Homocysteine And Early Miscarriage

Clinical Background of Early Miscarriage The term miscarriage is used to emphasize the spontaneous interruption of pregnancy. For clinical and scientific reasons, it is important to avoid the international confusion on the duration of pregnancy when the term abortion is used because the range of pregnancy duration can be as wide as from 0 to 28 wk. Another reason for this distinction is that the causes for embryonic loss are quite different from those of fetal loss. We therefore tried to...

Choline And Cell Cycling

The brain is not the only organ in which choline increases mitosis. The availability of choline alters cell proliferation in the adult rat liver (58), and in cultured liver cells choline availability influences cell cycling by affecting the availability of phosphatidylcholine in membranes (53,59). Choline deficiency alters the expression of growth factors and cell cycle regulatory factors (e.g., TGF 1, p27Kip1) known to alter mitotic activity (60,61). During fetal brain development, correct...

The Folate Hydrolase Gene

The human folate hydrolase gene (FOLH1, identical with human prostate-specific membrane antigen, gene symbols PSM, PSMA alternative title and symbol glutamate carboxypeptidase II, GCP2) is located on chromosome 11p11 - p12 (70). The FOLH1 gene encompasses approximately 60 kb and consists of 19 exons (GenBank accession number AF007544) (70,71). The entire coding region has a length of 2.653 bp (GenBank accession number M99487) (72), with a predicted molecular mass of 84 kDa excluding...

Severe Mthfr Deficiency

Severe MTHFR deficiency, with less than 20 of control enzyme activity, is the most common inborn error of folate metabolism (8). These patients have dramatic elevations of plasma homocysteine with homocystinuria, and low or low-normal levels of plasma methionine. This relatively rare condition can have devastating consequences. Some patients die in the first year of life others have variable clinical features, including developmental delay, motor and gait disturbances, seizures, and psychiatric...

Placental Abruption

Placental Abruption Great Risk for Mother and Child In obstetrics, various clinical syndromes are accompanied with disturbances of blood coagulation. Placental abruption is a classic example for such disease. Placental abruption is an obstetric syndrome with great risks for mother and child (82,83). The placenta separates from the uterine wall during pregnancy by retroplacental bleeding and blood clotting. Histology points to a rupture of the spiral artery or arteries. When the placenta is...

Cart1 Knockout

Gene targeting has been used to generate mice with a null mutation in Cartl, a homeobox-containing gene that encodes the transcription factor, cartilage homeoprotein 1 (16,17). Homozygous Cartl mutant mice develop cranial NTD and die shortly after birth. The penetrance is influenced by genetic background with a maximum NTD incidence of 100 on a 129 SvEv strain background (17). Cranial NTD result from failure of closure at the prospective forebrain midbrain boundary, so called Closure 2. Failure...

References

A. (1991) Neural tube defects in 18th century. Lancet 337, 504 2. Stein, Z., Susser, M., Saenper, G., Marolla, F., eds. (1975) Famine and Human Development The Dutch Hunger Winter of1944-1945. Oxford University Press New York. 3. Hibbard, B. M. (1964) The role of folic acid in pregnancy with particular reference to anaemia, abruption, and abortion. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonwlth. 71, 529-542. 4. Hibbard, B. M. and Smithells, R. W. (1965) Folic acid metabolism and human...