Substances

Insomnia, ES, and parasomnias can be related to substance use. Chronic and excessive use of substances may lead to substance use disorders, which are characterized by either abuse or dependence. Stimulants such as caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine classically disrupt sleep. Sedatives such as opiates and analgesics cause ES. Alcohol, at low dosages, can help with sleep initiation, yet chronic and excessive use can lead to disturbed sleep and the complaint of insomnia [29]. The effects of substances on sleep are reviewed in greater detail in Chapter 19: Sleep in substance use disorders.

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