Help for Tooth Pain

Dentists Be Damned

This eBook teaches you all the remedies and tricks that you need to know to Never visit the dentist again, and still have the most perfect mouth full of the teeth that you know of. This book contains a toothache remedy that will treat the root of the problem, how to restore your gums to full health, a supplement that makes plaque fall off your teeth in no time, and a solution that can stop cavities Forever. This book doesn't just teach you how to get rid of some pain, it teaches you how to Eliminate the source of pain once and for all. After taking to heart the information in this book, trips to the dentist will become a thing of the past. Alice Barnes has taken her 15 years of tooth research and compiled it all in this eBook for you. And when you order, you get two free eBooks! You will also receive How to Prevent and Cure Canker Sores, and How to Get Rid of Bad Breath. All of these resources will keep you OUT of dentists' offices as long as you live! Read more...

Dentists Be Damned Summary


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Tooth decay (dental caries) starts with the destruction of the enamel cap by micro-organisms present in the oral cavity and adherent to the tooth surface. This leads to exposure of the underlying dentin to the oral environment and to its destruction by bacterial proteolytic enzymes. Enamel caries will not be visible in routinely prepared histologic sections as this tissue dissolves completely during decalcification. In ground sections made from undecalcified teeth, microscopic examination under transmitted light will reveal optical alterations related to decreased mineral content of a still-intact crystalline structure. These alterations tend to occur over a cone-shaped area having its base on the surface and its point towards the amelo-dentinal junction (Fig. 5.1). With increasing loss of minerals from the enamel structure, this tissue will disintegrate. Sometimes, this destroyed enamel will contain so much organic material that it is still present in decalcified sections where it is...


Treating toothache by picking at the decayed tooth with a sharp twig of WILLOW, until it bled was recorded in Wales. After that the twig had to be thrown into a running stream. Simply chewing some willow bark would have been useful, for it contains salicin, from which salycilic acid was obtained. Later, this was compounded into acetyl-salicylic acid - aspirin, in a word. Applying a hot FIG (to the tooth or the cheek ) used to be a Cumbrian remedy for toothache (Newman & Wilson), but the strangest remedy must be the use of pine cones. The scales were the part needed, because (and this is pure doctrine of signatures) they resemble the front teeth (Berdoe). A transference charm for the toothache involved BIRCH. It was recorded in Suffolk, and the sufferer was instructed to clasp the tree in his arms, and then cut a slit in it. A piece of his hair had to be cut from behind the ear, with the left hand, and this had to be buried in the slit. When the hair had disappeared, so would the...

Species Associated with Intraoral Diseases

Actinomyces spp. are early colonizers of various niches within the oral cavity. Species commensal in the mouth include A. israelii, A. gerencseriae, Actinomyces odonto-lyticus, Actinomyces meyeri, Actinomyces naeslundii viscosus, Actinomyces georgiae and, probably, Actinomy-ces graevenitzii. Some members of the genus, particularly those of the A. naeslundii viscosus complex, are known to coaggregate with other bacteria and adhere to mammalian cells by means of fimbriae. Consequently, they play an important role in development of dental plaque. However, despite numerous studies, their roles in the highly complex processes of dental caries and periodontal diseases remain somewhat controversial. The recently described species Actinomyces radicidentis has been isolated, so far, only from infected root canals.

Molecular Detection from Clinical Material

Extensive studies designed to detect both cultivable and noncultivable bacteria, including novel taxa, have utilized PCR with all-bacterial or selective primers, followed by cloning in Escherichia coli and sequencing of clones. Together with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization for selected taxa, this method has been used to determine species identity for the investigation of bacterial diversity in subgingival plaque 5 and tongue dorsa 6 and species associated with childhood caries. Among the large numbers of novel phylotypes detected in these studies, several Actinomyces spp.-like clones were recognized. A. naeslundii and A. naeslundii-like clones and A. gerencseriae were detected in cases of refractory periodontitis and in healthy subjects. A. israelii and A. georgiae were detected in healthy subjects and A. odontolyticus was associated with refractory peri-odontitis. In the study of childhood caries, it was concluded that A. gerencseriae and other Actinomyces spp. may play an...

Californian Buckthorn

(Rhamnus purshiana) Famous for its product, the Cascara Sagrada, the sacred bark that is the best known of all laxatives, no matter under what name it is marketed (see Weiner). The name cascara sagrada was given by the Spanish pioneers, who took notice that the Californian Indians (Schenk & Gifford Spier) used the bark infusion as a physic. There is also a brown dye to be obtained from the bark. In some parts of California in the early days, the scriptural term Shittim Bark was applied to this. It was said locally to be the Shittim wood of which the Hebrew ark was made (Maddox). It was used by the Californian Indians for toothache the root was heated as hot as could be borne, put in the mouth against the aching tooth, and tightly gripped between the teeth (Powers).

Strategies for Inhibition

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and CRC for Oral Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia 2Oral Health and Systemic Disease Research Facility, University of Louisville School of Dentistry, Louisville, Kentucky, USA 3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland Corresponding Author Robert N. Pike Email rob.pike

Dyskeratosis congenita

Cutaneous manifestations developing between 5 and 15 years of age tan-to-gray, hyperpigmented or hypopigmented macules and patches in a mottled, or reticulated pattern, sometimes with poikilo-derma located on the upper trunk, neck, and face, often with involvement of sun-exposed areas scalp alopecia mucosal leu-koplakia on the buccal mucosa, tongue, oropharynx, esophagus, urethral meatus, glans penis, lacrimal duct, conjunctiva, vagina, anus dental caries progressive nail dystrophy increased incidence of malignant neoplasms, particularly squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, mouth, nasopharynx, esophagus, rectum, vagina, and cer

Medicinal Valerianaceae

Nardostachys chinensis L. is an herb that grows to a height of 50 cm. The stem is erect and develops from an aromatic rhizome. The leaves are linear and somewhat spathulate. The flowers are small, tubular, and packed in a terminal cyme (Fig. 47). In China, the rhizome is used to treat swollen ankles, assuage toothache, and is given for congested chest and stomach. The plant is interesting because it elaborates a sesquiter-pene known as nardosinone, which is an enhancer of the neuritogenic action of dibu-tyryl cyclic (dbc)AMP and staurosporine, hence the potential as a pharmacological tool for studying the mechanism of action of neuritogenic substances. Nardosinone enhances staurosporine- or dbcAMP-induced neurite growth from PC12D cells in a

Biofilm and Medical Devices

Biofilm, as a matter of fact, is involved in acute and chronic infectious diseases and has been described in human and experimental pathology such as native valve endocarditis, otitis media, bacterial chronic rhinosinusitis, COPD, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis, dental caries, biliary tract infections, Legionnaire's disease and amyloidosis.

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

To prevent IE, provide patients in the high-risk category with the needed information for early detection and prevention of the disease. Instruct recovering patients to inform their healthcare providers, including dentists, of their endocarditis history, since they may need future prophylactic antibiotic therapy to prevent subsequent episodes.

Classes of Carbohydrates

The popular notion is that dental caries is due to sucrose consumption. However, the etiology of dental caries is much more complex and multifactorial in nature, involving the susceptible teeth of the host, presence of viable microorganisms, lack of fluoride exposure, poor oral hygiene, and duration of time of exposure to media for the bacteria.

Postapproval Maintenance

Another mechanism to uncover new adverse events is MedWatch. This is a voluntary reporting system established by the FDA whereby the general public can report serious adverse events, although most of the reports are received from health care providers such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists. MedWatch reports should only be submitted for serious adverse reactions. Serious adverse events are defined with the following criteria 1, death (if an adverse event from the drug resulted in a patient's death) 2, life-threatening (if a patient was at risk of death at the time of the adverse event) 3, hospitalization (the adverse event requires a patient to be hospitalized or an existing hospitalization to be prolonged) 4, disability (if an adverse reaction results in a persistent or significant disability incapacity) and 5, birth defects (a congenital anomaly birth defect).

Trends In Education And Service

Reside once their families could no longer care for them. It appears that individuals with MR will live into retirement and outlive their parents. Unfortunately, when deinstititutionalization occurred, planning for adequate health care within the community did not take place. Children with MR live with chronic emotional, behavioral, developmental, or physical problems and thus use more health care and related services (Krauss & colleagues, 2003). More than 20 of children with MR, whose parents completed a national survey, had problems accessing health care, especially in getting referrals and finding well-trained providers. If the parent was also in poor health, the child was at greater risk. However, those who had Medicaid coverage and other public health coverage encountered few problems. Medical providers (e.g., dentists, nurses, opthamologists, physicians, psychologists) need more training to work with patients with

Clinical Features of Infection

Matic breaks due to burns or abrasions in the normal skin of a susceptible child). Herpetic whitlow is an occupational hazard (dentists, hospital personnel, wrestlers) resulting from infection of broken skin (often on fingers) in contact with virus on another individual. Erythema multiforme is a severe recurrent skin disease that follows HSV episodes. It is initiated by expression of the HSV DNA polymerase gene in the epidermis and has a T cell immunopathology involving, primarily, CD4+ V i2 T cells.


Usually used for prophylactic purposes rather than therapeutic. For example, it used to be said in Warwickshire that a child wearing a cross made of the white pith of an ELDER would never have whooping cough (Palmer). Necklaces made of small twigs from a churchyard elder for the same purpose are recorded too (Lewis). That same necklace would have been used to prevent teething fits (Friend). Similarly, in Ireland, nine pieces of a young twig were used for epilepsy should the necklace fall and touch the ground, it had to be burned, and a new one made (Wilde). That was probably because it was believed that the really efficacious elders themselves would never have touched the ground, for the preferred amulet tree would have grown in the stump of some other tree, a willow for preference, where birds had dropped the seed. PEONY roots were, in the same way, used as amulets. A necklace turned from the roots was worn by Sussex children to prevent convulsions, and to help teething (Latham), and...

Bee Balm

Oil of balm is useful for drying sores and wounds (Gordon. 1977). It is a wound plant in the Balkans -balm, the leaves of centaury and the dust of a live coal, pounded (Kemp). From now on, its uses become more and more esoteric. We are told that eius decoctio in aqua menstrua provocat et matrica mundificat et confortat et conceptum aduivat (Circa Instans Rufinus, quoted in Thorndike), and Gerard, taking his lead from Dioscorides, maintained that the leaves drunke in wine, or applied outwardly, are good against the stingings of venomous beasts, and the bitings of mad dogs He was down-to-earth enough to prescribe a mouthwash of the decoction for toothache, but went on to claim that it is likewise good for those that cannot take breath unlesse they hold their neckes upright Not only that, but it comforts the heart, and driveth away all melancholy and sadnesse . (it was still in use in the 20th century for nervous complaints and depression (Boland. 1979). We even hear that essence of...

Bird Cherry

Birch tea is used for urinary complaints, especially dropsy. But it is useful also for gout, and has even been recommended as being helpful for the heart (Schaunberg & Paris). It has also been given for rheumatism (Grieve), and another folk remedy for the complaint, from Russia in this case, involved boiling birch leaves in water for half an hour, and putting that water into a hot bath. One bath daily before going to bed, for 30 days at least, is prescribed (Kourennoff). But there were some strange claims made in times gone by, perhaps the most hopeful being from the Physicians of Myddfai - for impotency. Take some birch, digest it in water, and drink. A pure transference charm is recorded in Suffolk, for toothache, by clasping the tree in one's arms, and then cutting a slit in it. Cut a piece of hair with one's left hand from behind the ear. That has to be buried in the slit, and when the hair has disappeared so will the toothache (Burn).

Black Mustard

Mustard seeds were chewed for toothache, taken internally for epilepsy, lethargy, stomach ache and as a blood purifier (Lehner). Externally it was used in the form of a poultice as a powerful stimulant, though it was rarely used in the pure state, and would usually be found to contain some white mustard. Anyway, it would be dangeroius to leave a mustard plaster on too long, as it is such an irritant. They would be used for the treatment of rheumatism, sciatica, etc. The American Indians used it medicinally, too, in spite of the fact that it is not a native plant there. Some groups ground the seed to use as a snuff for a cold in the head (H H Smith. 1928). Mexican Indians have used it for a children's cough remedy, by heating the oil from the seed and rubbing it on the chest, which was


In Somerset bramble tips are used for bronchitis simply by peeling a shoot and nibbling it if the cough starts (Tongue.1965). Bramble vinegar, (made with the fruit) used to be made in Lincolnshire for coughs and sore throats (Gutch & Peacock), and the decoction of the tips with honey was an old sore throat remedy (Hill. 1754) (so is blackberry jam (Page. 1978)). Langham's The garden of health was written in 1578, and we can find something very similar there the new sprigs . doe cure the hote and evill ulcers of the mouth and throat and the swellings of the gums, uvula and almonds of the throat, being iften chewed Equally efficacious is the use for diarrhoea, for both leaves and the root bark contain a lot of tannin, and so are astringent enough to be useful. Is that why bramble leaves are chewed to stop toothache (Hatfield. 1994).

Bucks Horn Plantain

Early prescriptions include one for toothache Shave hartshorn and seethe it well in water, and with the water wash the teeth, and hold it hot in thy mouth a good while. And thou shalt never have the toothache again ( ) (Dawson. 1934), hartshorn being another name for Buck's Horn Plantain.

Burnet Saxifrage

The root infusion is taken for catarrh, and sometimes as a diuretic. Externally, this infusion can be used as an application for healing a wound (Fluck). Another application from the roots, a tincture this time, is given for sore throats (Schauenberg & Paris), and the fresh root is chewed for toothache (Grieve. 1931).

The elderly

Systemic infections are more likely because of disruption in cell-mediated immunity in the aging body (Cakman et al., 1996 Pahlavani and Richardson, 1996). Undernutrition, which is common in the elderly, may exacerbate immune dysfunction because of nutrient deficiencies (High, 1999). Risk for under-nutrition has been associated with eating alone, depression and dementia, dental pain and poverty (American Dietetic Association, 2000). Deficiency of protein, zinc, selenium, iron, copper, vitamins A, C, E, B-6 or folic acid in the elderly have been associated with decreased immune function (Lesourd, 1997).

Carolina Nightshade

(Solanum carolinense) Assuming that the name Horse Nettle is meant for this plant, there are a number of uses that R B Browne lists from Alabama. It is recommended for 1) retention of virility in old age (eat a quarter-inch of the stalk), 2) a cough medicine, 3) neuralgia (leaf tea and leaf poultice), 4) toothache (chew it, or put it in the cavity). It was good for teething, too, as well as for toothache - they were strung on a thread and left round a baby's neck until they wore out (Puckett).

Chinese Lantern

(Dichrostachys glomerata) A shrub from central Africa, whose roots are chewed and macerated, then put on snake or scorpion bites to remove the poison. Leaves, also used for the purpose, are said to produce local anaesthesia. An extract of the leaves, mixed with salt, is applied to sore eyes. In southern Malawi, the roots and leaves are used as a toothache cure (Palgrave & Palgrave). A related species, D. mutans, is used in Ambo (Zambia) boys' puberty medicines. Three incisions are made on the abdomen and on the back, and a compound made of burnt wool of he-goat, burnt penis of a particular lemur, and the scraped roots of this shrub, is inserted. The he-goat is a symbol of strong sexual powers the lemur is believed to have a strong penis, and the wood of this shrub is exceptionally hard (Stefaniszyn).

Specific History

Chronic focus of infection Dental abscess (usually the patient has poorly maintained dentition on physical exam, with one or more sensitive teeth however, occult abscess formation without signs or symptoms has also been reported), chronic sinusitis, chronic dermatophytosis, candidiasis, intestinal parasitosis, diverticulitis.

Dog Rose

The galls made by the gall wasp on the dog-rose enjoyed a great reputation at one time. These Briar balls, also known by more picturesque names like Robin Redbreast's Cushions in Sussex (Latham), used to be sold by apothecaries to be powdered and taken to cure the stone, as a diuretic, and also for colic. Boiled up with black sugar (the sugar used for curing ham), the result would be drunk for whooping cough (Page. 1978). That is a gypsy remedy, but country people generally used to hang them round their necks as an amulet against whooping cough (Grigson. 1955), or just hanging them in the house (Rolleston), not only for whooping cough, but for rheumatism, too (Bloom), or for piles (Savage). Putting one under the pillow was a Norfolk way of curing cramp (Taylor). In Hereford and Worcester the gall was carried round in the pocket to prevent toothache (Leather), while Yorkshire schoolboys wore them as a charm against flogging (Gutch) that is why they were known as Savelick there. Gerard...

Double Nuts

Name is loady nuts, and there they were used to cure toothache (Grigson) so they were in Sussex - all you had to do was carry one in your pocket (Latham). In Ireland, that was enough to ensure that you did not get rheumatism or lumbago. In the latter case the nut is acting as a protection against the fairies, for these are elf-shot diseases. A note in the Gypsy Lore Society Journal 1957 mentions a mother who gave her son, when he joined the army, a double hazel nut with three wishes to ensure his safe return. A triple nut was known as St Mary's nut in Lancashire (R B Peacock).


In 1994, Ma et al. reported the production of monoclonal antibody Guys 13 in transgenic tobacco Guys 13 is a mouse IgG1 immunoglobulin that binds to the 185-kDa cell surface antigen of Streptococcus mutans, the main causative agent of dental caries in human beings. The 185-kDa antigen is streptococcal adhesin, which mediates initial attachment of the bacterium to the tooth surface. This monoclonal antibody was first expressed in tobacco by sequentially crossing plants expressing its individual components. This permitted the production of high levels of whole recombinant Guys 13 (500 mg g of leaf material) (Ma et al., 1995). Three years later, the same group showed that Guys 13 monoclonal plantibody afforded specific protection in human volunteers against oral streptococcal colonization for at least 4 months (Ma et al., 1998).


Evidently, all that had to be done was to boil the plant in water, and drink the resulting liquid (Vickery. 1995), though a Suffolk practice of curing toothache by tying feverfew on to the wrist on the opposite side (V G Hatfield) sounds more like a charm than a remedy. It has been used in cold infusion as a general tonic, and a cold infusion of the flowers as a sedative (Brownlow). Perhaps that was what Gerard had in mind when he recommended it for such as be melancholicke, sad, pensive, and without speech. It is certainly effective in curing a headache, even migraine, it seems (V G Hatfield), and apparently, it was said, warm, on the ear for earache, according to a Suffolk record (Kightly. 1984). But the dried flowers have been used in home remedies in Europe to induce abortion (Lewis & Elvin-Lewis).


On mainland Scotland, the leaf would be applied to cuts and bruises, and the tuber to sores and tumours (Carmichael), and in some places to burns (C P Johnson), probably because it is an anodyne, and eases pain wherever it is applied (Mitton), and that includes toothache and babies' teething (Gerard). It probably accounts for its reputation in the Channel Islands for being an efficient remedy for cramps (Garis).


Dental erosion is defined as loss of dental hard tissues due to chemical injuries other than those occurring in tooth caries 5 . Excessive intake of acid beverages or gastric reflux may cause this type of tooth damage as any solution of low pH may dissolve the enamel. In contrast to caries, which causes subsurface demineralisation, erosion is a surface phenomenon. The affected teeth show smoothly outlined defects that may involve not only enamel but also the underlying dentin at areas where the enamel has disappeared (Fig. 5.4).

Green Purslane

Liberia, who recognize it as an accessory green food, specially prescribed for malnutrition (Harley). There are a number of other medicinal uses throughout the world. The Navajo use the green plant for stomach ache (Elmore), and the Mano too recognize it as an indigestion remedy (Harley). In Central America, Maya medical texts prescribed the crushed plant, rubbed on the body, for tuberculosis. The juice is given for giddiness, and an infusion is used as a bath for convulsions (Roys). In West Africa it is prescribed for local application to swellings and bruises, or as a poultice for abscesses or boils. The juice is sometimes dropped in the ear for earache, and is also used for toothache. Skin diseases are treated in West Africa, as well as in China, with purslane, but in Ghana they eat the leaves along with tiger nuts as the remedy (Dalziel). The Mano look on it as a sore throat remedy, too. They take a large handful, beaten up with root ginger. It has to be mixed with water from a...

Tooth Fracture

Mechanical trauma may lead to fracture of the tooth. Fractures above the level of the gingival margin involve the tooth crown. Through the fracture line, bacteria may easily gain access to the inner part of the tooth and caries with consequent pulpitis may ensue, thus jeopardizing the vitality of the tooth pulp. In case of root fractures, the fixation of the tooth in its socket may serve as a splint. The fracture may heal by fibrous union or by the deposition of a dentin-like material (Figs. 5.12a, b).


Headaches can be cured with it, by bruising a leaf, wetting it and tying it to the head (Thomas & Thomas). That is the American way, but the cure is simpler in Britain. All you need do is smell it, so they claim in Norfolk (V G Hatfield), or in Sussex, just holding the scrapings tight would do the trick (J Simpson). The cure in Gloucestershire was also to smell it, better put as inhaling the vapour from the grated root (Vickery. 1995). It is even said that sniffing the juice will cure baldness (Page. 1978). It will relieve toothache, too, if bound on (Newman & Wilson). That was in Essex, but in Norfolk the grated root had to be put on the opposite wrist for twenty minutes (V G Hatfield). Horseradish figures quite a lot in Fenland medicine. Wearing a bag filled with the grated root round the neck was a Cambridge ague preventive, and Fen people claimed that a slice applied to a cut stopped the bleeding and drew the edges of the skin together quickly so that the minimum of scarring...

Feelings Of Animals

Because of the difficulty in determining factors for animal welfare,* many have concluded that the important thing determining welfare is how an animal feels. Thus if an animal feels frightened or frustrated or in pain,* its welfare will be reduced if it feels happy or contented, its welfare will be enhanced. The problem is that subjective or personal feelings, of human beings or of animals, are not directly available to scientific investigation. We can have a good idea of how other human beings feel because they are built like us, they have the same sensory and processing mechanisms as part of their nervous systems, and, moreover, they have language that enables them to describe how they feel. It is much more difficult with nonhuman animals although there are similarities, their sensory information-processing mechanisms are different from ours. Also, we do not share a common language with them, so they cannot describe how they feel. However, we may be able to gain much information...

Lady Laurel

In a village called Willoughton, the berries were swallowed like pills as a remedy for piles (Rudkin). Gerard noted a quite original use for them - if a drunkard doe eat one graine or berry of this plant, he cannot be allured to drinke any drinke at that time, such will be the heate in his mouth and choking in the throat. There is one other medicinal use to notice, and this time it is the root that is used - for toothache (Pratt).

Lesser Celandine

A few other medicinal uses obviously rely on the same virtues. A manuscript of somewhere around 1680, from Lincolnshire, advised that for a teter or ringe worme, stampe celandine and apply it to the (griefe ) and it will quickly cure you. A leechdom in use in Anglo-Saxon times for toothache prescribed, in Cockayne's translation, nether part of raven's foot boiled in wine or vinegar. Drink as hot as possible.


The drug consists of the dried berries that are prescribed for headache, catarrh, watery eyes, and are used to promote beard growth. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, the berries are used to treat conjunctivis, dropsy, toothache, and as a remedy for swollen breast. In Malaysia, the leaves are used to assuage headache externally, and internally are used to treat tuberculosis and fever.


Ostly, pulpitis is due to caries, disappearance of e protective barrier of enamel and dentin al-ing bacteria to reach the dental pulp. Rarely, s due to thermal or mechanical trauma, either ntaneously occurring or due to dental treat-ent. Due to its distinctive anatomical position hin the tooth, the chances of the pulp over-ming a bacterial infection are few. Oedema invariably connected with inflammation will compress capillaries and veins, thus compromising the blood supply of the pulp. Therefore, pulpitis usually results in pulp necrosis with periapical disease as an outcome. A brief description of this latter condition will follow in Sect. 7.3.1.

Periapical Disease

Usually, inflammation of the pulp results in pulp necrosis as inflammatory alterations with their inherent oedema lead to increased tissue pressure in the pulp chamber reducing its blood supply. Only in situations where pulp tissue is not enclosed by the walls of the pulp chamber at each side, may inflamed pulp tissue transform into granulation tissue that protrudes into the oral cavity. This can only occur when large areas of dentin are lost due to caries. Sometimes these pulpal polyps may be partly covered by squamous epithelium, possibly due to the settling of viable squamous cells that are scraped off from the adjacent buccal epithelium by the sharp edges of the tooth cavity from which the polyp protrudes (Figs. 7.7a, b).

Marsh Marigold

Very occasionally, the plant has been used medicinally. An infusion of the flowers has been recommended for treating fits, and a tincture from the whole plant has been used for anaemia (North). Turner actually recommended chewing the leaf to relieve toothache It sounds extremely hazardous.

Pain Relievers

An essential oil obtained from MEADOWSWEET contains methyl salicylate and salicylic aldehyde, which are part of the compound now known as aspirin (Palaiseul). So it is a good pain reliever, prepared by boiling the flowers in water for ten minutes, the dose being three cupfuls a day (Page. 1978). FEVERFEW is best known in country medicine as a painkiller, in spite of its name pronouncing the banishing of fevers. All that had to be done was to boil the plant in water, and drink the resultant liquid (Vickery. 1995). CAMOMILE has been used virtually for any ailment, understandably, for it is a good pain-reliever, and the root of STINKING IRIS has the reputation, too (Conway). Irish practitioners used WALLFLOWER blossoms steeped in oil as an anodyne (Moloney), and another Irish practice was to use HEMLOCK leaves mixed with linseed meal as a painkilling poultice (Moloney). FIGWORT has a certain anodyne value, and eases pain wherever it is applied (Mitton), and that includes toothache and...


(Anacyclus pyrethrum) A medicinal plant, a favourite in the East, and long exported from North Africa and southern Spain to India via Egypt. It was a popular remedy for ague once, but is hardly ever used now (Lloyd). Its chief use in Europe was for toothache relief (Fluckiger & Hanbury). One example from the 15th century in which the plant plays a distinctly subordinate role runs for aching of the hollowtooth. Take raven's dung ( ) and put it in the hollow teeth and colour it with the juice of pellitory of Spain that the sick recognise it not nor know what it be and then put it in the tooth and it shall break the tooth and take away the aching, and as some men say, it will make the tooth fall out (Dawson. 1934). Another from the same collection runs For toothache, a fine medicine take long pepper, pellitory of Spain, nutgalls, lichen, and seethe them in vinegar from a quart to a pint and put therein a pot of treacle of a pennyworth, and then take dregs of ale in a vial. And then...


See also GREEN PURSLANE (Portulaca oleracea). One of the many supposed to be aphrodisiac (Haining). It has certainly been used as a medicine for a long time, as a cure for erysipelas, while Thomas Hill was of opinion that it helped the shingles. He also recommended it as helping the burning Fever., for worms and for toothache. It also helpeth swolne eyes, and spitting of bloud it stayeth the bleeding at the Nose, and the head-ache (T Hill. 1577).

Scarlet Pimpernel

Gerard recommended it for toothache, being snift up into the nosthrils. In Somerset, warts are rubbed with the juice (Tongue. 1965). Gout and dropsy have also been treated with pimpernel in India (Dawson. 1934). There is even a leechdom to know the life of a wounded man, whether he shall live or die. Some pimpernel had to be stamped in a mortar and mixed with water or wine. This was to be given to the wounded man to drink, and if it come out at the wound he shall die if it come not out of the wound he shall live (Dawson. 1934).

Sea Holly

It had a wide variety of medicinal uses in the older herbals, as a diuretic, to treat stone, gout or snakebite, etc. One, from the Physicians of Myddfai, is worth quoting, it is for toothache. Take a candle of mutton-fat, mingled with seed of sea-holly burn this candle as close as possible to the tooth, holding a basin of cold water beneath it. The worms . will fall into the water to escape the heat of the candle. But the only prescription with any claim to more recent folk use comes from Ireland, where it was used for asthma (O Suilleabhain).


Children with autism and or mental retardation who are nonverbal and lack an effective means for communicating illness may resort to self-injury in the form of repeatedly pressing or hitting an affected area, possibly to achieve an anesthetic effect, or they may merely attack the affected area out of frustration over the discomfort it creates.

Spurge Laurel

Of the medicinal, the most notable was the use of the bark in the treatment of cancer (Grigson. 1955), though this was only a cottage remedy, and there seems no record of how it was done, nor whether it was really cancer (and not canker) that was being treated. The bark (and the berries) was used also in some parts - a dangerous practice for humans, but a useful one for horses (Garrad). The very acrid roots were used in some parts to relieve toothache (Vickery. 1995), but surely this must have been a dangerous remedy. Hill, in 1754, noted that it was a powerful remedy against the dropsy, although he was careful to point out that it is not every constitution that can bear such a medicine. An Anglo-Saxon leechdom, acknowledging Pliny, quoted the use of an amulet of chamacela, which could be either this shrub or D. mezereum, to cure pearl (albryo), which is probably cataract, in the eyes, if the plant is gathered before sunrise, and the purpose outspoken.

Sweet Flag

It has been a favourite medicine in India from the earliest times, valuable for children's bowel complaints (Sanford), but its best known use in former times was for dyspepsia, loss of appetite, etc., (W A R Thomson. 1978). The carminative usage appeared in medieval Latin compilations, and was to be found in New World medicine also. In Alabama they either chewed the root, or put it in whisky to be used when needed. Or it could be boiled, and the water drunk (R B Browne). In Ohio, this was drunk as a cure for diarrhoea (Bergen. 1899). The American Indians used it, too, for similar purposes. People like the Menomini cured cramps in the stomach with it, though it was reckoned very powerful, to be used only in minute quantities. The measure of a dose was the length of a finger-joint (H H Smith. 1923). It was even claimed that the Blackfoot Indians used it to cause abortions (Johnston) in fact, it was a general cureall indigestion, toothache, fever (it was even said to be beneficial in...


The tobacco-smoke enema-syringe was a favourite instrument, apparently adopted in Europe from the Central American Indians. Used at first to combat a wide variety of diseases, it was, during the 18th century, even used to resuscitate the apparently drowned, and was still known up to about 1850 (Brongers). Putting tobacco in the ears, or on a tooth, was quite a common earache or toothache remedy (Newman & Wilson). (Jane Josselin treated herself for toothache with tobacco (Beier)). It was used as a plague protector, too, either by smelling, or by taking it fasting in the morning, provided, that presently after the taking thereof, you drinke a deepe draught of six shilling Beere, and walke after it (F P Wilson).

Transference Charms

Toothache could be treated in a similar way, according to a charm recorded in Suffolk. The sufferer was instructed to clasp the tree (BIRCH, in this case) in his arms and then cut a slit in it. He then had to cut a piece of hair from behind the ear with his left hand, and bury it in the slit. When the hair had disappeared so would the toothache (Burne). Another tree used in a similar way is HAWTHORN, according to a French prescription to get rid of a fever. The patient is advised to take bread and salt to the tree, and say

Virginian Snakeroot

(Aristolochia serpentaria) An American plant of the same genus as Birthwort. The early use was as a remedy for snakebite (LLoyd), which is pure doctrine of signatures, though the native American had never heard of such a theory. The point is that the roots are writhed, like snakes, and that accounts for both the common and specific names. In general, the Indians simply chewed the root and applied it, or spat it, on the bite (Weiner), and chewing the leaves is still an Indiana way of treating it (Tyler). Some groups also blew the root decoction on to fever patients (Coffey). That same preparation was taken for coughs (Corlett), and the root was also used to put in a hollow tooth to cure toothache (Coffey). It was the root, powdered, that was used by slaves in America to combat pneumonia (Laguerre). It is a well-known emmenagogue, especially in the form of a tincture known as Hiera Pina (Hikey Pikey in East Anglia), of aloes, snakeroot and ginger (V G Hatfield).

Water Pepper

(Polygonum hydropiper) They say that fleas will not come into a room where this herb is kept (Fernie). Rub it on warts, and throw the plant away (Stout). Herbalists use the tea to treat piles (Thomson. 1978). Tea is also used as a febrifuge in the southern states of America (Puckett), and, taken cold, for colds, in Iowa (Stout). The leaves infused in boiling water, or a strong decoction of them, were applied to bruises and contusions (Barton & Castle), and the juice, they say in Iowa, makes an excellent liniment for sprains (Stout). In Norway, the herb was chewed for toothache (Barton & Castle).


There is no medical therapy for hypophosphatasia (121). Affected patients usually have normal serum calcium, 25(OH)D, and 1,25(OH)2D hence, they should not receive supplemental calcium and vitamin D, as it predisposes them to hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. They should be referred early to orthopedic specialists and dentists. Often, patients with fractures have delayed healing, and specific intramedullary rods may be needed. Dentures are frequently necessary for the pediatric and adult patients with this disorder.

Scarlet Leadwort

(Plumbago indica) Plumbago derives from the Latin plumbum, lead, so the common name of the species is Leadwort. There was some feeling at one time that the plant was a cure for lead poisoning (Hyam & Pankhurst). Scarlet Leadwort is an Indian and Malaysian species. The root is an abortifacient, well-known as such, apparently by introduction into the vagina. But this is dangerous, sometimes lethal (P A Simpson), for that use would cause violent local inflammation (Gimlette). This is the source of the poison known as Lal Chitra in India. The root bark, rubbed into a paste with flour and water, and applied to the skin, will blister it. Some Indian peoples use the root to cure toothache, and in southern India, the dried root used to be highly regarded as a syphilis and leprosy cure (P A Simpson).

Treatment of SWST

A 24-year-old man, self-referred for evaluation of longstanding weekly bad dreams, 1-3 hours after sleep onset, described sudden arousals with screaming, shortness of breath, fearfulness of panic proportions, and attempts to fight or flee from imagined threats resulting in injuries such as lacerations when putting his arms through glass windows. He was generally amnestic for the spells unless awakened by someone during their course. Dentists had commented to him about dental erosion suggestive of bruxism and bed partners had reported frequent somniloquy (sleep-talking). Past history included enuresis until age 11, childhood attention deficit disorder and learning disability, and alcohol and cannabis abuse in remission. PSG revealed unremarkable sleep architecture and three auditory stimulus-induced abrupt arousals, one with complex behavior of sitting up, screaming, and rapidly removing all firmly adherent electrodes while clearly not awake and misperceiving the environment. Diagnosis...

Poppy Anemone

It is reported in Spain, too. There it was believed that the disease would actually go into the raw vegetable (H W Howes). Two potatoes were needed in Maryland, one for each pocket (Whitney & Bullock). In Ireland, it is said that as the potato dried up the rheumatism will go away (Mooney). It has to be a new potato, kept until it has turned black and is as hard as wood (Waring). It will draw the iron out of the blood, as a Somerset belief had it (Whistler). In parts of France, it was carried around as a general charm against pain (Sebillot), or, in Kentucky, to prevent a chill (Thomas & Thomas), or kidney trouble, as Illinois belief had it (Hyatt). Andrew Lang said that the potato had to be stolen, or the cure would not work (Lang). Devonshire superstition also required some ritual. Here, a member of the opposite sex had to be asked to put the potato, unseen, in one of your pockets. You could change the pocket at will after this had been done, but the potato had...

Ashen Faggot

In OE came to mean spear, and aesc-plega the game of spears, or battle. Then it was further extended to the man who carried the spear. The handles of most garden tools are best made of the wood - some rakes are still made entirely of ash (Freethy). Clothes posts, billiard cues (Wilkinson), hockey and hurley sticks, cricket bat handles and police truncheons were all traditionally made of ash timber. It was tough enough for windmill cogwheels, and boats also were made of it - OE aesc, Norse aske came to mean a vessel as well as a spear. In ancient Wales and Ireland all oars and coracle-slats were made of it (Graves). Evelyn mentions that the inner bark was used as paper, before the invention of the latter, and he also mentions that the keys are edible, and often pickled - being pickled tender, they afford a delicate sallading Sir Robert Atkyns, a number of years later, spoke of them as an excellent wholesome sauce, and a great expel-ler of venom. Recipes are still given a recent one...


Chinese farmers used to ask for rain by prayers to the Dragon King Lung Wang, who has control over rain, and they would wear willow wreaths during the ceremony (Tun Li-Ch'en), for willows grow in wet country, and homeopathic magic accounts for their use in this context (they were worn for other purposes, as already mentioned). So, too, the doctrine of signatures would ensure that they would be used for diseases like ague, caused by damp. There was a Welsh charm for ague that said Go in silence, without crossing water, to a hollow willow tree. Breathe into the hole three times, then stop the aperture as quickly as possible, and go home without looking round, or speaking a word (Trevelyan). But there was another Welsh usage recorded by the same author, that of treating toothache by picking at the decayed tooth with a sharp twig of willow, until it bled. After that, the twig had to be thrown into a running stream. Simply chewing some willow bark would have been useful, for it contains...

Radicular Cyst

Due to advanced tooth caries (Figs. 9.1, 9.2). They arise from the epithelial rests of Malassez and develop when pulpal inflammation has led to to the formation of a periapical granuloma. Remnants of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath lying within this granuloma may proliferate due to the inflammatory stimulus and through subsequent liquefaction necrosis in the center of these enlarged epithelial nests, a fluid-filled cyst with an epithelial lining forms (Figs. 9.3a, b).


Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex DC (Spilanthes acmella L. Murr,), or para cress, toothache plant, heukala (Burmese), pokok getang kerbau, kerabu, galang, gutang (Malay), biri (Philippino), herbe de Malacca, cresson des Indes (French), or cuc ao, ngo ao (Vietnamese), is a tropical, branched, annual and herb that grows in the wild to a height of 15-30 cm in open waste places, old clearings, at low and medium altitudes. The stems are glabrous, fleshy, and purplish. The leaves are simple, without stipules, and opposite. The petiole is 2-7 mm long. The blade is 1.5-3 cm long, deltoid, and shows a single pair of secondary nerves. The influorescences consist of conical capitula, which are on 2.5-7-cm-long pedicels. The fruits consist of triquetous or compressed achenes (Fig. 109). The plant is used in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam to treat dysentery and scorbut. The plant is used externally in Malaysia to assuage toothache and headaches, and a decoction is drunk to treat leukemia. In Indonesia,...


Sued to bathe wounds, and as a mouthwash for throat and gum irritants (Fluck). In Alabama, a tea is made from it to be used for fevers (R B Browne). Aubrey. 1696 quoted a recipe for ague, tertian or Quartan Gather cinquefoil in a good aspect of. here follows astrological instructions and take. of the powder of it in white wine . With this receipt, one Bradley, a Quaker at Kingston Wick upon Thames (near the bridge end), hath cured above a hundred. Earlier herbalists seem to be agreed that Cinquefoil offers a cure for toothache. (see Gerard, Dawson).


Even the dew shaken from the flowers was used (in Wales) for consumption (Trevelyan), and the real juice from the plant had its uses, too, for sore eyes, to take one example. It had to be gathered before dawn, and the gatherer had to say why he was taking it let him next take the ooze, and smear the eyes therewith (Cockayne). The root is another part used as a toothache cure in Ireland. The instructions are simple -just put a piece on the aching tooth (Vickery. 1995). Ointments made from the plant were quite widely used, too. An example from Skye shows that camomile and fresh butter made into an ointment was used for, of all things, a stitch (Martin). There is a 14th century example of the ointment being used for cramp (Henslow).


Use peppermint to keep flies and midges away - rub the face and hands with the leaves. Mint (or parsley) grown on a window sill is also said to keep flies and insects out of a kitchen. Bruise the leaves occasionally to release more odour (Boland. 1977). Applied to the temples, it will relieve headaches, and it can also be used for a queasy stomach and indigestion. It is an antiseptic (Genders. 1971). Gypsies use the tea for headaches (as well as laying the leaves on). A drop of the juice on an aching tooth will relieve the pain (Vesey-Fitzgerald). Peppermint tea is also a sedative (Bircher), and is used in Russian folk medicine as a heart strengthener (Kourennoff). In Alabama, they used to give peppermint tea to babies who had a cold (R B Browne).


Used for thousands of years for medicinal purposes and to flavor and preserve food through pickling, vinegar is the result of a natural process, the invasion of an alcoholic drink with air-breathing bacteria that turn it to acetic acid. In fact, the English word vinegar is derived from French vin aigre, meaning sour wine. There was no shortage of sour wine in the Middle Ages, when most wine was drunk young because it did not keep well. The same was true with beer, which also served as the basis for vinegar. Medieval cookbooks sometimes ask for wine or vinegar, beer or vinegar, and watered vinegar. For the lower classes vinegar was the universal seasoning that was widely available and cheap, but aristocratic cooks also used it for sauces, stuffings, and fish, for instance. As a cool and dry foodstuff it was recommended to be eaten in the summer and in warm regions. It was good for fighting toothache, for cooling the body, quenching the thirst, stopping the flow of blood, treating burns...

Yellow Iris

(Iris pseudo-acarus) It was known as gillajeur in the Guernsey dialect, and was one of the favourite flowers used for strewing in front of the bride at a wedding (MacCulloch), and in Ireland, it is put outside doors at Corpus Christi (O Suilleabhain). Shetland children used to make boats seggie boats, of the leaves, seg, or seggie being a sedge name given to this iris. Children of Stenness, Orkney, were warned that if they chewed seg leaves, they would become dumb (Marwick), or at least have a stammer (Vickery. 1995). The juice from the roots was thought to cure toothache, but it had to be inhaled through the nose (Leask). In County Cork, the leaves ofYellow Iris, called Flaggers there, were put on the doorstep and In some parts of Sotland, Mull, for instance (Beith), the root is chopped up and used for the relief of toothache. A 14th century recipe prescribed the leaves, stamped with honey, and applied to the cheek (Henslow). In one case, the instruction was to put the juice in the...


Periodontitis is the common sequel to chronic gingivitis and is recognised histologically by evidence of damage to the alveolar bone, associated with signs of chronic inflammation. The bone of the alveolar crest shows resorption as demonstrated by the presence of Hownship's lacunae sometimes still containing multinucleated osteo-clasts. The epithelial attachment that normally lies in contact with the tooth enamel has moved downwards to be partly opposite the enamel and the root cementum or even entirely opposite the root cementum (Figs. 8.4a, b). Resorption of bone and downward displacement of the epithelial attachment may continue until there is insufficient periodontal tissue left for adequate fixation of the tooth in the jaw. Caries may add to the damage caused by periodontitis by attacking the cemen-tum covering the exposed root surface.


Most men say that the leaves, chewed, and especially greene, are a remedy for the Tooth-ache (Gerard), something that was known well in Anglo-Saxon times, for Cockayne has, from Apuleius Herbarium, for toothache, take a root, give it to eat, fasting. An old Irish remedy for toothache advised the patient to chew the leaves (Moloney). The American Indians used a preparation for earache (Sanford) the Winnebago, for example, steeped the whole plant, and poured the resulting liquid into the ear (Weiner).


There are other superstitions connected with walnuts. A heavy crop means a fine corn harvest next year (Waring). On the other hand, dreaming of a walnut tree means misfortune, or unfaithfulness (Dyer.1889). A belief from the Abruzzi, in Italy, says that he who plants a walnut tree will have a short life (Canziani. 1928), or, as in Portugal, he would die when the tree attains his own girth (Gallop). Perhaps it is one of the cases of a man's life going into a very long-lived tree, (hence a belief that if the tree dies, or is blown down, it is a most unlucky event (Campbell-Culver) ). One of the most engaging of walnut superstitions, for it is nothing more than that, is the belief that Yorkshire schoolboys once had. They said that if their hands were rubbed with a green walnut shell, they would not feel the schoolmaster's cane - indeed, the cane would split (Halliwell. 1869). Another one, also connected with pain killing, is that wearing a walnut in a bag round the neck would stop one...

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