Elevation of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with renal cell carcinoma RCC has been reported (McCloskey and O'Connor 1982; Golde et al. 1974; Fukutani et al. 1983). In males, clinical findings include gynecomastia, decreased libido, and elevated urine and serum hCG levels. Only a small number of cases have been reported, though there is no direct evidence of tumor production of these hormones. Gy-necomastia and increased urinary levels gonadotro-pins associated with RCC have been reported with resolution of the endocrine abnormality following ne-phrectomy (Laski and Vugrin 1987).
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