Vegetarian Bodybuilding

V3 Plant-based Fitness

Chris Willitts, creator of V3 has been in the bodybuilding and vegetarian for over 20 years and 10 years respectively. He was inspired to launch his vegetarian bodybuilding platform having seeing the need the vegetarianism is an effective tool to be applied in the bodybuilding industry. He majored in flexibility, strength, and mind-body interrelation. Having switched to the plant-based diet he included meditation. V3 Vegetarian Bodybuilding System is a combination of Chris advice and science on how to eat in line with one's fitness goals, infusing the whole program with mind-body awareness. The system is designed not only for vegetarians, but semi-vegetarians, part-time vegetarians, vegans, or undecided. The V3 Bodybuilding system is a self-guided system the does not include one-on-one coaching. The V3 has been deliberated upon by top plant-based fitness experts in the industry before coming up with something that has an assurance of getting positive results to the general populace. The V3 Bodybuilding System is not an eBook. It is actually a membership-based online resource (which some parts of the worksheet are available for download as PDFs). This product is easy to understand and it is newbie friendly that do not require any level of technical skills. More here...

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Vegetarian Diets Ethics and Health

Increasingly, people are adopting vegetarian diets for reasons of health or ethics. Vegetarian diets vary greatly, however, and different varieties of vegetarianism might be endorsed by people with different moral commitments. Nutritionists commonly recognize the following varieties of vegetarian vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semivegetarians. People who are vegetarians on moral grounds can consistently use any of these diets, depending on what specific moral reasons they have for becoming vegetarians. Many people have become vegetarians out of concern for human starvation. In Diet for a Small Planet Francis Moore Lappe argued that a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet would feed the world's human population more efficiently because a cow must eat many pounds of vegetable matter to grow a pound of meat, and much of that vegetable matter could have been used to feed humans. However, as large areas of the world that are not suited to farming could nevertheless support...

Vegetarianism

Paul Amato and Sonia Partridge offer the following useful classification of vegetarianism lacto-ovo vegetarians eat eggs and dairy products but no meat those who eat dairy products but no eggs or meat are lacto-vegetarians those who eat eggs but no dairy products or meat are ovo-vegetarians vegans consume no meat, dairy products, or eggs macrobiotic vegetarians live on whole grains, sea and land vegetables, beans, and miso natural hygienists eat plant foods, combine foods in certain ways, and believe in periodic fasting raw foodists eat only uncooked nonmeat foods fruitarians eat fruits but also nuts, seeds, and certain vegetables semivegetarians are those who include small amounts of fish and or chicken in their diet. Arguments for vegetarianism can be categorized as follows 1. Health. Whether a vegetarian diet is as healthy as or healthier than one including meat is a source of much debate. It may seem that good health is a matter of one's own long-term self-interest, but some...

Profiles of Animal Rights Advocates

Studies have shown that regardless of gender, those who adopt the traditional feminine sex role (more caring and sensitive to the concerns of others, in contrast to the more masculine domination and nondifferentiation as defined by the Bem Sex Role Inventory) are most likely to support animal rights ideals. Not surprisingly, animal rights advocates are often vegetarians (see VEGETARIANISM). They are often concerned about domination by one individual or group over others. Generally liberal, both religiously and politically, supporters of the animal rights movement* are more likely to be ecologically concerned and to have a more negative view of the military than those who oppose this movement. As a group, animal rights advocates tend to be more empathic and are likely to rely more on their feelings and intuitions (to be classified as feeling and intuitive types on the Myers-Briggs Selected Bibliography. Adams, C.J., The Sexual Politics of Meat A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (New...

Ecofeminists Perspectives

Adams, Carol J., Neither Man nor Beast Feminism and the Defense of Animals (New York Continuum, 1994) Adams, Carol J., The Sexual Politics of Meat A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (New York Continuum, 1990) Adams, Carol J., and J. Donovan (Eds.), Animals and Women (Durham, NC Duke University Press, 1995) Birke, Lynda, Feminism, Animals, and Science The Naming of the Shrew (Philadelphia Open University Press, 1994) Gaard, Greta (Ed.), Ecofeminism Women, Animals, Nature (Philadelphia Temple University Press, 1993).

Attitudes among Children

Pet keeping is particularly common among middle-childhood children (around 8 to 12 years) (see COMPANION ANIMALS AND PETS). This is probably the age at which children's emotional interest in animals is at its highest and when, especially for girls, big-eyed, cuddly, furry animals are particularly attractive. After this age, in the teenage years, interest in moral issues surrounding animals and their use by humans becomes more prominent. This is the time when young people are most likely to take ''stands'' on animal issues (and, indeed, other issues such as political ones) by, for example, adopting vegetarian or vegan diets (see VEGETARIANISM) or becoming involved in environmental or animal rights* campaigns. As interests outside the home take prominence in teenagers' lives, interest and involvement in pet keeping often wane a little. But childhood experience of pets nevertheless appears to retain an influence. In an recent study it was found that university students who had grown up...

Evidence From In Vivo Studies With Humans

Our preliminary studies comparing DNA damage rate and micronutrient status in vegetarians and nonvegetarians had indicated that there was a significant negative correlation between the micronucleus frequency in lymphocytes and plasma vitamin B12 status in young men (43). Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of folate deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, and hyperhomocysteinemia in 64 healthy men aged between 50 and 70 yr and determined the relationship of these micronutrients with the micronucleus frequency in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes (44). Twenty-three percent of the men had serum folate concentration less than 6.8 nmol L, 16 had red blood cell folate concentration less than 317 nmol L, 4.7 were vitamin B12 deficient (

Dietary Intake Of Phytate

Estimates of phytate daily intake in different parts of the world are presented in Table 3.8. These estimates are compiled from various nutritional studies based on different methods of data collection and analysis. Harland and Peterson 199 suggested that the average American (weighing 75 kg) consumes about 750 mg phytate per day. However, several studies 200-203 conducted in the United States indicate a wide variation in daily intake of phytate (Table 3.8). These variations could be due to differences in data collection methods and consumption of foods rich in phytates. Harland et al. 202 conducted a nutrition assessment of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian Trappist monk community in 1977 and 1987 and found a significant decrease in intake of phytate from 4569 mg day in 1977 to 972 mg day in 1987. They attributed this variation to decreased intake of phytate-containing foods such as cereals and increased consumption of milk, milk products, and others. In general, vegetarians consume a higher...

Income and urbanization levels affect the mix of foods consumed in different countries

Regmi and Pompelli found that in low-income level countries, such as Cambodia, Haiti, and Nicaragua, consumer food demand tends to be focused on low-value staple food products to meet basic calorie requirements. Updated data in Table 3.1 support this finding and show that low-income level countries have a higher per capita consumption of cereal products and roots and tubers (e.g. sweet potatoes, cassava) than countries with higher income levels. In general, consumers in lower-income countries tend to spend a higher proportion of their budget on food than other countries (Regmi et al., 2001, Seale et al., 2003). They are also more responsive to changes in general food prices and income and therefore, make larger adjustments to their diets when food prices and incomes change (Seale et al., 2003). This is particularly true for higher-value food items, such as meat and dairy, while household budget allocations for staple foods tend to undergo smaller changes (Regmi, 2001). Populations...

Native Peoples And Animals

Today, few totally vegetarian communities exist, but there are some. In India, for example, where cows are traditionally revered, there are over 100 million vegetarians. Among them are nearly 1 million desert Bishnoi, a sub-sect of Hindus (see RELIGION AND ANIMALS, Hinduism) who live in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan State. They worship a medieval saint who claimed that all plants and animals are sacred and must be respected. Further to the south, the Todas of the Niligiri massif in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu have been vegetarian for at least 1,200 years. They worship animal life, particularly the buffalo, around which they have formulated an extensive set of rituals and beliefs that utterly encompass their way of life. Throughout much of India, nearly 10 million Jains (see RELIGION AND ANIMALS, Jainism) are also strict vegetarians. The Jains will not partake of any profession that exploits animals. Theirs can be said to have been the Selected Bibliography. Spencer, Colin, The...

Pittmanrobertson Act See Hunting Plutarch

Plutarch (c. 46-c. 120) was a Greek philosopher famous for his Lives. His defense of the Pythagorean diet led him to expound the philosophical basis of vegetarianism.* Instead of asking why vegetarians abstain from meat, we should ask why flesh eaters consume animals For the sake of a little flesh we deprive them of sun, of light, of the duration of life to which they are entitled by birth and being'' (Moralia, 535-579 Magel, Keyguide, 72). His other essays, Whether Land or Sea Animals Are Cleverer'' (Moralia, 309479) and Beasts Are Rational'' (Moralia, 487-533), defend animal intelligence, their ties of kinship with humans, and especially their right to be treated justly. Selected Bibliography. Magel, Charles, Keyguide to Information Sources in Animal Rights (London Mansell Publishing Jefferson, NC McFarland and Company, 1989) Martinengo-Cesaresco, Evelyn, Plutarch the Humane, in The Place of Animals in Human Thought (London T. Fisher Unwin, 1909) Plutarch, Moralia, trans. by H....

Judaism and Animal Sacrifice

Clark, Bill, ''The Range of the Mountains Is His Pasture'' Environmental Ethics in Israel, in J. Ronald Engel and Joan Gibb Engel (Eds.), Ethics of Environment and Development Global Challenge, International Response (London Bell-haven Press, 1990), 183-188 Kalechofsky, Roberta, Judaism and Animal Rights Classical and Contemporary Responses (Marblehead, MA Micah Publications, 1992) Linzey, Andrew, Christianity and the Rights of Animals (New York Crossroad, 1987) Maimonides, The Guide for the Perplexed, trans. M. Friedlander (New York Dover Publications, 1956) Murray, Robert, The Cosmic Covenant Biblical Themes of Justice, Peace, and the Integrity of Creation (London Sheed and Ward, 1992) Schwartz, Richard H., Judaism and Vegetarianism (Marblehead, MA Micah Publications, 1988).

Tolstoy Leo Nikolayevich

Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828-1910) was a Russian aristocrat, novelist, and writer. Like Mohandas Gandhi,* he was deeply committed to the principle of nonviolence, which he also extended to the animal world. He translated Howard Williams's The Ethics of Diet into Russian with an accompanying essay The First Step'' (1892), in which he commends vegetarianism* as a step toward achieving the moral perfection required by Christ's teaching as illustrated by the Sermon on the Mount. Tolstoy corresponded with the Humanitarian League and eventually became a member. Although he was influenced by Orthodox spirituality, he was deeply critical of the established Orthodox Church, complaining that it legitimized violence and cruelty. His many novels illustrate the need for a spiritual life inclusive of respect for animals nowhere is this more powerfully stated than in the opening section of Resurrection (1904), where humans are pictured in their own physical and moral prison, unable to grasp that...

Translating at the Cheese Counter

Result is a more authentic blue cheese taste with less fat and fewer calories. Top pasta with a small serving of grated cheese, such as Romano or Parmesan, but lean heavily on a vegetable-based sauce. Use a single slice of cheese atop a veggie-filled sandwich, or trade the cheese for a lean slice of turkey.

Appendix Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education

How on Earth is a quarterly for and by youth who support compassionate, ecologically sound living. It covers a variety of environmental, animal, and social justice issues and encourages activism and empowerment among youth who are concerned about the earth and all beings. HOE holds that being a vegetarian is an essential component of compassionate, sustainable living, so vegetarian recipes, nutrition advice, and lifestyle information are important features. uate education in the life sciences by expanding partnership ventures among academic disciplines such as biochemistry and philosophy and they lead to long-term relationships among life scientists, humanists, and others. A particularly interesting and somewhat controversial feature of the institute is that it provides only vegetarian lunches to participants. The project director is Gary Comstock, Bioethics Program, Iowa State University, 403 Ross Hall, Ames, Iowa 50011. Its newsletter, Ag Ethics Bioethics, is available from the...

Animal Rights Movement1

In the first few years of the 1980s important national organizations originated, including People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), Transpecies Unlimited, Farm Animal Reform Movement (FARM), Feminists for Animal Rights, Mobilization for Animals, and In Defense of Animals. Vegetarian leaders, such as Alex Hershaft, joined the movement, and farm-animal suffering and vegetarianism* joined experimentation as central issues. Meanwhile, the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) first appeared in the United States with a 1977 raid releasing two dolphins from a Hawaii research lab. The 1990s began with as many as 75,000 turning out at a March for the Animals in Washington, D.C. The animal rights movement was becoming a social force to be reckoned with. More than the march, other movement accomplishments attest to its endurance and promise. Cruelty-free cosmetics are now readily available, and many large companies have given up animal testing. Fur sales have dropped drastically....

Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) was a world statesman, pacifist, and vegetarian. Reading Henry Salt's* A Plea for Vegetarianism and Howard Williams's The Ethics of Diet reinforced his ethical vegetarianism* on his first visit to England in 1887. Thereafter Gandhi became a committed vegetarian ''by choice,'' and this commitment was deepened through his conversion to the Hindu (see RELIGION, Hinduism) philosophy of ahimsa, nonviolence or noninjury, which became fundamental to his religious outlook and which especially informed his insistence upon nonviolent civil disobedience as a means of political struggle. During his first stay in London Gandhi became a member of the executive committee of the London Vegetarian Society. Gandhi made special arrangements to meet Salt during his trip to England for the Round Table Conference in 1931. Selected Bibliography. Chapple Christopher Key, Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions (Albany State University of New York...

Dietary Protein and Body Protein

Does this mean you must eat meat, eggs, and dairy products (foods of animal origin) to get all the amino acids you need Not at all. By eating a variety of different foods, including grains and legumes, you are likely to get all the amino acids you need and in the correct amounts. People of many cultures and vegans (vegetarians who eat no foods of animal origin) get adequate amounts and types of protein by eating various combinations of plant proteins including beans, corn, rice, and other cereal grains. Although it was once thought necessary to combine these foods at the same meal, nutrition experts now agree that they can be eaten at various times throughout the day.

Food Labelling Agenda

FLAG (Food Labelling Agenda) is a national consumer pressure organisation launched in June 1997 by a group of concerned food and health writers. The organisation campaigns for 'clear, comprehensive and meaningful labelling on all food and food products' and its first task in March 1998 was to deliver a petition calling for improved food labelling to Downing Street. It won support from a huge number of individuals and organisations, including those with interests in allergy, genetic engineering, infant feeding, heart disease, cancer, vegetarianism, eating disorders and green issues. The accurate labelling of potential allergens is one of FLAG's major concerns. The organisation is steered by Michelle Berriedale-Johnson and Sarah Stacey and their postal address is PO Box 25303, London NW5 1WN. A newsletter is produced for supporters.

Historical perspective on food processing Roman sausage to canning to space food

While vegetarianism is commonly practiced among Buddhists, Hindus and Seventh Day Adventists, this is more of a cultural discipline than religious doctrine. The exception is the prohibition of beef consumption by the Hindus. Vegetarianism seems to have its roots more in the health of the practitioner and in other ethical and spiritual ideals than in food safety.

The Power of the Food Guide Pyramid

The Food Guide Pyramid was developed by the U.S. Department ofAgriculture. The pyramid incorporates many principles that emphasize a plant-based diet that is low in fat, high in fiber, and rich in important vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. All of these factors contribute to optimal health and help you to control your weight and to reduce the risk of heart disease and some types of cancer. The arrangement of the food groups in a pyramid shape calls attention to the kinds of foods to eat more of and those to eat in moderation.

Brophy Brigid

Brigid Brophy (1929-1995) was a British author and social critic who pioneered the modern tradition of animal rights. Her Sunday Times article ''The Rights of Animals,'' published in 1965, heralded a new ethical sensitivity to animals. Brophy was a dedicated vegetarian (see VEGETARIANISM), antivivisectionist (see ANTIVIVISECTIONISM), and an unsparing opponent of all blood sports. Her speeches, reviews, and articles articulated an uncompromising view of animal rights ''Those rights are inalienable and irreducible. You can't do arithmetic that trades six of one sort of rights for two of another. If it were justifiable to sacrifice one laboratory animal for the good of humans, then it would be justifiable to sacrifice one laboratory human for the good of a hundred humans'' (''Brigid Brophy and Vivisection,'' 135). Her first novel, Hackenfeller's Ape (1953), which won first prize at the Cheltenham Literary Festival, is the story of a distinguished scientist who risks his academic career...

Cowherd William

William Cowherd (1763-1816) was a minister and founder of the Bible Christian Church, a vegetarian sect that launched the world vegetarian movement. In 1800, Cowherd, then associated with the New Church of Emanuel Swedenborg, founded, together with Joseph Brotherton, Salford's first member of Parliament, a church at Salford near Manchester that would have an incalculable impact on the spread of vegetarianism* worldwide. Based on the biblical injunction to be vegetarian (Genesis 1 29-30), the main conditions of membership were vegetarianism and temperance. Moral considerations about the treatment of animals and a strong sense of respect for the whole created order complemented Cowherd's conviction that the consumption of animal flesh was prohibited by the Bible. The English Vegetarian Society was a direct offshoot of the Bible Christian Church when it was founded in 1847. Cowherd's influence was extended to the United States by his disciple William Metcalfe and other successors in the...

Factory Farming

Adams, Carol J., The Sexual Politics of Meat A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (New York Continuum, 1991) Curtis, S. E., The Case for Intensive Farming of Food Animals, in T. Regan and P. Singer (Eds.), Animal Rights and Human Obligations, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall, 1989) D'Silva, Joyce, and Peter Stevenson, Modern Breeding Technologies and the Welfare of Farm Animals (Petersfield, Hampshire Compassion in World Farming Trust, 1995) Fid-des, Nick, Meat A Natural Symbol (London and New York Routledge, 1991) Fox, Michael, Superpigs and Wondercorn (New York Lyons and Burford, 1992) Johnson, Andrew, Factory Farming (Oxford Basil Blackwell, 1992) Kalechofsky, Roberta, Autobiography of a Revolutionary Essays on Animal and Human Rights (Marblehead, MA Micah Publications, 1991) Linzey, Andrew, Animal Theology (London SCM Press Urbana University of Illinois Press, 1995) Mason, Jim, and Peter Singer, Animal Factories (New York Crown, 1990) Swann...

Freshel M R L

L. ( Emmarel ) Freshel (1867-1948) was the founder of the Millennium Guild, the first American animal rights* organization. Founded in 1912, the guild published Freshel's Golden Rule Cook Book (first published in 1907) and Selections from Three Essays by Richard Wagner with Comment on a Subject of Such Importance to the Moral Progress of Humanity That It Constitutes an Issue in Ethics and Religion (1933), an impassioned attack on vivisection. An associate of Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Christian Science Church, Freshel resigned from the Christian Science Church after it expressed support for the entry of the United States into World War I. Through the Millennium Guild, she promoted alternative fur fabrics and vegetarianism* and spoke out against all forms of animal exploitation. After her death, control of the Millennium Guild fell to her husband Curtis. After his death, the organization was directed by New York radio personality Pegeen Fitzgerald.

Moore John Howard

John Howard Moore (1862-1916) was a Chicago schoolteacher whose work The Universal Kinship (1906) was lauded by Henry Salt* as one of the most important humanitarian titles of its era. This work alone distinguishes Moore as perhaps the first organic American intellectual in the realm of animal rights.* It was through Moore's intercession that his brother-in-law, Clarence Darrow, became a supporting member of the Humanitarian League. Moore contributed articles and essays to numerous humane and vegetarian (see VEGETARIANISM) publications. He was also the author of Better World Philosophy (1899), The New Ethics (1907), and Savage Survivals (1916). Moore's work was marked by the conviction that the science of evolution provided an affirmation of the humane ethic.

Predation

Predation refers to animals killing other animals for food. Most animal rights* philosophers argue that humans should stop being predators they claim that we have a moral obligation to become vegetarians (see VEGETARIANISM). Questions that arise relate to other animal predators Is there a moral obligation for them to stop preying on other animals, and is there a moral obligation for humans to interfere with other animal predators Since most, but not all, humans can live on a vegetarian diet, we can eliminate the suffering and death caused by most human predation. However, the natural order is not one that can exist without suffering and death. Most predation by nonhuman animals is necessary for the survival of life on earth, and so it cannot be eliminated.

Jainism

Inflicting injury on these creatures is wrong because of the suffering* caused, and also because it produces passions in the killer leading to karma and rebirth. The Jains condemn all animal sacrifices,* build animal shelters,* and never hunt or fish. Farming, which injures insects, is permitted because the harm is unintentional, but Jain monks beg with a bowl so crumbs will not attract insects that would be crushed underfoot. Monks brush their path to sweep away small life forms they might otherwise step on. It is prohibited to breed destructive animals and considered noble to allow oneself to be bitten by a snake rather than kill it. Jains are vegetarians (see VEGETARIANISM), but consume milk.

Judaism

Animal with its young on the same day for the pain of the animals under such circumstances is very great.'' Such a concern not to cause animals pain* is reflected in the various prescriptions regarding killing of animals for food. In the Jewish tradition, meat eating is regarded as giving in to human weakness in this light, animals must be spared pain when they are slaughtered. Only a properly qualified slaughterer is permitted to engage in such an activity he is to be a pious and sensitive person. The knife used must be sharp and clean without imperfections so that animals are slaughtered as painlessly as possible the act of slaughter should render the animal senseless. Although arguably more humane methods of slaughter have been introduced in the modern world involving prestunning (see TRANSPORTATION AND SLAUGHTER), this ancient practice was intended to cause as little suffering as possible. Such concern about animal welfare is reflected in a variety of incidents in which the rabbis...

Saints

God, it necessarily follows that there is a relatedness, a kinship between humans and nonhumans. According to St. Bonaventure, St. Francis was able to call creatures ''by the name of brother or sister because he knew they had the same source as himself.'' Fourth, many of these stories prefigure a world of peaceful relations between humans and animals where human activity is no longer injurious or detrimental to other creatures. St. Brendan's voyage, for example, culminates in the discovery of a new Eden-like land characterized by the absence of predatory nature (see PREDATION) and widespread vegetarianism.* Such stories are testimonies to a substratum within Christianity that is inclusive of concern for animal life. The ideas they embody of respect, generosity (see GENEROSITY PARADIGM), and kinship between species reflect the themes that mainstream Scholastic tradition has almost entirely failed to incorporate into its thinking.

Salt Henry Stephens

Henry Stephens Salt (1851-1939) was a pioneering 19th-century animal rights* advocate whose prescient work Animals' Rights (1892) anticipates virtually all of the important modern arguments in favor of animals' interests. While this and Salt's other works concerning vegetarianism* and animals' rights were little read in his time, Salt nevertheless exerted extraordinary influence on such contemporaries as Edward Carpenter, Mohandas Gandhi,* John Howard Moore,* William Morris, Sydney Olivier, George Bernard Shaw,* Count Leo Tolstoy,* and other prominent reformers. The Humanitarian League, which he founded with Fabian Socialists and other acquaintances in 1891, attacked a range of 19th-century cruelties and is regarded as the first modern animal rights organization. Salt and his colleagues campaigned not only against the violation of animals' rights but also against the oppression and torment of human beings in such contexts as warfare, criminal justice, labor relations, hospitals,...

Shaw George Bernard

George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was an Irish-born author, playwright, pamphleteer, and essayist. An outstanding humanitarian of his age, Fabian Socialist, vegetarian, and antivivisectionist (see ANTIVIVISECTIONISM), he was a scathing critic of all forms of animal abuse. His ''Shavian'' wit was used to devastating effect on opponents. On vivisection, he argued that the plain logic of such experimentation would be to include human subjects in research too since an unlimited right to know would justify boiling human infants to find out what boiled babies taste like (''These Scoundrels''). When H. G. Wells eulogized Pavlov's experiments with dogs,* Shaw replied, ''And from twenty-five years of this sort of thing all that the world learned was how a dog behaved with half its brains out, which nobody wanted to know, and, what was perhaps important, what sort of book a physiologist could write without having any brains at all'' (cited in Pearson, Bernard Shaw, 274). Angered by rabbit...

Woolman John

John Woolman (1720-1772) was an English Quaker divine and ardent abolitionist who expressed a reverence-for-life philosophy in his writings and personal practices. In his Journal (1772, 178-179), Woolman recorded that he was especially disturbed by the suffering of barnyard fowl carried for food on the ship on which he made his journey to England. Earlier, he recorded his conviction that ''true religion'' consisted in exercising ''true justice and goodness not only towards all men but also towards the brute creatures'' (Journal, 1720-1742, 28). Woolman declined to use stagecoaches and would not even send letters by couriers, finding the horses badly abused by their owners' habits of running them to death in an effort to maintain reputations for speed and efficiency. By practicing vegetarianism,* Woolman complemented his boycott against cotton, sugar, and indigo dye produced by slave labor with a conscious witness against animal exploitation. The significance of Woolman's witness was...

Bergapten

Recently, a renewed interest in flavonoids has been fuelled by the antioxidant and oestrogenic effects ascribed to them. This has led to their proposed use as anticarcino-gens and cardioprotective agents, prompting a dramatic increase in their consumption as dietary supplements. Unfortunately, the potentially toxic effects of excessive flavonoid intake are largely ignored. At higher doses, flavonoids may act as mutagens, pro-oxidants that generate free radicals, and as inhibitors of key enzymes involved in hormone metabolism. Thus, in high doses, the adverse effects of flavonoids may outweigh their beneficial ones, and caution should be exercised in ingesting them at levels above that which would be obtained from a typical vegetarian diet. The unborn fetus may be especially at risk, since flavonoids readily cross the placenta. More research on the toxicological properties of flavonoids is warranted, given their increasing levels of consumption (Skibola and Smith, 2000).

Anaemia

Pregnancy requires an iron intake of around 2.5 mg day throughout, with perhaps 3.0-7.5 mg day required in the third trimester. An average Western diet supplies around 250 g day of folate however, requirements increase to around 400 g day during pregnancy 3 , with deficiency most commonly due to lack of folate-rich vegetables such as broccoli and peas, which is often linked to social deprivation. Folate deficiency is more common in multiple pregnancy, frequent childbirth, and adolescent mothers. The body stores around 3 mg of B12, with a daily dietary requirement of 3 g day. The only B12 source is animal foodstuffs thus, vegetarians and vegans are most at risk of dietary deficiency. Vegetarian Vegan

Dowding Lady Muriel

Lady Muriel Dowding (1908-1981), a leading British humanitarian, vegetarian, and antivivisectionist, was the founder in 1959 and later chairperson of Beauty without Cruelty, the organization that led the way in the commercial production of synthetic alternatives to fur and cruelty-free cosmetics. She was a longtime president of the National Anti-Vivisection Society. In 1969, she cofounded the International Association against Painful Experiments on Animals (IAAPEA) and remained a patron until her death. She was the wife of Air-Chief Marshall the Lord Dowding, former commanderin-chief of the British Fighter Command, who died in 1970. Together, they shared a lifelong interest in spiritualism that informed their ethical concern for animals. Selected Bibliography. Berry, Rynn, Interview with Lady Dowding, in The New Vegetarians (New York Pythagorean Publishers, 1993), 137-152 Brophy, Brigid, The Darwinist's Dilemma, in David A. Paterson and Richard D. Ryder (Eds.), Animals' Rights A...

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