Soap Making Recipes

Guide To Creating Spa Products

The handcrafter's companion is a program designed to help everyone regardless of whether they have ever tried the making soap on their own and failed or whether they are newbies. This program uses step by step guide which contains information easy to read, understand and successfully apply to make your home-made soaps and spa treatments. All the techniques applied in this program have undergone through testing and results have proven that they work efficiently to guarantee you 100% positive results. When you enroll in this program, you will not strain in wondering where you will get the raw materials, how to package your product or where to supply the products as all these are already in place. This program has many benefits attached to it some of them being to ensure that your skin glows naturally and you save on the cost you could have otherwise spent on spa treatments. Continue reading...

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Ivtotal Fatty Acid Recovery

A problem with the concentrated HCI, in addition to the obnoxious fumes, is that the glyceride lipids of Figure 3.1 are only partially hydrolyzed. Thus the free fatty acids will be increased, but the proportions of these are unpredictable. With alcoholic alkali digestion there is another problem that may be overlooked. The saponification reaction in the presence of ethanol and water will produce the free acids as alkali salts but may also produce a small proportion of ethyl esters of fatty acids, because alkali-catalyzed transesterification is a very fast equilibrium-type reaction. If separate recovery of sterols and fatty acids is an objective, some small part of the fatty acids bound as ethyl esters may be lost if the sterols are removed as unsaponifiables from the water-alcohol solution of soaps. Usually these esters are a representative part of the whole fatty acid mixtures, but on occasion they may be specific to some part of the lipid. Similarly, the addition of a fatty acid as...

Analysis Of Milk Fatty Acids

Extraction of milk fat in preparation for gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis is discussed by Jensen et al. (1997). For GLC analysis, milk FA are usually transesterified to FA methyl esters (FAME) with sodium methoxide or acids (H2SO4, HCl, or BF3) as catalysts. Kramer et al. (1997) evaluated the applicability of catalysts for converting milk FA to FAME. They recommended that sodium methoxide be used even though FA in sphingomyelin were not esterified. The amount of FA excluded (approximately 0.1 of total FA) is so low that there would be little or no effect on the amounts or proportions of FA measured. Acid catalysts were reported to cause isomerization of conjugated bonds, resulting in decreased recovery, whereas sodium methoxide did not lower the quantities of these. It is important to determine FA by appropriate methods if referencing Kramer et al. (1997), one must take care to specify which procedure was used, as these authors describe numerous combinations of methods for...

Preparation of the

Assemble the glass plates and spacers. Both plates and spacers need to be washed with water and rinsed with ethanol. The plates need to be spotless, but soaps should be avoided because they may interact with the gel matrix during the run and degrade the gel. We use 1.5-mm spacers for EMSAs.


Dimethylaminopropylamine is an aliphatic amine present in amphoteric surfactants such as liquid soaps and shampoos. It is present as a residual impurity thought to be responsible for allergy from cocamidopropylbetaine. It is structurally similar to diethyl-aminopropylamine. It is also used as a curing agent for epoxy resins and an organic intermediate in chemical synthesises (ion exchangers, additives for flocculants, cosmetics and fuel additives, dyes and pesticides). Patch test has to be carefully interpreted, since the 1 aqueous solution has pH> ii (personal observation).

Water And Wastewater Disinfection Treatment

One of the unique disinfection features of the bactericidal quaternary compounds is that they have a distinctly higher level of effectiveness with many gram-positive bacteria, probably due to the added depth and complexity of their membrane structure. Conversely, gram-negative cells as a whole are often similarly considered to be somewhat more resistant, perhaps due to the added depth and complexity of their membrane structure. Indeed, Pseudomonas probably tops the list in terms of durability, under conditions that would foil the vast majority of other cells (e.g., growth in distilled water). Similarly, gram-positive Mycobacteria species, as well as spore formers, also tend to exhibit this resistant nature when challenged with quaternary disinfectants, apparently based on the protective capacity of their respective outer cell coatings. Finally, given their chemical nature, these quat compounds also bear a unique sensitivity to inactivation when exposed to complexing soaps, detergents,...

Nonylphenol Ethoxylates PEGn Nonyl Phenyl Ether Polyoxyethylene n Nonyl Phenyl Ether

Their general formula is C9H19C6H4(OCH2CH2)nOH. Each non-oxynol is characterized by the number (n) of ethylene oxide units repeated in the chain for example, nonoxynol-9, nonoxynol-14. They are present in detergents, liquid soaps, emulsifiers for creams, fabric softeners, photographic paper additives, hair dyes, lubricating oils, spermicides, and anti-infective agents. They are irritants and sensitizers. Nonoxynol-6 was reported as a sensitizing agent in an industrial hand cleanser and in a crack-indicating fluid in the metal industry. Nonoxynol-9 is the most common

Cocamide DEA Coconut Oil Fatty Acids Diethanolamide NNbis2Hydroxyethyl Coco Fatty Acid Diethanolamide Cocoyl

Cocamide DEA, manufactured from coconut oil, is widely used in industry and at home as a surface-active agent. It is contained in hand gels, hand washing soaps, shampoos, and dish-washing liquids for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties, and in metalworking fluids and polishing agents as an anticorrosion inhibitor.

Aphid Control In Agricultural Crops And Home Gardens

In home gardens and yards, nontoxic controls should be emphasized. Aphid detection involves inspection of buds, stems, fruits, and the underside of leaves, where the insects are most likely to congregate. Effective control can simply involve frequently hosing aphids off plants with water, being careful to hit the leaf undersides. Spray applications of a mixture of garlic and water may repel aphids. Sprays of cuticle-disrupting insecticidal soaps, which cause fatal desiccation, often give control. Under overhanging trees, problems from aphid sooty molds on driveways, patios, and walkways are best controlled by hosing the surfaces. Control for aphid galls or leaf distortion on deciduous trees can be problematic, sometimes requiring the winter application of a dormant oil to kill overwintering eggs. Ultimately, elimination of the tree to may be required to solve problem, so tree species in yards should be carefully selected and placed, in view of their potential aphid pests.

Fear of the Microorganisms and Response

Antimicrobials, antiseptics, and new technologies are some of the answers of contemporary societies to these challenges. Do current technologies provide the answer for the ongoing health issues involving various aspects of human life and keep us healthier Answers were provided by a wide choice of antimicrobial products, such as soaps, hand sanitizers, cleaners, wipes, appliances, medical devices, and even toys. Interest in these antimicrobial products has been clearly demonstrated by the steady increase in the consumption of such products. Such interest has been augmented by the striking headlines about killer viruses and deadly bacteria to hospital-acquired infection, infectious diseases outbreak, etc. The fact that these specialized products carry a premium of 10 -15 in price further bears witness to the consumers' awareness and concern. It is important to remember that clearly compelling literature needs to be created, demonstrating the need and benefit of routine use of such...

Diet and Patient Education

Patients should be educated to avoid excessive straining at defecation to reduce the risk of pudendal nerve damage. Perianal hygiene must be addressed, including delicate soaps specifically for use in the perianal area, to avoid perianal irritation and pruritus. Only in selected cases should absorbents, diapers, and tampons be recommended. Patients must be educated to reduce or avoid foods that induce loose stools, excessive gastrointestinal transit, or increased intestinal gas production (i.e., milk and derivates, excessive legumes and vegetables, chocolate, tomatoes, caffeine, prunes, grapes, figs).


Dogwood yields a red dye, and oil from the berries, perfectly edible, was used for lamp-burning at one time. In France, it was used in making soap (C P Johnson). The wood itself, like that of Spindle-tree, makes, in Evelyn's words, the best skewers for butchers, because it does not taint the flesh, a usage that accounts for a lot of the local names. Skewer-wood is the most obvious (Britten & Holland, Havergal). Skiver is the same word as skewer, and the name appears simply as that in Wiltshire dialect (Dartnell & Goddard). Another name is Pegwood (Miller), indication enough that pegs were another product made from the wood.


Although SPME has been widely used for highly efficient extraction of food components, little is known about the applicability of this technique for monitoring fragrance materials in household cleaning products, soaps, detergents, cosmetics, toiletries, etc. (61-63). Until recently, costly and laborious sample preparation techniques were required to isolate, separate, and identify fragrance components in perfumery matrices.


Triclosan is a chlorinated bisphenol, which dissolves well in some detergents such as anionic soaps, and alcohol. It is only sparingly soluble in water. Concentration of 0.2 -2 are effective against gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria but with variable and poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This agent is also active against mycobacteria and Candida spp., but it has limited activity against filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus spp. 49,72 . Because of acceptable antimicrobial activity, use of triclosan has risen dramatically in the past few years. Today it is used as an additive to hand soaps, dish-washing products, cosmetics, and toothpaste. It is also used as an additive to plastics, polymers, and textile and implant devices to confer these materials with antibacterial properties.

Harts tongue ferns

Culture and comments Hart's tongue selections are almost infinite, but whatever choice makes it to the garden should be cultivated, if possible, in basic soil, with a certain amount of lime enrichment and that magic ingredient, good drainage. My plants are prospering, with a minimum amount of coddling, as sentinels along the walled perimeters of a concrete foundation. I used to give them a cocktail of eggshells and water, but have not done so for quite some time. They do not appear to miss it. The bad news, at least in the Pacific Northwest, is that they do attract strawberry root weevils (black vine weevils) both as grubs and man-eating adults. Their nocturnal chewing begets frond edges that are severely notched. Try carefully timed early spring applications of beneficial nematodes as a control. Indoors, with their succulent fronds, they are also magnets for aphids, which in turn transmit viruses in greenhouses and propagation sites. These attacks are easy to manage with a method of...


BIRCH leaves have always been used for treating skin complaints (Conway), and they can be treated with birch tar oil made up into a soothing ointment (Mitton) or can be used in medicated soaps (Gordon) to treat eczema. The complaint was treated in Dorset with NETTLE tea (Dacombe), which is a well-established East Anglian remedy for any skin complaint (Porter. 1974). The sap of the GRAPE VINE is collected in some country areas when growth starts in spring, to be used for eczema among other complaints (Shauenberg & Paris). Gypsies use an ointment made from the fresh leaves of FOXGLOVE to cure eczema (Vesey-Fitzgerald), and a compress made from MALLOW leaves or flowers is often used. A CHICKWEED poultice is used in Norfolk for quite severe dermatitis and eczema (V G Hatfield. 1994). A tea made from GROUND IVY used to be popular for this complaint in the north of Scotland. It was said that the fairies taught Donald Fraser, of Ross-shire, to use it (R M Robertson). A dozen or so BLACK...

Skin Tests

The semi-open test as described by Dooms-Goossens 6 is particularly helpful if strong irritancy under occlusion is suspected, e.g., in the case of shampoos, liquid soaps, nail varnish, and also industrial products such as glues, paints, inks, varnishes, etc. The golden rule is that when a subject comes into direct skin contact with such a product (either on purpose, e.g., cleaning products, or accidentally, e.g., soluble oils, paints), then the product may be tested in this way. Corrosive or other toxic materials (pH < 3 or > 10) that are normally used in closed systems only or with protection from appropriate clothing are excluded from testing. The material is applied to the skin with a cotton swab (about 15 l) on a small area (2 x 2 cm), left to dry (possibly dabbing with another Q-tip or tissue), and is then covered with acrylic tape (e.g., Micropore, 3M) (Fig. 2).


Phenolics act by combining with and denaturing proteins, as well as disrupting cell membranes. Their advantages include the retention of activity in the presence of organic substances and detergents, and their ability to remain active for some time after application hence their effect increases with repeated use. Familiar disinfectants such as Dettol, Lysol and chlorhexidine (Hibitane, Hibiscrub) are all phenol derivatives. Hexachlorophene (Figure 13.5) is very effective against Gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococci and streptococci, and used to be a component of certain soaps, surgical scrubs, shampoos and deodorants. Its use is now confined to specialist applications in hospitals since the finding that in some cases, prolonged application can lead to brain damage.

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