How To Remove Your Warts and Skin Tags in 3 days

Skin Tags Removal Ebook By Dr. Davidson

Moles, Warts & Skin Tags Removal is a 106-page book written by Dr. Charles Davidson, who is a medical practitioner. The book contains safe and natural techniques of curing moles, warts and skin tags which are simple, effective and inexpensive. Dr. Davidson claims that his book will help people to cure their skin deformities in three days, without undergoing any painful and expensive surgery. Moles, warts, and skin tags are not diseases but skin imperfections that develop gradually because of improper skin care and a poor lifestyle. But once these imperfections develop, they can be psychologically very demoralizing. Dr Charles has summed up his findings in 7 chapters that talk about natural remedies to get rid of warts and moles without undergoing surgery. You have to have belief in the holistic treatment plan of Dr Charles and give it some time to get rid of moles and warts from your face and other body parts. This book is not a magic wand that will show results overnight.It comes with 60 days money back guarantee, so you have 0 risk to try it. Continue reading...

Moles Warts and Skin Tags Removal Summary


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Molluscum Contagiosum Dimple Warts

Medical Dermatology Human Figure

Molluscum warts occur characteristically in small children and in young adults, although they may be seen occasionally in any age group. They present as single or grouped papules, and parents will often indicate there was a single lesion present for some time. The incubation period after exposure has been estimated to vary from 14 days to 6 months. Molluscum contagiosum (MC) virus is a member of the poxvirus family and is not related to human papilloma virus, the cause of common verrucous warts. The infection usually starts with single or a small number of lesions and, if left untreated, will gradually spread to the point where hundreds of papules may develop. In small children, the face, neck, and upper trunk, especially the axillae and antecubital creases, are sites of predilection. Young adults more often present with lesions on the lower abdomen, pubic escutcheon, or inner thighs contracted during sexual transmission. The presence of MC lesions in the pubic area occurs from...

Evaluation of Eyelid Lesions

Lesions Definition

Configuration represents the shape of the lesion as it is seen from above. Common types of configurations include nummular (coin sized and shaped), gyrate, annular (ring-like border with some degree of clearing in the center), and linear lesions. Most lesions have a circular configuration. A few lesions are oval, notably those of pityriasis rosea, and many others are irregular in shape. Examples of irregular shapes include gyrate and serpigenous lesions, which generally occur due to the melding of adjacent lesions that are enlarging in a centrifugal manner until they reach the point of confluence. Such lesions are frequently found, for example in psoriasis and urticaria. On the other hand, irregular lesions with angular or linear shapes generally occur as a result of external trauma such as scratching or are due to the direct inoculation of antigen (ocular medications) or virus (linear warts). Linear lesions (the shape, not the arrangement of a group of lesions) are special types that...

Glutaraldehyde As a Urine Adulterant

Glutaraldehyde solutions are readily available in hospitals and clinics as a cleaning and sterilizing agent. A 10 solution of glutaraldehyde is also available from pharmacies as over-the-counter medication for treatment of warts. The addition of glutaraldehyde at a concentration of 0.75 volume to urine can lead to false-negative drug-screening results for cannabinoid tests using EMIT II immunoassays. Amphetamine, methadone, benzodiazepine, opiate, and cocaine metabolite tests can be affected at glutaraldehyde concentrations of between 1 and 2 using the EMIT screen. At a glutaraldehyde concentration of 2 by volume, Braith-waite (18) found that the assay of cocaine metabolite was significantly affected, with an apparent loss of 90 of assay sensitivity. A loss of 80 sensitivity was also observed with the benzodiazepine assay. Wu et al. (19) reported that glutaraldehyde also interfered with the CEDIA immunoassays for screening of abused drugs. Goldberger and Caplan (20) reported that...

Proctological Procedures General Introduction

Anal Sphincter Ultrasound

Excise redundant rectal mucosa and interrupt the superior haemorrhoidal arteries above the base of the haemorrhoids, causing a shrivelling of external haemorrhoids and skin tags. Although results of long-term follow-up are not yet available, this procedure appears to be less painful than conventional Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy and allows an earlier return to work 35, 36 .

The Most Commonly Studied Papillomaviruses

More than 200 PV types exist in humans, and halfofthese have been isolated and formally described. The number of additional PV types in mammals is probably unlimited, although so far only a few dozen have been described. The tremendous diversity of PVs is not such a formidable barrier to understand PV biology as one might fear, as most research was based on only nine HPVs and three PVs from other mammals. Human papillomavirus 1 (HPV-1) induces plantar (foot-sole) warts and HPV-2 common (hand or face) warts. HPV-5 and HPV-8 are associated with epidermodys-plasia verruciformis, a skin neoplasia linked to a genetic risk factor. HPV-6 and HPV-11 cause genital and laryngeal warts. HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-31 are the most prominent types causally linked to anogenital and some head and neck carcinomas. Bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV-1) causes fibropapillomas and BPV-4 mucosal lesions in cattle, and the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) cutaneous lesions in rabbits. Owing to its medical...

Immune Response Prevention and Control

Cellular immunity is crucial for regression of papillo-mas. Dense infiltrates of T-lymphocytes can be observed in regressing warts in many animal species and immuno-suppression can result in severe papillomatosis. The early, noncapsid proteins are important antigens for cell-

NOC Knowledge Disease Process

Teach about treatment antibiotics, analgesics, topical agents as ordered (specify) emphasize need to take full course of ordered antibiotic and follow-up exam for syphilis, gonorrhea, pelvic inflammation, chlamydial infection (application of topical chemical agent and removing the drug by washing off in 4-6 hours to remove warts) (topical application of topical antiviral to treat herpes) (specify).

Microdistribution None

Planar Warts Early SKs on the dorsal forearms and hands can be virtually indistinguishable from planar warts except on biopsy. Generally, planar warts present in children or young adults, and tend to group asymmetrically in certain locations. SKs usually occur a decade or more later and are typically symmetrical.

Chloro13Dinitrobenzene 6Chloro13Dinitrobenzene

This substance is one of the strongest primary skin irritant known, and a universal contact allergen. Occupational dermatitis has been reported, but current use is decreasing or performed with completely closed systems. DNCB is sometimes used for topical treatment of alopecia areata, severe warts, and cutaneous metastasis of malignant melanoma.

Transmission Clinical Features Pathology and Pathogenicity

PV-associated disease ranges from clinically inapparent infections, through a variety of benign warts, to malignant carcinoma. These differences in pathology are due to different viral types, different epithelial host cells, and the immune response of the host. The complete viral life cycle requires a stratified, differentiating epithelium (see Figure 2). In normal skin, only the basal cells can divide after each division, one daughter cell remains in the basal layer and the other is pushed upward to begin the differentiation process. The latter cells withdraw from the cell cycle and begin to synthesize proteins that provide strength and barrier function to the epithelium.

Mechanisms of Functional Tumor Suppressor Loss

Viral oncoproteins can interact with tumor suppressor gene proteins. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a small DNA virus that causes warts. Various subtypes of HPV are associated with cervical cancer. The viral transforming protein E7 has the ability to interact with the retinoblastoma protein, thus interfering with the cell cycle checkpoint controlled by the retinoblastoma protein. Similarly, another HPV gene, E6, interacts with the p53 gene, causing the degradation of the p53 protein, thus allowing the cell cycle to go unchecked. see also Apoptosis Breast Cancer Cancer Cell Cycle Chromosomal Aberrations Colon Cancer Oncogenes.

Clinical manifestation

Common variant (verruca vulgaris) hard papules with a rough, irregular, scaly surface, most commonly seen on hands Filiform variant elongated, slender papules with filiform fronds, usually seen on face, around the lips, eyelids, or nares Palmoplantar warts (myrmecia) small, shiny papules, progressing to deep endo-phytic, sharply defined, round papules or plaques with keratotic surface, surrounded by a smooth collar of thickened horn plantar lesions usually found on weight-bearing areas, such as metatarsal head and heel hand lesions often are subungual or periungual Butcher's wart variant seen in people who handle raw meat similar morphology to common warts, most commonly on the hands Mosaic variant plaque of closely grouped warts, usually seen on palms and soles Anogenital (condyloma accuminata) variant pink-to-brown, exophytic, cauliflowerlike papules or nodules of genitalia, perineum, crural folds, and or anus discrete, flesh-colored or hyperpigmented papules on the shaft of the...

Clinical Application Questions

A 7-year-old girl was seen by her pediatrician with a single wart on her right index finger. Her mother was told that treatment was unnecessary because the wart would resolve by itself. Six months later the child presents at your office with 30 warts over both hands, around and beneath several fingernails.

List the reasons why immediate treatment is indicated Answer

The warts are continuing to spread. b. Some of the warts are split and tender and they interfere with manual activities. c. Warts are contagious and the child is a source of infection for playmates and family members. 2. What preparation is required before active treatment begins Answer Before treatment begins, the mother and child must understand that treatment will require an indeterminate number of regular visits which must be followed through until the warts are gone. They must also understand there will be some discomfort.

Host Range and Virus Propagation

Infection with specific PVs has been confirmed in approximately 50 different mammalian species. One of the hallmark features of PVs is pronounced host specificity with infection being typically restricted to closely related animals of a given family. For example, CRPV naturally infects the cutaneous epithelium of wild cottontail rabbits, and experimental infection of related jackrabbits or snowshoe rabbits will result in the growth of papillomas and production of infectious particles. In contrast, although experimental infection of domestic rabbits induces growth of papillomas, the lesions are typically nonproductive containing little or no infectious virus. CRPV-induced benign warts on domestic rabbits appear to support normal early viral gene expression and genome replication, but are unable to support late gene expression and virus particle production. In addition, benign lesions of domestic rabbits are roughly three times more likely to progress to carcinoma than comparable...

Prevention and Control

Treatment of papillomas in animals is not routinely prescribed. Typically the disease is self-limiting although of variable duration. Unlike HPV infection of humans, there is little economic impact resulting from PV-associated disease in animals. Infection of cattle primarily affects the hide with little or no consequence to the quality or harvest of beef. Benign warts or sarcoids in thoroughbred show horses or race horses can however reduce the commercial value of the animals. In contrast however, models of PV infection in animals have seen extensive use in the evaluation of prophylactic and therapeutic modalities prior to human clinical trials against HPV. Inoculation with homogenized, autologous wart tissue has been used with some success to stimulate regression of CRPV-induced warts. Aromatic retinoids known to affect epithelial differentiation have also been used to treat CRPV-induced lesions. In these studies, up to 60 of the rabbits treated with retinoids showed complete and...

Serologic Relationships and Variability

Genital lesions usually contain very low amounts of virions, and purified particles are only available for some cutaneous HPV types (mostly HPV1 from plantar warts) and for the HPV11 Hershey strain. A limitation in the use of bacterial fusion capsid proteins and synthetic peptides as antigens is that only linear epitopes are presented, whereas natural human antibodies and hyperimmune antisera obtained with virions are mostly directed against native conformational epitopes. When produced in various eucaryotic expression systems, the LI protein is able to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology similar to that of virions. When L2 is coexpressed with LI, it is stably incorporated into the capsids. HPV16 L1 L2 VLPs produced in cells that maintain bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 genome as high copy autonomous replicons are able to incorporate viral DNA. These HPV16 virion pseudo-types are able to transform murine C127 cells, thus providing a means of analyzing...

Transmission and Tissue Tropism

BPV infection is readily transmitted in herd animals through direct contact of abraded skin. Natural infection of horses with BPV often occurs after placing the horses in stalls previously housing infected cattle. Some sexual transmission of venereal warts in cattle apparently occurs since such lesions are rare in animals that are artificially inseminated. PV virions In addition to the host factors involved in virus entry and genome replication, tissue-specific viral gene expression appears to rely heavily on cellular transcription factors. The control of PV transcription is very complex due to the presence of multiple promoters, alternate RNA splicing and polyadenyla-tion, and differential mRNA production. For BPV-1, more than 20 different mRNA species have been described in transformed mouse cells and infected bovine tissue. At least six different promoters are active in productively infected fibropapillomas including the major late promoter (Pi) that is found to be activated in...

Conditions That May Simulate Verruca Vulgaris

The distinction between warts and plantar calluses is sometimes difficult and is important because the latter can be treated with keratolytics and debridement alone and do not require the more destructive therapies used on verrucae. The difference can be determined by paring the lesion down with a scalpel blade. Warts will show a single or sometimes multiple cores that interrupt normal skin lines. They also exhibit dark red or black speckles, which are the thrombosed ends of the feeder vessels. Calloses show neither of these changes.

Clinical Features of Infection

Warts occur predominantly in children over 5 years and in young adults. At least two-thirds of the warts regress spontaneously within 2 years. Palmoplantar myrmecia warts are deep and painful. Common warts are exophytic, hyperkeratotic and located mainly on the hands, fingers and knees. Flat warts are usually multiple, slightly raised, with a flat and smooth surface and are localized mainly on the hands and face. EV is a lifelong disease, characterized by disseminated cutaneous flat wart-like lesions and macules. It may have an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Most patients with EV have an impaired cell-mediated immunity. Some benign lesions convert to intraepithelial neoplasia (actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease) and invasive carcinoma in about half of the patients, usually on light-exposed areas, about 20 years after the onset of the disease.

Dermatologic Physical Exam

Mature dermal nevi These are pedunculated, soft papules with a wrinkled, flaccid appearance. Color may vary from flesh tones to medium tan, with light tan shades most common. Distinction from fleshy skin tags may not be possible on clinical grounds alone (see Photos 9,10).

Verruca Vulgaris

Verruca Vulgaris Treatment

INTRODUCTION Also known as a viral wart, or a viral papilloma, this lesion is a papilloma caused by an epidermal infection with the human papillomavirus, which is spread by direct contact and fomites. Immunocompromised patients are more susceptible to infection. Verruca vulgaris is more common in children and young adults between the ages of 5 and 20 years. They may occur anywhere on the skin, including the eyelids. Two common variants exist Verruca filiformis or filiform warts (which include the subgroup known as digitate warts) and verruca plana, or flat warts.


Papilloma Eyelid Margin

INTRODUCTION A papilloma is any lesion that is papillomatous in growth pattern that is a smooth, rounded, or pedunculated elevation. The squamous papilloma is a generic term for any papilloma of nonviral origin. Also known as a fibroepithelial polyp, acrochordon, or skin tag, this neoplasm commonly occurs on the eyelid, neck, axilla, and groin. This is a benign tumor of squamous epithelial origin, and this is the most common benign lesion found on the eyelid, representing 15 to 30 of all benign lesions on the lids. It can be seen at any age but occurs most frequently in patients over the age of 30 years. HISTOPATHOLOGY Papillomas (acrochordons skin tags) are highly variable histologically. Furrowed papules are most common on the eyelids and are characterized histologically by epidermal hyperplasia with a seborrheic keratosis-like appearance, as illustrated here. The hyperplastic epidermis forms interdigitating cords. Horn cysts may be present, though they are not common.

Approach to therapy

Images Algorithm Hypopituitarism

In patients with residual tumor tissue or those with hypopituitarism requiring hormone replacement medical treatment, as well as patients who have received pituitary radiation, testing of adrenal, gonadal, and thyroid reserve should be performed semiannually and pituitary MRI annually. Mammogram and colonoscopy should be performed annually in patients over the age of 50 yr, especially if skin tags are present.

Poppy Anemone

It is reported in Spain, too. There it was believed that the disease would actually go into the raw vegetable (H W Howes). Two potatoes were needed in Maryland, one for each pocket (Whitney & Bullock). In Ireland, it is said that as the potato dried up the rheumatism will go away (Mooney). It has to be a new potato, kept until it has turned black and is as hard as wood (Waring). It will draw the iron out of the blood , as a Somerset belief had it (Whistler). In parts of France, it was carried around as a general charm against pain (Sebillot), or, in Kentucky, to prevent a chill (Thomas & Thomas), or kidney trouble, as Illinois belief had it (Hyatt). Andrew Lang said that the potato had to be stolen, or the cure would not work (Lang). Devonshire superstition also required some ritual. Here, a member of the opposite sex had to be asked to put the potato, unseen, in one of your pockets. You could change the pocket at will after this had been done, but the potato had to be...

Ashen Faggot

An East Anglian cure was to cut the initial letters of both one's Christian and surnames on the bark of an ash that has its keys. Count the exact number of your warts, and cut the same number of notches in the bark. Then, as the bark grows, so will the warts go away (Glyde). Another method was to cross the wart with a pin three times, and then stick the pin into the tree (Northall), and recite the appropriate rhyme. The Cheshire cure was to steal a piece of bacon, and to rub the warts with it, then to cut a slot in the bark and slip the bacon underneath. The warts would disappear from the hand, but would make their appearance as rough excrescences on the bark of the tree (Black). An Irish cure for jaundice operated in a similar way (see Wood-Martin). A most unlikely sounding charm is one from Sussex, to stop a child from bed-wetting. The child had to go alone to an ash, then going another day to gather a handful of keys, which have to be laid with the left hand in the hollow of the...


Thorn-apple has always been valued for medicinal as well as narcotic purposes. The active principle seems to be identical with atropine, and has been used commercially as a substitute for it (Lloyd). It has long been valued as a pain-reliever in American domestic medicine, in the form of a poultice or ointment made from the pulp of the bruised green leaves, and it was used for the same purpose in Essex at one time. The method there was to cut the top of the fruit off, and pulp the inside, adding vinegar. Inhalation of the fumes brought relief, so they claimed (V G Hatfield. 1994). It was used for rheumatism and headache, bee stings and bruises, and for carbuncle, or any minor skin irritation (R B Browne) warts too can be treated by rubbing the leaves over them, whether the leaves are buried afterwards as a charm, or not (H M Hyatt). Sores used to be treated in Kentucky with jimsonweed and fat meat on a penny applied. It would stop the pain (Thomas & Thomas). Gerard talks about the...


Getting rid of warts by rubbing a snail on them and then impaling it on a blackthorn used to be common practice or, from East Anglia, you could rub the wart with a green sloe, and then throw the slow over your left shoulder (Glyde). They are both transference charms cattle doctors in Worcestershire used to cure footrot by cutting a sod of turf from the spot on which the animal was seen to tread with its bad foot, and then to hang the turf on a blackthorn. As the sod dried out, so would the hoof heal (Drury. 1985). To rise above the level of charms, there were some quite genuine folk remedies involving sloes - in North Wales they were used for a cough cure (Friend. 1883) so they were in the Highlands, too, for sloe jelly was reckoned the best cure for relaxed throat (Grant), while the juice of boiled sloes was an East Anglian


Pomanders were once carried as a preservative against infection, and they usually contained cinnamon bark amongst other aromatic substances (Clair). It has even been used, in Spain, to cure rabies (H W Howes). A spoonful of cinnamon with water was an Alabama domestic remedy for a headache (R B Browne). Cinnamon powder taken in milk is given as a cure for dysentery, and strong cinnamon tea taken at the beginning of mumps will, it is claimed, reduce the violence of the complaint and prevent complications. It can even be used for warts. The practice in Illinois was simply to cover the wart with cinnamon in order to get rid of it (H M Hyatt). Cinnamon brandy is

Sow Thistle

According to Culpeper, its juice is wonderfully good for women to wash their faces with, to clear the skin, and give it a lustre . Similarly, the herb bruised or the Juice is profitably applied to all hot inflammations in the Eyes (Coles). Actually, the juice has been quite seriously used as eye drops, and the use for the complexion might very well be the result of its having been taken for liver troubles, or as a blood purifier (Watt). Another use for the juice was for to kill a wen , at least according to a 17th century manuscript from Jersey, and of course the juice has been used to put on warts (Barbour).


Besides the medicinal uses that stem from its magical, protective qualities, houseleek has been used for more rational purposes. Herbalists still use it, for example, for eye- and ear-drops (Conway), the latter an old Cotswold remedy - squeezing houseleek juice, sometimes mixed with cream, into the ears to cure earache has been known for a very long time (Briggs. 1974 Helias). The medieval Welsh medical text known as the Physicians of Myddfai prescribed it for deafness. Take ram's urine, the oil of eels, the house leek, and the juice of traveller's joy Clematis vitalba , and a boiled egg. Let him mix and drop into the ear little by little, and it will cure him . Bathing sore eyes with the juice is well known in Ireland (P Logan. 1972), and in Wessex (Rogers). Gerard knew all about this, for he recommended the juice to cool the inflammation of the eyes, beng dropped therein, and the herb bruised and layd upon them . Sore lips could be treated with it, too there is a Lincolnshire cure...

Broad Bean

There is quite a widespread belief in the efficacy of rubbing warts gently with the furry inside of a bean pod as a way to get rid of them - it has been recorded from East Anglia to Wiltshire and Somerset, (Randell, G E Evans. 1966, Whitlock. 1988) as well as from Cumbria. Sometimes one finds relics of a charm attached to this. For instance, in Essex, there is the injunction to throw the pod down a drain after rubbing the warts (Newman & Wilson) So my warts shall soon decay (Hardy. 1878).

Caper Spurge

(Euphorbia lathyris) The fruits are quite often used green as a caper substitute (Browning), hence the common name, but it can be dangerous to eat them, poisonous as they are. It is the purging quality that most spurges have that causes trouble, and they have been known to be fatal (Salisbury. 1964). Goats are quite liable to eat quantities of it - then, it is said, their milk had the poisonous properties of the plant (Long. 1924). The toxin is in the milky latex, causing blistering and ulceration on the skin. Ingestion causes severe abdominal pain and nausea, leading to vomiting and diarrhoea, and possibly internal haemorrhage, though death is unlikely (Jordan). Nevertheless, the seeds are emetic and laxative, and some herbals have even recommended them for rheumatism (Schauenberg & Paris), though that sounds rather dangerous. In Chinese medicine, the flowers, seeds and leaves are all prescribed for diarrheoa (F P Smith), but it seems to have been most widely used, if the ascription...

St Johns Wort

Gypsies use the St John's Wort as a hair dressing, to make it grow (Vesey-Fitzgerald), a usage that is known too in Somerset, where the leaf infusion was used not only to make the hair grow, but to heal cuts, and to make a poultice for sprains (Tongue. 1965), and that same ointment is also good for burns, and for throat and lung complaints (Wickham). In Scotland, the plant is used in a herb mixture for coughs (Simpkins). The infusion had further uses, one being for children's bed-wetting (Fernie) in Russian folk medicine, centaury and St John's Wort were mixed in equal amounts for this (Kourennoff). The juice is sometimes used for warts, and carbuncles were also treated by direct application of the plant (Physicians of Myddfai). It is still used for bed sores, too, in an ointment prepared from the flowers and leaves, and mixed with olive oil (Genders. 1971), and that same ointment is also good for burns (Tongue. 1965). There is even an ointment for fractures involving this plant,...


Periungual warts are usually associated with nailbiting. This habit must be controlled for successful treatment of the warts. Figure 4 Macrodistribution of verrucous warts in children. Figure 4 Macrodistribution of verrucous warts in children. 4. Common warts may occur at virtually any site on the skin or mucous membranes. Figure 5 Macrodistribution of verrucous warts in young adult men. Figure 5 Macrodistribution of verrucous warts in young adult men. swabs offer greater control over the rate and depth of freeze with less risk of injury to deep structures. Severe peripheral motor and sensory nerve injuries and tendon damage have occurred with overly aggressive LN2 treatment. Areas of greatest risk are the ulnar nerve at the elbow, the digital sensory nerves, and the dorsal tendons of the hands. These injuries can be avoided by moving or elevating the skin away from the deep structure and controlling the depth of freeze. LN2 therapy must be repeated every 2 weeks until all warts are...


This is still not the end of the claims made for the curative powers of honeysuckle. Lupton confided a sure cure for warts by using woodbine leaves, stamped and laid on ., using them six times . You can put the juice from the leaves on stings, too (Page. 1978). There are some Irish manuscripts that prescribe it in one form or another for much more serious complaints, one, from about 1450, for epilepsy, no less (Wilde). All these seem inappropriate to the popular conception of the honeysuckle we cannot really perceive it as a drug. Much more in keeping with the vague feeling that the plant inspires is its use as cosmetic, either a lotion, or an ointment. One example was written in the mid 16th century Take a pint of white wine, one handful of woodbine leaves or two or three ounces of the water of woodbine, add a quarter of a pound of the powder of ginger seethe them all together until they be somewhat thick, and anoint a red pimpled face therewith, five or six times, and it will make...

Specific History

By the fourth and fifth decades, many nevi mature even further into dermal nevi. Within a dermal nevus, the cellular proliferation at the dermal-epidermal junction disappears and the nevus cells are predominantly, if not exclusively, intradermal. Dermal moles may be clinically indistinguishable from compound moles. With time, dermal nevi mature and often become flaccid, soft, and pedunculated. They may then resemble a common skin tag. Nevi normally increase in number until the end of the fourth decade of life, when they reach a peak average of 43 per person in men and 27 per person in women of light skin type. There is considerable normal variation among individuals, and degrees of moliness are often consistent within family units. Heavily pigmented skin types have fewer moles per person. Except for the familial atypical mole syndromes (see section on atypical nevus syndromes, below), specific inheritance patterns and markers have not been determined. From the fourth decade of life...


Herbalists still prescribe it as a diuretic and sedative, hence as a painkiller (Le Strange). Drinking the infusion can help aching joints, and sciatica can be treated with it the practice in the Highlands (Beith) and in Ireland (Moloney) was to make a poultice of the crushed herb. Eczema can be cured by drinking daily a half pint of the tea (A W Hatfield), and in East Anglia, the juice was squeezed on warts (V G Hatfield).

Viral Cancers

Viruses are perhaps second only to tobacco as risk factors for human cancers. DNA tumor viruses include papillomaviruses and various herpes viruses (such as HHV-8, which causes Kaposi's sarcoma). More than sixty strains of human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been identified. HPV cause warts, which are benign tumors, but are also the causes of malignant penile, vulval, and cervical cancers. Infection with hepatitis B or C viruses is associated with increased incidence of liver cancer. Adenoviruses have been shown to induce cancers in animals, but not in humans. Retroviruses can also cause cancer in various animal species, including humans. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia in about 1 percent of infected humans.

Skin Cancer

HPVs induce various proliferative skin lesions that are benign, like plantar, common and flat warts. An association between HPV and skin cancer becomes obvious in epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). EV patients are infected with a subgroup of HPVs, which induce characteristic persisting macular lesions disseminated over the body. Many EV patients develop squamous cell skin carcinomas, mainly at sun-exposed sites, which suggests a cocarcinogenic effect of ultraviolet light. The DNA of HPV 5 or 8 persists extrachromosomally in high copy number in more than 90 of the cancers. HPV14, 17, 20 or 47 were occasionally detected. The prevalence of specific HPVs is in striking contrast with the plurality of HPV in benign lesions and has been interpreted as reflecting a higher oncogenic potential of these types.

Water Pepper

(Polygonum hydropiper) They say that fleas will not come into a room where this herb is kept (Fernie). Rub it on warts, and throw the plant away (Stout). Herbalists use the tea to treat piles (Thomson. 1978). Tea is also used as a febrifuge in the southern states of America (Puckett), and, taken cold, for colds, in Iowa (Stout). The leaves infused in boiling water, or a strong decoction of them, were applied to bruises and contusions (Barton & Castle), and the juice, they say in Iowa, makes an excellent liniment for sprains (Stout). In Norway, the herb was chewed for toothache (Barton & Castle).


Rather more widespread was the belief in the efficiency of water which collected in the cups formed by the fusing together of the plant's opposite leaves, so fastened that they hold dew and raine water in manner of a little bason (Gerard), water that was much prized for cosmetic use Culpeper knew about this, though he described it as the distilled water of the leaves, used by women to preserve their beauty . Leicestershire girls washed their faces in this water, in order to make themselves more beautiful (Billson), and the folk use was known in Wales, too - there it was said to be a remedy for freckles (Trevelyan). It was said also to cure warts on the hands (Curtis). There was yet another use for this water, for sore eyes (Dyer. 1881) in fact, teasel has been recommended for diseases of the eyes since Anglo-Saxon times.

Smooth Sumach

(Rhus glabra) Much used by native Americans, mainly as a dye plant. The Ojibwa, for example used the pulp of the stalk to produce yellow (Buhler), while the Omaha and Winnebago used the roots for the same purpose (Gilmore). The Plains Indians used to dry the autumn leaves for smoking (Gilmore). They used the shrub widely, too, for medicinal purposes. One was to make a styptic wash from the boiled fruit to check bleeding (Sanford), especially to stop bleeding after childbirth (Corlett). The powdered seeds would also have been applied to wounds, and to treat piles. The juice of the fresh fruit was used for warts and for skin diseases like tetter, while the fruit decoction was taken as a gargle for quinsy, mouth and throat ulcers, and as wash for ringworm (Lloyd). It was even said that the Thompson Indians of British Columbia made a decoction that was claimed to be a powerful remedy for syphilis (Teit).


RUE's use in medicine in times past has been widespread and general, with claims for almost anything from warts to the plague. In the latter case, Alexis of Piedmont gave the following recipe, anglicised a long time ago as Take the toppe of Rue, a garlicke head and half a quarter of a walnutte and a corne of salt. Eat this every morning, contynuing so a munneth together and be mery and jocund . Gerard too gives a recipe for the plague with the leaves of rue. Thornton repeated the belief it is supposed to be antipestilential, and hence our benches of judges have their noses regaled with this most foetid plant . Bunches of it used to be hung in windows to protect the house against entry of the plague (especially east facing windows, for it was thought that was the direction from which plague came). So powerful was rue considered that thieves looting plague-contaminated houses would risk entry if they carried it, even if corpses still lay there (Boland. 1977). Thomas Dekker's, Wonderful...

Milk Thistle

Another remedy derived from the doctrine is its use to cure stitch in the side, for this plant has numerous prickles (Dyer. 1889). But herbalists prescribe the plant for many other disorders, particularly as a tincture made from the seeds, for liver disorders, jaundice, gallstones, etc. It can be chewed, too, as an anti-depressant (Boland. 1977), a fact known by Gerard's sources. An Irish country remedy for whooping cough was to boil it in water, and then drink the liquid (Maloney) and the juice was put on warts in East Anglia (V G Hatfield).

Greater Celandine

As well as to eat away . opacities in the cornea , it was used to eat away warts. (Thornton). Some of the names given to the plant reflect this usage - see, for instance, Wart-plant, Wartweed, Tetterwort, Fellonwort, etc., and it is called in French herbe aux verrues (Schauenberg & Paris). Gypsies use the juice as an outward application both for corns and warts (Vesey-Fitzgerald). Somerset advice, too, was to rub the juice on the corn, which would eventually come out with the blister (Tongue. 1965) (that was also from a gypsy). The juice on the skin will raise a blister and it may cause ulcers, too (Fl ck), but the Pennsylvania Germans used the juice on bee stings, or on poison ivy rashes (Fogel). But then it was the bruised leaf that was employed (Radford & Radford). The plant is used in East Anglia for toothache (Fernie), an ancient usage, for Gerard repeated it from much earlier herbals the root being chewed is reported to be good against the toothache . It is even reported that a...


Chickweed was used extensively in the medicinal field. It contains copper and iron, and so it is useful for anaemia, and kidney and skin disorders can be treated with it. The last-named was known to Gerard, too - the leaves boiled in vinegar and salt are good against manginesse of the hands and legs, if they be bathed therewith . Chickweed was used to make poultices for boils in Irish folk medicine (Barbour), and the treatment was known in Newfoundland, too (Bergen. 1899). In Somerset, the poultice is used for abscesses and ulcers, too (Tongue. 1965), and it was a common Dorset remedy for gatherings and boils (Dacombe), and in Norfolk for quite severe cases of dermatitis or eczema (V G Hatfield. 1994). The practice in Hampshire was to mix groundsel with chick-weed in making this poultice (Hampshire FWI), but this kind of use was well-known in the Highlands of Scotland, too, for carbuncles and abscesses. The traditional way of preparing it there was to bruise the plant between a flat...


Green gooseberry pie used to be a traditional Whit Sunday dish (Savage), and besides being used as a dessert fruit, or in tarts, etc., they have traditionally been used to mix into a sauce with sorrel and sugar, to be eaten with a young goose (Grigson. 1955), hence the derivation of the name, according to some. It would be a green goose, cooked when the gooseberries were ripe, and eaten with gooseberry sauce. Another similar use was to have stewed gooseberries, pureed, with mackerel (Mabey. 1972). That there is nothing new in this cook's practice, see Gerard The fruit is used in divers sauces for meat, as those that are skilfull in cookerie can better tell than my selfe . Not that he thought gooseberries were entirely a good thing, for they nourish nothing or very little not worth a gooseberry berry was a phrase common enough in Shakespeare's time), and Gerard saw but little of their vertues . Certainly, the juice of the green gooseberries cureth all inflammations, erysipelas, and S...


(Hordeum sativum) An Irish charm for warts was to get ten knots of barley straw (though it was more usual to use ten slices of potato), count out nine and throw away the tenth. Rub the wart with the nine, then roll them up in a piece of paper, and throw them before a funeral. Then the wart would gradually disappear (Haddon). Large amounts of boiled barley juice were recommended in Scotland to be drunk for kidney disease, and Jewish folklore has a recipe for retention of urine, i. e. water in which barley, eggshells and parsley had been boiled (Rappoport).

Arabian Jasmine

There are one or two charms recorded, like this Devonshire wart cure cut an apple in two, rub one half on the wart. Give it to the pig to eat, and eat the other half yourself (Choape). More widespread was a similar one for warts, which were rubbed nine times with an apple cut in two. The sections were re-united and buried where no human foot was likely to tread. In Northumberland the warts were opened to the quick, or until they bled, and then they were rubbed well with the juice of a sour apple. The apple was then buried (Drury. 1991). These are all simple transference charms, but there is one more, for rheumatism this time, that merely involved carrying half an apple in the pocket (Foster). Half a potato is more usual than an apple for this purpose, but a hazel nut is sometimes used instead.


It was used as a strewing herb (Brownlow), and it counters headaches and colds, either by an infusion, taken hot at night (Quelch), or by taking it as snuff. Dried basil leaves in that form have been used for nervous headaches and head-colds for centuries (Hemphill). In Britain, basil, mixed with blacking, has been used to get rid of warts (Leyel. 1926).

Host Range

Within a particular host, notably humans, PVs often have a preferential target tissue. For example, HPV-1 is typically found in flat warts of the foot sole, HPV-2 in common warts of the skin elsewhere, HPV-6 in mucosal but also cutaneous lesions of the genitals, and HPV-16 mostly in anogenital and head and neck mucosal epithelia. This may be based either on molecular restrictions to replication in other types of epithelia, or on the lack of symptoms of established viral infections in inappropriate target epithelia. An example for the latter scenario is the fact that HPV-16 and some related types can cause cancer in women, but infect men normally asymptomatically. This possibility is also supported by the observation of HPV types that cause 'epidermodysplasia verruciformis' in patients with a genetic risk factor, while these same types can be detected in the skin of many individuals of the general human population in the absence of any symptoms.

Basic Description

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect epithelial cells lining the skin and or genitalia. Infection leads to the formation of warts, or papillomas. The viral life cycle takes place within these warts and is tied to the differentiation of the infected host epithelial cells. Warts are self-contained benign tumors that by and large do not progress to frank malignancy. A subset of the HPVs that infect the anogenital tract, however, are also associated with malignant tumors, specifically cervical cancer in women and penile cancers in men. This entry describes the basic molecular biology of HPVs, their life cycle, and their contribution to human cancer. General features of HPVs are described in the preceding entry.

DNA Tumor Viruses

Investigation of the transforming activities of the human papillomaviruses (HPV) is of interest for reasons of medical importance as well as scientific interest. Nearly all human cervical carcinomas are associated with the presence of DNA from either HPV 16 or HPV 18. Completion of the life cycle of the HPVs is unusual in that the early and late stages of the life cycle appear to take place in different stages of epithelial cell differentiation, and complete viral replication takes place only in benign papillomas, or warts. This feature has so far made it impossible to grow the HPVs in culture, a problem that has slowed analysis. However, molecular analysis has been informative. Cervical carcinomas are associated with the presence of the viral genome integrated into the host DNA in a manner that allows for expression of the early region of the viral genome. This region is quite complex, with at least eight open reading frames there is evidence that at least five are involved in...

Epidermoid cyst

Polymorphic, verrucous or flat-topped papules resembling flat warts macules and reddish-brown plaques with slightly scaly surfaces and irregular borders localized mostly on sun-exposed regions, palms, soles, in the axillae, and on external genitalia mucous membranes rarely affected malignant tumors typically appears during the fourth and fifth decades of life

Scarlet Pimpernel

Gerard recommended it for toothache, being snift up into the nosthrils . In Somerset, warts are rubbed with the juice (Tongue. 1965). Gout and dropsy have also been treated with pimpernel in India (Dawson. 1934). There is even a leechdom to know the life of a wounded man, whether he shall live or die . Some pimpernel had to be stamped in a mortar and mixed with water or wine. This was to be given to the wounded man to drink, and if it come out at the wound he shall die if it come not out of the wound he shall live (Dawson. 1934).

Transference Charms

A method of passing an ailment to a tree or another person by some ritual, simple or complicated. Take ASPEN - its constant shivering, by the doctrine of signatures, was taken as a sign that it could cure the shivering disease, ague, or malaria. But in some areas in France, the fever could be transferred by the simple rite of the patient tying a ribbon to the tree (Sebillot). Cross OAKS were planted at crossroads so the people suffering from ague could peg a lock of their hair in the trunk, and by wrenching themselves away might leave the hair in the tree, together with the illness (Jones-Baker. 1977). A feature of a lot of the charms connected with ASH is that illnesses would be handed over to the tree. So too with warts Ashen tree, ashen tree, Pray buy these warts of me. Getting rid of warts by rubbing a snail on them and then impaling it on a BLACKTHORN used to be common practice or, from East Anglia, you could rub the wart with a green sloe, and then throw the sloe over your left...


It has its medicinal uses it has been shown to affect blood pressure, and the juice was used in East Anglia to cure warts (V G Hatfield. 1994). It has also, so it is claimed, been shown to have a distinct aphrodisiac effect (Schauenberg & Paris). Gerard reckoned the seed scoureth out flegmaticke matter through the guts, it healeth the jaundice, the falling sickness, the strangling of the mother, and them that are short winded


A thorough physical examination is performed, the key portions of which are the perianal and rectal examination. The perianal area is inspected for soiling, evidence of infectious diseases, skin excoriation, or poor hygiene. Presence of a patulous anus, skin tag, episiotomy scars, spontaneous hemorrhoidal prolapse, drainage, fistulas, or fissures are noted. The patient is asked to strain so that prolapse or perineal descent can be evaluated, and anal sensation is tested. External palpation excludes fissure, masses, abscesses, or fistulas. Digital rectal examination evaluates for masses or tenderness and assesses resting sphincter tone. The patient is asked to squeeze, and the examiner feels for concentric contraction of the sphincter muscle and estimates squeeze pressure. Upon relaxation, contraction of the puborectalis muscle is assessed for paradox. Anoscopy enables visualization of the mucosa and provides further assessment of hemorrhoids. A bidigital exam assesses the thickness of...


It has the usual balsam method of explosive seed distribution, hence names like Jumping Betty, or Jumping Jack (Parish), as well as Quick-in-the-hand, that is, alive in the hand (Prior). It has been used as an external application to get rid of corns and warts (McLeod), and a decoction is prescribed in herbal medicine to treat piles (Schauenberg & Paris).

Tree Celandine

(Bocconia frutescens) A small tree from central America south to Peru. The Totonac use it for ringworm of the scalp, the leaves being soaked in alcohol and the affected parts bathed it is also used for tuberculosis, when the leaves are boiled and the liquid drunk, or as a bath (Kelly & Palerm). A root infusion is used to treat jaundice and oedema in Colombia, while in Mexico the same infusion is used to cure warts and ophthalmia (Usher). The bark contains an alkaloid that has been used as an anaesthetic by Mexican surgeons (Perry. 1972).


(Polygala vulgaris) In Wales, it was once thought that milkwort in a pasture would increase the milk yield of the cattle grazing on it (Gibbings. 1941). Another belief from Wales was that it cures slight dog- or snake-bites (Trevelyan), and it enjoyed the same reputation in Leicestershire (Billson), probably taking the cue from the roots (cf SENEGA SNAKEROOT). The roots secrete a milky fluid, hence the name Milkwort, that was, and probably still is, used for rubbing on warts.


Exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water is associated with health risks related to the duration and level of exposure, particularly above 300 ppb. Acute poisoning is associated with vomiting, bloody diarrhea, abnormal heart rhythm, esoph-ageal and abdominal pain, and sometimes death because of cardiopulmonary collapse. Classical syndromes of chronic arsenic exposure include hyperkeratosis, corns, and warts on the feet (blackfoot) and hands. Studies from Taiwan and Japan strongly suggest that high arsenic intake is associated with cancers of the bladder, kidney, lung, and liver, which may be dose-related. Arsenic may be an indirect carcinogen.

Cypress Spurge

(Euphorbia cyparissias) Lindley mentions its use as a purge, but warned that it was not very safe. It is in fact very violent, but it was still in use in France in recent times (Le Strange). As with other spurges, the juice is used to get rid of warts, but once more a warning has to be given - it can cause blisters on the skin (Schauenberg & Paris). The most spectacular of its uses comes from Russia, where it used to be employed as a rabies cure. It had to be gathered, we are told, in May and September, during the first days of the full moon, and then it was dried and powdered, and anyone bitten by a suspected rabid animal was given a preventive dose of 4 grams in half a glass of some drink or other (Kourennoff).

Lady Laurel

Like other red-berried plants, it was dedicated to Thor in Scandinavia, and thus is a lightning plant. The plant was an ingredient in a Norwegian remedy against the supernatural, the others being Woody Nightshade and Dactylorchis maculata, with tree sap (Kvideland & Sehmsdorf). Apart from its use as a dyeplant (Pratt), its fame rested on widespread and dangerous medicinal employment, particularly the bark, which could be collected in March and Aprtil, and dried in the shade. It is violent in action, and always dangerous. Even external application (to warts) has to be carried out with great care (Fluck). Presumably the violence of its action is the reason why it appears in a list of plants used as abortifacients in Dutch folk medicine (van Andel). According to Dodonaeus, it is so strong that it had only to be applied on the belly to kill the child. On the Continent, the bark, soaked in vinegar and water, used to be applied with a bandage as a blistering agent (Fluckiger & Hanbury). It...

Etoposide Vepesid

Examples of inhibitors of chromatin function derived from flowering plants (Fig. 80) are etoposide (lignan) and alkaloids camptothecin, Vinca alkaloids, and 7 epitaxol. The rhizome of Podophyllum peltatum L. (May apple, Berberidaceae) has been used to remove warts and to relieve the bowels from costiveness since very early times. It contains podophyllo-toxin, a cytotoxic lignan from which etoposide (Vepesid ), which is used to treat lung cancer, lymphomas, and leukemias on account of its ability to inhibit the activity of

Sun Spurge

The common garden weed, which generations of children have gathered, to put the milky juice on the warts on their fingers. If they suck their fingers afterwards, there will be an acute burning sensation in the mouth (Forsyth). This use on warts is very widespread. In East Anglia, sun spurge, dandelion and greater celandine were the three plants used (G E Evans. 1966). But not in that order, for sun spurge is the least popular. It is used in Brittany, too, but it has to be picked from the path along which a funeral has passed, and it has to be found by chance, (Sebillot). There was ritual in the use in Ireland, too - in County Clare the juice had to be applied seven times, with appropriate prayers being said, and there was a further proscription, for it had to be picked at a particular unspecified period of the sun and moon in August (Westropp. 1911). There is recorded a domestic use of a decoction of sun spurge for ringworm (Dyer. 1889, Trevelyan). Gerard...

Mole Removal

Mole Removal

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