the frequent occurrence of amputation of a foot in animals that had recovered from infection. Soon after, J. E. Barnard showed, by ultraviolet (UV) microscopy, that it had oval virions about the same size as those of vaccinia virus (VACV). The only other experiments done with the virus at that time...

Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus

Classic viral inclusions were first seen in the salivary gland of guinea pigs in the 1920s. However, GPCMV was not isolated until 1957. Since this time, almost all research conducted on GPCMV has used the Hartley strain of the virus. The genome of GPCMV, while not fully sequenced, is approximately 230 kbp in length and is collinear with those of other CMVs, sharing genes with HCMV, MCMV, and RCMV within the central two-thirds of its genome but having GPCMV-specific genes near the termini....

Immune Response Prevention and Control

PV infections can be prolonged and persistent, but usually regress spontaneously. This immune-mediated regression is effected by T-cells while reinfection is prevented by humoral immunity. This phenomenon was noted in 1898 by M'Fadyean and Hobday who concluded after experiments with canine oral papillomas that, ''the animal is left in a measure protected against an infection of the same kind.'' This spontaneous and simultaneous regression of papillomas by systemic immunity has been noted in...

Protection of Shrimp Against WSSV Infection Using Vaccination and RNAi Strategies

Since the earliest outbreaks of WSD, several advances have been made in our understanding of how shrimp might be protected against WSSV infection. For example, although it is generally thought that shrimps lack the immunoglobulin-based adaptive immune system, recent studies have shown that when Penaeus japonicus shrimps survive either natural or experimental WSSV infections, they sometimes show resistance to subsequent challenge with WSSV. This 'quasi-immune response' suggests that shrimps may...

Features of Infection

While SIV infection of the natural host is usually not associated with any disease progression, SIV infection of macaques induces both acute and chronic disease symptoms that are similar to that which HIV-1 causes in human patients. SIV infection of rhesus macaques is generally thought to be the closest model of AIDS in humans. The main sites of pathogenic SIV replication shortly after infection have been localized to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thymus, spleen, and other lymphoid tissues....

Mvf

Vaccines vaccination vectors 179-180 see also Inoculation Vaccinia virus (VV) genome 397 rabbits see Rabbitpox Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), SVA retrotransposons 203 Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) 74 associated cases 75 clinical and subclinical infection 74 mortality rate 75 prevalence 74 epidemiology 75 associated deaths 75, 75 valine homozygotes 75 geographical distribution 75-76, 76t history 71 infectivity 74 mortality rate 71 origin 74 pathogenesis 74 prevention and...

Host Range Virus

Each morbillivirus is generally able to cause serious disease only in one order of mammals, the exception being CDV. All cloven-hoofed animals (Artiodactyla) are thought to be susceptible to infection with RPV but the disease is not manifest in all. In the case of cattle, Indian and African breeds (Bos indicus, zebu) are more resistant than European (Bos taurus). The virus can also infect a range of wild ungulates but disease progression depends on the innate resistance of the species...

Info

Animal pathogens (such as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), canine distemper virus, and rinderpest virus), zoonotic pathogens (such as Hendra and Nipah viruses), and a number of somewhat obscure viruses whose natural histories are poorly understood. New paramyxoviruses are being isolated on an ongoing basis from a wide variety of animals. For example, new paramyxoviruses have emerged that are pathogenic for marine mammals such as seals, dolphins, and porpoises (e.g., cetacean morbillivirus). Other...

The Most Commonly Studied Papillomaviruses

More than 200 PV types exist in humans, and halfofthese have been isolated and formally described. The number of additional PV types in mammals is probably unlimited, although so far only a few dozen have been described. The tremendous diversity of PVs is not such a formidable barrier to understand PV biology as one might fear, as most research was based on only nine HPVs and three PVs from other mammals. Human papillomavirus 1 (HPV-1) induces plantar (foot-sole) warts and HPV-2 common (hand or...

The Tegument

Prv Genome Structure

The herpesvirus tegument is a complex structure which, in the case of PrV, contains in excess of 15 viral proteins. It Figure 3 The PrV replication cycle. A diagram of the replication cycle of PrV is shown together with electron micrographs showing the respective stages. After attachment (1) and penetration (2), capsids are transported to the nucleus N (3) via interaction with microtubuli MT(4), docking at the nuclear pore NP (5) where the viral genome is released into the nucleus. Here,...

Mosquito Borne Flaviviruses Causing Livestock or Wildlife Diseases

Japanese encephalitis virus JEV was first isolated in 1935 in Japan as a cause of encephalitis in humans. Severe outbreaks of human disease occur at intervals in India, China, Korea, and Japan, and lesser outbreaks or sporadic cases are recorded in Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Far East provinces of the Russian Federation, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, Guam, Saipan, and Myanmar. There are four genotypes of the...

M

B cell specificity 316 latency 318 M13 bacteriophage see Bacteriophage M13 Macaca fasicularis gamma virus 331t Macaca mulatta rhadinovirus see Ceropithecine herpesvirus 17 CeHV-17 Macaca nemestrina rhadinovirus 2 MnRRV 3311 Macaques see Rhesus macaques Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus MrNV extra small virus complex 483 genome organization 483 geographical distribution 485 host range 485 infection see White tail disease properties 484 taxonomy 484 virus relationships 485 genome 484 taxonomy...

E

E1E4 see Human papillomavirus es HPVs E2 protein bovine viral diarrhea viruses 82 E4 gene protein papillomaviruses 171 E6 gene protein see Human papillomavirus es HPVs E6 promoter, papillomavirus gene expression 172-173 E7 gene protein see Human papillomavirus es HPVs E120R polyprotein, African swine fever virus Herpesvirus Saimiri 333 icosahedral tailed dsDNA bacteriophages 550 Early proteins, murine polyomavirus 322 EAV see Equine arteritis virus EAV Economic importance fish viruses 457-458...

M87 M88

Virus is bound more tightly by association with cell receptors such as EGFR HCMV . Binding causes receptor clustering and the interaction of other receptors such as host cell integrins. The interaction between host receptors and viral glycoproteins induces membrane fusion and the delivery of viral capsid and tegument proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. B Viral capsid is transported to the nucleus and, by a process that is not understood, the viral DNA enters the nucleus....

Virion Structure and Outer Capsid Proteins

In contrast to negative staining, cryoelectron microscopy cryo-EM of intact BTV particles shows the icosahedral morphology of the mature particle, with a diameter of 86 nm. The outer layer consists of 60 sail-shaped, spikelike structures made up of VP2 110 kDa trimers and of 120 globular structures made up of VP5 59 kDa trimers Figure 2 . The most external part of the outer capsid is the propeller-shaped triskelion blade of VP2, the tip of which bends upward, perpendicularly to the plane of the...

Relevant Website

Http www.poxvlrus.org - Poxvirus Blolnformatlcs Resource Center. of difficulties in propagating the virus papillomaviruses PVs are species specific and epitheliotrophic and require a stratified and differentiated epithelium for productive infection. In the 1980s, research progressed more rapidly with the advent of molecular cloning because the small viral genomes could be readily propagated, and genetically modified, in a bacterial plasmid. Bovine pap-illomavirus type 1 BPV-1 became a very...

Tailed Bacteriophage Structure and Function

In the tailed dsDNA bacteriophages, the capsid is the container for the phage genome that protects it from the environment until it is delivered to a new host by the phage tail, the organelle of attachment and genome injection. In many other types of viruses, the capsid is taken up by cells with the genome still inside and the virus particle uncoats or disassembles within the new host to initiate viral replication. The dsDNA bacteriophages' capsids do not have to disassemble in this manner to...

Clinical Features of Infection and Pathology

PrV is able to infect most mammals productively, with the exception of humans and other higher primates. However, primate and human cells are infectable in cell culture, and the reason for the natural resistance is not clear. Equids and goats are also rather resistant but may be infected experimentally. In addition, pseudorabies has been reported in many species of wild mammals, including wild boar, feral pigs, coyotes, raccoons, rats, mice, rabbits, deer, badgers, and coatimundi. It is so far...