Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is a condition caused by injury to parts of the brain before, during, or after birth, which results in impaired muscle control and affects a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. Cerebral palsy is considered to be a static disorder that will not get progressively worse as time goes on it is characterized by damage to the brain during early periods of development, usually up to six years of age. Individuals with cerebral palsy may have varying difficulties...

Factors Of The Bereavement Process

Early researchers suggested that the bereaved pass through discrete stages and phases of emotions and behaviors. Currently, most thanatologists describe a series of tasks to be completed that focus on acknowledging the reality of death, experiencing the pain, adjusting self-identity and adapting to new life circumstances, finding meaning in the loss, and adapting to the new relationship with the deceased. During bereavement, emotional expressions are normal and helpful and do not signify...

Challenges Of Assessment

Young children present challenges that are not typically present when assessing older children, adolescents, or adults. Any assessment process must take into account the state of the child, the environment, the relationship between examiner and the child, and the validity and reliability of the assessment techniques, defined as the extent to which the test measures what it purports to measure and stability over time. Each of these factors presents unique challenges for the preschool child and...

Secondary Prevention

Secondary prevention approaches focus on delivering resources to children identified through systematic screening processes as highly likely to demonstrate academic and social problems at a later time. Project Fast Track has a focus on enhancing social and emotional competencies and reducing negative, aggressive behavior for children performing low on both behavioral and academic indicators. The approach is multifaceted, involving academic tutoring and social skills groups, and the classroom...

Prevention And Intervention In The Schools

Schools have a legal responsibility to protect their students from harm. Several states have enacted legislation directly or indirectly designed to address bullying and harassment. Zero tolerance policies are common, but are contraindicated by research on their efficacy. There are several evidence-based bullying prevention programs that schools can select from and modify to meet the needs of the unique school climate and context. Comprehensive programs have been found to be more effective than...

Identification Of Child Maltreatment

Symptoms of abuse and neglect vary across children. Factors that mediate the severity of symptoms include the nature and duration of the maltreatment, the child's age and stage of development, the support the child receives, and the child's attributions for his or her maltreatment. Some children appear more resilient than others to the effects of abuse for reasons that are not yet understood. At its worst, child abuse and neglect can lead to death or serious injury. A majority of maltreated...

Medias Impact On Behavior

Historically, the impact of media on aggressive behavior has been a concern since the 1930s. Major investigations have all conclusively determined that televised violence is a contributing factor to aggression in children. Studies have found that TV violence poses a serious risk of harm to children. Parke and Slaby (1983) documented four effects of violent media 1. The aggressor effect increases aggressiveness toward others. 2. The victim effect makes the viewer see the world as a mean place,...

Common Types Of Childhood Cancer Leukemia

Leukemia is a cancer involving the blood-forming cells. It typically affects the white blood cells, but it can also affect other types of blood cells (i.e., red blood cells or platelets). Leukemia initially develops in the bone marrow (i.e., the inner part of the bones where blood cells are produced) and then spreads to the blood. Once in the blood, the leukemia can spread to the lymph nodes, the central nervous system (i.e., the brain and spinal cord), or other organs. Symptoms of leukemia...

Mental Retardation

The most widely used definition of mental retardation (MR) in the United States is Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18. This definition is from the American Association of Mental Retardation (AAMR), which has had responsibility for defining mental retardation since 1921 (Luckasson &...

Psychotropic Medications

Important advances in psychotropic medications and significant developments in neuroscience have complemented our growing knowledge about the structural and functional differences of the central nervous system (CNS) in children diagnosed with learning disorders and emotional problems (Brown & Sammons, 2002). However, in spite of these recent advances, researchers and clinicians note that clinical use of psychotropic medications in children exceeds our knowledge about the efficacy and safety...

Interventions For Eating Disorders

A variety of treatment plans are available for individuals with eating disorders. Many hospitals and eating disorder clinics offer support groups for friends and families, as well as group therapy for clients. Individual and family therapy approaches may consist of behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychodynamic techniques (Davison & Neale, 1998). Behavioral counseling may involve reinforcing good eating habits. Generally, a reward system is used as an incentive to encourage...

The Maturational And Biological Models

Arnold Gesell, the foremost maturationalist in developmental psychology, represents a unique approach to the study of human development. As a physician, Gesell believed that the sequence of development is determined by the biological and evolutionary history of the species. In other words, development of the organism is essentially under the control of biological systems and the process of maturation. Although the environment is of some importance, it acts only in a supportive role and does not...

The Dsmiv Approach

Child psychopathology is currently viewed from a variety of perspectives. One important perspective is embodied in the American Psychiatric Association's (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), which defines child psychopathology in terms of categories of disorders. For example, the DSM-IV defines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), predominantly inattentive type, by nine symptom criteria such as often has difficulty organizing tasks...

Drug Treatment

Drug treatment for school-age students addresses experimentation, problem use, and habitual use. Experimental use may be associated with family problems, including various forms of abuse, or mental health problems such as depression or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These should be addressed through assessment and case management, if available, or referral. Both problem and habitual drug use (or addiction) generally require referrals to comprehensive programs that include...

Tourettes Syndrome

Tourette's syndrome is characterized by involuntary, repetitive, and stereotyped motor or vocal behavior. It is associated with several developmental and psychiatric disorders (e.g., ADHD, learning disabilities, obsessive-compulsive disorder). In previous years, antipsychotic medications such as haloperidol were often used to manage Tourette's syndrome (Kutcher, 1997). However, because of concerns about adverse side effects, drugs with a more favorable side effect profile (atypical...

Time On Task

Time on task (also referred to as engaged learning time) refers to the amount of time a learner is actively engaged in the task at hand. According to Savage (1991), it is the time students actually spend thinking about, acting on, or working with classroom assignments and tasks. Borich and Tombari (1997) reported that high time on task contributes to academic achievement. It has been suggested that time on task is more important to such achievement than the length of the school day or year....

Brain and Spinal Cord Cancers

Brain and spinal cord tumors are the second most common childhood cancer, accounting for 21 of all childhood cancers (American Cancer Society, 2004). Brain tumors involve the brain structures either by growing on or in a structure, or by causing pressure on brain tissues (Armstrong & colleagues, 1999). Possible symptoms of brain tumors include epileptic seizures and pressure within the skull, which may result in headaches, nausea, vomiting, or blurred vision. Some children experience crossed...

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a childhood disorder that is characterized by undercontrolled, non-compliant, defiant, and socially disruptive behavior. ODD is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) specifies that youth must exhibit four of the following behaviors for at least six months for a...

Model Of Attention

Posner and Raichle (1994) proposed a model of attention that involves three networks, with specific brain areas implicated for each network. The type of network activated depends upon how much conscious awareness is required for the particular attention task. The first network consists of the right frontal portion of the brain and a system that runs through the brainstem that permits the maintenance of alertness and vigilance. This system is the most basic network for attention and allows a...

Behavior

Typically, the definition of behavior can be divided into two categories observable and unob-servable. Observable behavior constitutes anything that an individual does that can be measured by another individual. For example, eating, running, and reading aloud are all types of observable behaviors. The observer watches and records the occurrence of each targeted behavior of the person being observed (e.g., the number of times a student raises his or her hand), thus providing measurements of the...

Challenges In Attention

Children with attentional difficulties frequently experience problems in school and with peers. In school they may have difficulty completing assignments, following directions, and following through on requirements. They may be seen as flighty, disorganized, and irresponsible. Many times these same children are frustrated when they cannot complete assignments and are confused as to why the teacher is mad at me. Children with significant difficulties in this area may be diagnosed with attention...

Bipolar Disorder Childhood Onset

Bipolar disorder (BD), or what historically was called manic-depressive disorder, has long been identified as an adult disorder. BD is characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and behavior that significantly impair an individual's functioning. In adults, it is characterized by cycles of depression alternating with either mania (i.e., feelings of elation, inflated self-esteem, excessive talking, flight of ideas, increased goal-directed and risk-taking behavior, and agitation) or...

Antidepressants

Antidepressant agents are usually used to treat symptoms of depression in the pediatric population. These agents have also been shown to improve symptoms of ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, (OCD) and enuresis. The SSRIs are the first line treatment for depression (Werry & Aman, 1998). These exert their effects by selectively blocking serotonin reuptake. The SSRIs currently available are fluoxetine HCl (Prozac), sertraline HCl (Zoloft), paroxetine HCl (Paxil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), and...

Significant Impairment in Functioning

The changes that have occurred as a result of trauma significantly impair the person's everyday functioning. Life does not return to normal. Children's behavior may regress and be more like that of younger children. Children may develop fears related to the trauma or other fears such as fear of the dark or fear of being alone. Schoolwork suffers and grades may fall. Adolescents may drop out of school. Children and adolescents may behave badly, get in fights, or complain of physical symptoms...

Remedial Approaches The Cognitive Module

Instructional Procedures for Improving Word Recognition Skills Decoding In general, remedial methods attempt to deal with two main problem areas in reading, word recognition skills and comprehension skills. Other areas of concern to teachers are vocabulary development, fluency development, and spelling development. Awareness of units in spoken language develops as early as nursery school. First, children are able to recognize and repeat rhyming words. Subsequently, by age three or four years,...

Selfmanagement Populations And Behaviors

Substantial research has supported the use of self-management interventions, documenting positive gains for a wide variety of students (Shapiro & Cole, 1994). Self-management interventions have produced positive changes for students with various school difficulties and disabilities, including students with autism, learning disabilities, emotional and behavioral disorders, health-related concerns, and mild to severe cognitive impairments. Additionally, self-management has been used in special...

Research

Research in school psychology is defined broadly as any data collected systematically that may be applied to benefit individuals primarily from birth through age 18 years. Recently, however, there has been an impetus for school psychologists to study and conduct research on issues pertaining to individuals across the life span, because learning is believed to continue indefinitely. Although research in school psychology is usually conducted in schools or other educational settings (e.g.,...

Hearing Disorders

Hearing impairments may be defined as damage to an individual's hearing that results in hearing that is deficient but functional. This term has been used to describe a wide range of hearing loss. Impairments in hearing do not affect an individual's intellect. However, hearing loss does negatively affect the academic achievement of these students in that instruction generally depends upon verbal instruction. Consequently, students with hearing impairments may be delayed as compared to their...

Research On Classwide Peer Tutoring

Since its development in the 1980s, many studies have examined the effects of CWPT in diverse classrooms. Many of these studies have found that CWPT is more effective than traditional teacher-directed instruction with Hispanic, bilingual students with academic delays. Similarly, CWPT is effective with students with mild disabilities at the high school level (Maheady & colleagues, 1988), students with moderate and severe disabilities in middle school (McDonnell & colleagues, 2001),...

Disability Categories

There are several categories of conditions or disorders defined in the IDEA that are deemed appropriate for special education services. These categories are autism, deaf-blind, deaf, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, serious emotional disturbance, specific learning disability, speech or language impairment, traumatic brain injury, and visual impairment including blindness. The states have established specific criteria...

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common types of childhood disorders. Individuals with ADHD exhibit attention problems as well as hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Children and adolescents with ADHD may have difficulty sitting still, listening to instructions or classroom lectures, organizing materials, completing schoolwork or homework, or playing or engaging in activities quietly. These individuals frequently make careless mistakes in their schoolwork or...

Lead Exposure

Although the United States has placed greater restrictions on lead-based products since the 1960s, remaining lead contained in the soil, dust, and paint chips is still a threat for children today. In fact, the U.S. Public of Health Services estimated that one-sixth of children are at risk for lead-related health concerns (Kalat & Wurm, 1999). Children of lower socioeconomic status living in deteriorating homes are the most at risk for lead exposure. Younger children are also susceptible...

Diagnosis And Treatment

School personnel are usually the first to notice excessive absences. Diagnosis and treatment requires collaboration between the school, family, primary medical care provider, and mental health providers. Because of frequent complaints of physical symptoms (headache, sore throat, stomachache), it is important for the physician to determine if underlying medical causes are present. It is also important that medical excuses for the child's absences not be written unless there is a documented...

Written Language Assessment

Writing is the expression of ideas and feelings through the use of written symbols. Over the years, the rapid integration of technology into home and school environments has challenged traditional definitions of writing. Voice-activated software blurs the boundaries between oral and written language. While the mediating tools for writing are changing, the process of coding experiences into symbols (words) to provide meaning continues to be central to written expression. The writer remains the...

Etiology

Etiology refers to the presumed cause of an individual's difficulties. Typically with children and adolescents, the range of potential single or multiple causes to explain the difficulties these individuals encounter is often extensive (Kamphaus & Frick, 2002). For example, a host of etiologies have been suggested to explain the occurrence of an attention deficit hyperac-tivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, including neurological factors (e.g., prenatal and perinatal...

Ethnicity

Suicide among youth is more common among whites than African Americans however, the lowest rates are found among Asian Pacific Islanders, while the highest rates are among Native Americans (Anderson, 2002). The high rate among Native Americans has been attributed to several different factors, including social isolation and low integration, high prevalence of firearms, and alcohol and or drug use. The gap between the rates for whites and African Americans has been narrowing over the past two...

School Refusal

School refusal is used to describe behaviors associated with children who refuse to attend school for many reasons. Estimates of prevalence generally range from 2 to 5 . School refusal may happen at any age, although it is most commonly associated with school transitions (such as preschool to elementary school, elementary to middle school, etc.) or following stressful events (divorce, death, move) or holiday recesses. Children with poor academic or social skills may also be at a higher risk....

Aspergers Disorder

Controversy surrounds Asperger's disorder, as many question whether this disorder represents a milder form of autism, a separate disorder similar to autism, or an entirely different disorder that does not even belong under the same umbrella of disorders as autism. Currently, Asperger's disorder is found under the umbrella of pervasive developmental disorders and is defined separately from autism. A physician in Germany named Hans Asperger (1906-1980) was the first to describe the constellation...

Case Example

Beth is a 10-year-old girl who has been placed in the fourth grade at her local elementary school. She was diagnosed as having Down syndrome when she was an infant, and, based on that diagnosis, she has been provided with special education and related services since infancy. The purpose of the current evaluation is to determine Beth's progress toward the educational goals included in her Individualized Education Plan (IEP). The target skills to be evaluated are initiating interactions with...

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are emotional problems characterized by an obsession with food and weight. These disorders start with a preoccupation with food and weight and then escalate into an emotional dysfunction that is characterized by an obsession with food and weight. This obsession first involves secrecy, where the person with the eating disorder tries to hide the problem by possibly avoiding social situations involving food and may eat alone in order to hide the quantity of food eaten. The...

Consultation Conjoint Behavioral

Conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) is defined as a structured, indirect form of service delivery in which parents and teachers are joined together to address the academic, social, or behavioral needs of an individual (Sheridan & Kratochwill, 1992, p. 122). CBC incorporates a data-based, behavioral approach to supporting children's needs in naturalistic settings within an ecological-systems theoretical framework. CBC is a process that is guided by a consultant (e.g., school psychologist,...

Outcomes

Untreated, school refusal behavior may result in negative outcomes for the child and the family. Academic difficulties frequently result when the child misses significant amounts of school because he or she has fallen behind academically. The academic problems make it even more difficult for the child to return to school. Frequent absences may result in impaired peer and social functioning, which makes returning to school more complicated. Some children with unresolved school refusal behavior...

Shyness

Shyness refers to anxiety, discomfort or inhibition experienced within the context of social settings or interpersonal interactions. Researcher Phillip Zimbardo (1977) estimated that 40 of Americans are shy, and has suggested that a large percentage (80 ) of the population has experienced some form of shyness at some point in their lives. In most cases, shyness may reflect a normal emotional response elicited by a particular circumstance or situation. However, for some individuals shyness is...

Warning Signs And Risk Factors

There are a significant number of warning signs and risk factors related to suicide and suicidal behavior. Research that has investigated these risk factors has focused on two populations those who have made a suicide attempt and those who have committed suicide. The method of psychological autopsies is used to collect information on the deceased by interviewing friends and family members about the psychological well-being of the person who committed suicide. Results from these studies have...

Background Information

According to Sam's educational file, Sam has attended Blue Bird Elementary (BBE) since his school career started. He has never been held back however, his kindergarten teacher did rate him as a fair candidate for retention. He has no history of receiving special education services, but has had a modified curriculum. In first grade, CARE team problemsolving helped provide interventions and modifications to assist Sam, but little progress was reported. Information obtained from Sam's educational...

Diagnosis And Labeling

A label is simply a word or phrase used to describe or classify a person or group. Classification of individuals into categories by psychologists and psychiatrists is a form of labeling referred to as diagnosis. Psychologists and psychiatrists have a long tradition of labeling people into diagnostic categories as a means to classify and organize psychopathology and to communicate efficiently with other mental health professionals. Diagnosis may be an efficient way to initially provide general...

Problem Solving

Much of life involves solving problems. From major decision making (e.g., purchasing a new car, choosing an academic major), to responding to daily hassles (e.g., having a flat tire) and stressful life events (e.g., unemployment, divorce, or death of significant others), how people solve various life problems has been an important subject of research and practice for mental health professionals. Formally defined, problem solving is a goal-directed process that includes identifying the problem,...

Developmental Course

Throughout the life course, having friends serves a socialization function and promotes psychological well-being. Friendships support the individual as new developmental challenges in the social and emotional development of children and adolescents arise. Hartup and Stevens (1997) suggest that to examine the developmental course of friendships, one must distinguish deep structure from surface structure. Deep structure refers to the social meaning of relationships and mainly focuses on...

Division Of School Psychology Division

The Division of School Psychologists was one of the original 18 divisions created during the 1945 reorganization of the American Psychological Association (APA). In an effort to be inclusive of university faculty, the title of the Division was subsequently modified to be the Division of School Psychology, and is commonly referred to as Division 16 (see the Division 16 timeline at the end of this entry). To promote and maintain high standards of professional education To create scientific and...

When To Use Mental Health Consultation

According to Brown and colleagues (2001), many consultants are left to their general theoretical and personal biases rather than any solid empirical findings when deciding which consultation model to use. Nonetheless, Erchul and Martens (2002) indicate that MHC provides a useful framework for understanding consultee relationship and systems-level issues within consultation. (In a complementary manner, behavior analytic principles embedded in behavioral consultation supply a solid basis for...

Adaptive Behavior Instruments

Ideally, the first step in adaptive behavior assessment is to meet the individual being assessed and learn more about the specific behaviors to be evaluated. A logical next step is to observe the individual in natural environments to see how she or he relates and adapts to different settings. As appropriate, performance tasks can be administered to learn how well specific tasks can be done. For example, during or after an observation of a student in a life-skills classroom, the examiner can...

Projective Testing

Projective techniques are tests that involve the use of open-ended stimuli such as inkblots as well as pictures, drawings, and words. In projective testing, an examinee is asked to respond to the stimulus and supply structure to the unstructured test material and this structure reflects fundamental aspects of the examinee's personality. In supplying structure to unstructured test material, the individual reveals his or her desires, conscious and unconscious needs, fears, perceptions, and inner...

Crosscultural Consultation

Cross-cultural consultation is of a type of problemsolving consultation that attends to the diverse values, perspectives, styles of communication, and cultural contexts prevalent in today's multicultural schools. It helps consultants bridge across the different cultures and perspectives among members of the consultation system (consultant, consultee, and client). Culture is complex and may be influenced by a wide range of factors such as familial values, ethnicity, race, religion, geographic...

Why Observe Students In The Classroom

Classroom observations are done for a variety of reasons. The most common reason is when a student is disrupting the classroom and documentation of the problem behavior is needed. Part of the assessment process of students who are being evaluated for special education services includes observations. If the problem is thought to be a result of a learning disability (LD), a school psychologist would observe the student in the classroom in an attempt to monitor the student's approach to learning...

Evaluation Of Fine Motor Skills

Tests of motor performance are a vital part of most neuropsychological assessments because of the observed connection of motor impairment to functional outcomes. Children who have difficulty completing tasks that involve buttoning, drawing, or tracing often have brain functions that are compromised. This difficulty often translates into difficulty adapting to one's environment and functioning independently. Tests of fine motor skills are not often used by school psychologists but with training...

Suicide Intervention

National interest in youth suicide prevention has escalated as a result of the Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Suicide (U.S. Public Health Service, 1999), and national suicide prevention strategies have been developed that are to be implemented by 2005. The Call to Action stressed three key components of the study of the problem of suicide awareness, intervention, and methodology. Suicide remains very rare for elementary children, but suicidal thoughts and actions are very common...

Schools Of Thought About Learning

Speculation about how learning occurs has existed since the early Greek philosophers. Aristotle described laws of association in which certain factors influence memory. For example, the more often events are recalled together, the more likely it is that recall of one will produce recall of the others. It was not until the late 19th century that the study of learning became more theoretical and systematic, however. There were three major schools of thought that spurred research and current...

Asthma

Asthma is the most common childhood chronic illness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in 1998 that 3.8 million children had at least one asthma attack per year. Asthma is an inflammation of the cells in the bronchial passages, which causes the airways to be hypersensitive to respiratory irritants, such as allergens, exercise, viral infections, and emotional responses (e.g., laughing and crying). When exposed to these irritants, an exaggerated airway response, or asthma...

Classwide Peer Tutoring

Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) is an instructional strategy focused on increasing active responding, improving academic achievement, and enhancing interpersonal relationships in the classroom. Research suggests that CWPT is an effective form of tutoring, especially with diverse populations, including students who have learning difficulties (i.e., learning disabilities, mental retardation), have limited English proficiency, or are economically disadvantaged. The core components of CWPT include...

Normreferenced Tests

Norm-referenced tests compare an individual's score to a representative sample of scores obtained from the same measure. The norm group is typically drawn from the general population. Tests are normed by selecting a group that is drawn from the general population and may be matched on variables such as gender, age, race ethnicity, socioeconomic status, type of school, grade level, and others. An individual's score is then directly compared to the individual's norm group. The standardization of...

Point Versus Counterpoint Media and Children

Media ranging from television, radio, Internet, e-mail, and video games are universally available. They function as important communication, education, and entertainment tools. However, the question is how would you like your children to spend the 1,000 hours the average child spends each year engaged with media Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of media requires active parent oversight. At best, TV, the great equalizer, offers a wide variety of programming up-to-date news, weather,...

Premack Principle

The Premack Principle is an operant conditioning principle that originated in David Premack's research with animals. According to Premack's (1965) principle, a behavior that has a higher probability of occurring may be used as a reinforcer for a behavior that has a lower probability of occurring. To increase the occurrence of a less preferred activity, a more preferred behavior should be made contingent upon the occurrence of the less-preferred, low-frequency behavior. Several researchers...

Intelligence Quotient Tests And Their Use In Schools

Historically, a child was evaluated whenever he or she experienced difficulty in school or the community. This assessment included some measure or estimate of cognitive ability to determine the extent to which ability factors were related to the referral problem. One rationale for using intelligence tests is to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses, as well as to predict educational achievement. According to some studies, intelligence tests predict success in school better than any other...

Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups such that students work together to maximize their own and each other's learning. In cooperative learning situations, there is a positive interdependence among students' goal attainments students perceive that they can reach their learning goals if and only if the other students in the learning group also reach their goals (Deutsch, 1962 Johnson & Johnson, 1989). Cooperative learning is usually contrasted with competitive learning...

References And Further Reading

American Association of Suicidology. (1998). Suicide postvention guidelines Suggestions for dealing with the aftermath of suicide in the schools. Washington, DC Author. Bearman, P. S., & Moody, J. (2004, January). Suicide friendships among American adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 94(1), 10-14. Brock, S., & Poland, S. (2002). School crisis preparedness. In S. Brock, P. Lazarus, & S. Jimerson (Eds.), Best practices in school crisis prevention and intervention (pp....

Technology

Computer Technology Media and Children Steven W. Lee is an associate professor and director of the School Psychology Program at the University of Kansas. He has been on the faculty at the University of Kansas for 18 years. Dr. Lee is a nationally certified school psychologist and practiced in the Omaha Public Schools and the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Nebraska-Medical Center before coming to Kansas. He has numerous research presentations and publications to his credit. He...

Mentoring Research And Literature

Cabot, a Harvard-trained physician, initiated the first systematic study on the effects of mentoring in his Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study (CSYS), which examined various intervention programs for delinquent youth (Baker & Maguire, in press). The 30-year follow-up study revealed the potentially negative effects of poorly run intervention programs that do not sufficiently counter delinquent youth's tendency to undermine authority (Dishion & colleagues, 2003). They...

Infant Assessment Is

Because assessing infants is a unique process, it is important to identify what it is all about. First, infant assessment is nontraditional. Professionals assessing infants cannot use traditional tools or tests that require paper and pencil skills or the ability to answer complex questions. Instead, they use direct assessment methods such as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, which rely heavily on observations of behavior and...

National School Psychology Certification System

In 1988, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) approved the National School Psychology Certification System (NSPCS), which established standards by which school psychologists should be trained. School psychology programs may apply to NASP to offer approved programs, which will culminate in a graduate being eligible to be endorsed as a Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP). Students must complete a course of study of at least 60 semester hours, which includes a...

Bias Testing

Bias in testing is a concern of psychologists, sociologists, and the general public but the word bias has numerous meanings. Much of the controversy regarding bias in testing is reflected in what might be considered racial or ethnic bias. For the general public and sometimes with other groups, simple group differences in test performance are often interpreted as evidence of bias in the test (e.g., white versus African American intelligence quotient IQ scores). This assertion makes an assumption...

Head Start Research And Evaluation

In 1968, the government mandated a national evaluation of Head Start, which was conducted by the Westinghouse research group. The planning committee requested a prospective study in which children would be randomly assigned to a Head Start or nonHead Start group before entering the program. The government, however, funded a retrospective study, locating former Head Start participants who were now in first, second, and third grades. A retrospective design had the major problem that the control...

Students Perspectives On Grade Retention

It is also important to consider children's perspectives regarding grade retention. In a study published in 1987, students in first, third, and sixth grade were asked to rate 20 stressful life events that included such occurrences as losing a parent, going to the dentist, and getting a bad report card. The results indicated that sixth-grade students reported only the loss of a parent and going blind as more stressful than grade retention. This study was replicated in 2001, and it was found that...

Motivational Interventions

School psychologists use the results of assessments to design interventions that promote motivation for learning. The most commonly used method to increase motivation in schools is providing incentives for desired learning behaviors. From preschool onward, parents as well as teachers bestow rewards on students who are good citizens, name the capitols of the 50 states, sit quietly, and read every day. Students receive material reinforcers such as candy, erasers, pencils, or stickers, as well as...

Impact Of Involvement In Bullying

Peer victimization is associated with short- and long-term negative effects on academic, social, and emotional functioning. Children who are bullied may develop negative attitudes about school as early as kindergarten. They also tend to view their school environment as unsupportive and report wanting to stay home from school due to bullying. A relationship between peer victimization and emotional problems has been documented for children as young as preschool and kindergarten. Emotional...

The School Psychologist And Separation Anxiety

Unfortunately, SA frequently goes unrecognized in the schools (except in severe cases) because of the internalizing nature of the disorder (i.e., anxious thoughts, physiological reactions). Because SA is frequently difficult to detect, teachers may not be aware of students that have poor or nonexistent social lives, feel alienated, or simply miss their parents. For these reasons, school psychologists and educators must recognize the problem and act proactively to screen, evaluate, and offer...

Separation Anxiety Disorder

Separation anxiety (SA) is nervousness or distress about being separated, or becoming separated, from the home or from an important person (e.g., mother, father) in the child's life. The anxiety experienced by the child impairs his or her ability to function in important areas of life (e.g., school and social settings). To make a diagnosis of separation anxiety, the child must be under 18 years of age at the onset of anxiety and the problem must exist for at least four weeks. The anxiety...

Early Intervention

Early intervention (EI) is best seen as a system of multidisciplinary services designed to support those family interactions that enhance optimal development of children ages birth to three years. The benefits of such a system include remediating existing developmental difficulties, preventing the future effect of these difficulties, alleviating potential delays, limiting the development of additional handicaps, and promoting improved family functioning. These goals are accomplished by...

Trends In Education And Service

The civil rights movement in the United States spawned a disability rights movement. Brown v. the Board of Education (1954) became a legal landmark in the desegregation of schools. Schools could no longer deny admittance or segregate children based on race or ethnicity. Seventeen years later in the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1971) case, it was successfully argued that all children, regardless of mental age, were entitled to a free and...

Designed for Teaching Children at Risk

It is said that for no apparent reason, 10 to 20 of school children experience difficulty in learning to read. This condition is recognized by different labels such as learning disability, specific reading disability, and dyslexia. Since it was first recognized that some children with normal mental ability experience an inordinate amount of difficulty in learning to read, specialized methods for teaching these children have been developed and promoted. Fernald and Keller in 1921, Monroe in...

Career Assessment Instruments

Although formal career assessment is not common in elementary schools, assessments such as the Wide Range Interest-Opinion Test or the Career Awareness Inventory are occasionally used at the elementary level to help to foster students' self-awareness and promote broad occupational considerations. Informal assessment and experiential activities that promote self-efficacy beliefs, combat gender-role stereotyping, and encourage understanding of the relations between school and work are appropriate...

Combined Series Designs

The combined-series designs allow for comparisons within and between series. That is, participant variability is evaluated over time, as well as in response to different conditions. Similar to the within-series designs, there are several types of combined-series designs (e.g., multiple baseline, crossover, and constant-series control designs), with the multiple baseline design being the most common. The multiple baseline design's structure is a simple phase-change design (A B series) in which...

Learning Disabilities

Children and adults classified with learning disabilities (LD) are individuals of normal intelligence, but they suffer with mental information processing difficulties. Several definitions refer to persons with LD as reflecting a heterogeneous group of individuals with intrinsic disorders that are manifested by specific difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. Most definitions assume that the learning difficulties of...

What Is The Role Of School Psychologists In Providing Or Referring A Child For Psychotherapy

Many school-based school psychologists, at the specialist and doctoral levels, have voiced a desire to provide or expand school-based counseling and psychotherapy for children and adolescents. The opportunity to do so will be impacted by many attitudinal, systemic, and resource issues, alluded to previously. An additional factor to consider is the education, training, and competence of the individual school psychologist. School psychologists vary greatly in their preparation to provide...

Importance Of Classroom Climate

Classroom climate is seen as a major determiner of classroom behavior and learning. Understanding how to establish and maintain a positive classroom climate is seen as basic to improving schools. Research suggests significant relationships between classroom climate and such matters as student engagement, behavior, self-efficacy, achievement, social and emotional development, principal leadership style, stages of educational reform, teacher burnout, and overall quality of school life (Fraser,...

Types Of Attention

The types of attention required for learning and memory are selective, sustained, divided, and alternated. Selective and sustained attention types are important for orienting and vigilance to the intended stimulus. Selective attention enables a person to overcome other inputs from the environment (e.g., noise) and concentrate on the signal of interest, with structures deep in the brain that help filter environmental distractions. If these structures are disabled, the person has difficulty...

Latchkey Children

The term latchkey originated in the 18th century and referred to lifting the door latch to gain entrance into one's home (Lamorey & colleagues, 1999). Door keys were often worn around their necks on a piece of string. In the 1940s, the term latchkey children was used to describe children who took care of themselves while their fathers were away at war and their mothers contributed to the labor force (Lamorey & colleagues, 1999). After World War II, women did not return to their...

Within Series Designs

The within-series designs are the most commonly used single-case experimental designs and are characterized by the evaluation of data points across time and within phases or conditions (e.g., treatment vs. no-treatment conditions). Specifically, data are gathered over time and grouped into phases, with each phase consisting of a certain number of consecutive data points. Changes are then assessed as they occur across time. Although there are a number of within-series designs (e.g., simple...

Somatoform Disorders

Soma and somato are both Greek words that mean body. Disorder means an ailment in the body. Thus, a somatoform disorder is a physical illness or illness in the body. Somatoform disorders vary by type and frequency of occurrence among school-age children. Depending on the type of disorder and age and gender of the person, prevalence rates range from less than 1 to 15 . Somatoform disorders rarely begin before age six years, and usually begin in late childhood and early adolescence. According to...

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Homeschooling

According to the literature, there are advantages and disadvantages associated with homeschooling. Some advantages include Parents are able to spend quality time with their child. Parents can control what their child is learning. Parents can be more involved in teaching their child their values and ways of life. Parents can provide their child with protection from negative social situations. Parents can give their child one-on-one attention and extra help in areas that their child may be...

Current Trends In Homeschooling

Different approaches to homeschooling include (Kochenderfer, 2003) School-at-home (the most familiar) The teacher (or parent) orders a curriculum set with all of the materials and supplies included, and follows structured lesson plans. Unit studies The teacher and student find an area of interest for the student and work the area of interest into every subject (e.g., math, reading, science, history). Relaxed or eclectic This is the most used homeschool method. This approach includes elements of...

The Psychoanalytic Model

The psychoanalytic model, developed initially by Sigmund Freud, presents a view of development that is revolutionary in both its content and its implications for the nature of development. The basic assumption of this model is that development consists of dynamic, structural, and sequential components, each influenced by a continuously renewed need for the gratification of basic instincts. How psychic energy (or the energy of life, as it is sometimes called) is channeled through these different...

Serious And Chronic Behavior Problems

Common strategies and techniques for developing self-discipline and for preventing and correcting misbehavior are sufficient for responding to the behavioral needs of the majority of students. However, most educators recognize that a small percentage of students, varying in number from school to school but generally being less than 5 , require more than what can reasonably be expected of teachers in the regular classroom. These students repeatedly disobey rules and are unresponsive to common...

Expulsion

Expulsion, a punishment technique used to manage serious behavior problems, involves the long-term exclusion of a student from school and school-related activities. Such exclusion occurs following a set of procedures, usually including a formal school board hearing with the student and parent present. Written notification of the hearing and its results are provided. Readmission following expulsion is generally not permissible until the following academic year and after action from the school...

Importance Of Friendships

Although it is difficult to ascertain the role friendships play in the development of an individual, there is a general consensus among researchers in this field that close, positive relationships are developmen-tally significant throughout the life span. However, the importance of friendships varies as a function of age as one progresses through major developmental milestones (e.g., toddlers learn to cooperate and play games with their friends, whereas adolescents seek friendship for intimacy...

Classification Systems Or Approaches Related To Personality Assessment

Framing the personality assessment process are three influential classification systems or approaches. While the functional assessment of a student's behavior and affect is more relevant to planning viable and effective intervention programs, the presence of these classification systems cannot be ignored given their widespread use and their determination of much of our diagnostic nomenclature. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) (American...

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Selfmanagement Interventions

Few disadvantages have been documented in the use of self-management strategies. This is at least partially related to the types of problems addressed using self-management (i.e., simple, discrete behaviors). External control techniques (e.g., teacher-managed interventions) raise concerns regarding generalization of the intervention (i.e., transfer of the skills beyond the immediate intervention setting), and passivity and motivation of the student. Self-management procedures theoretically are...

Assessment Of Social Skills

The purposes of social skills assessments are to Identify and classify social skill strengths and deficits Identify target behaviors for intervention Provide data on environmental influences on social skill development Provide data for intervention and monitoring progress An important issue in the assessment of social skills is the determination of whether a child has a social skill acquisition or performance deficit. An acquisition deficit is one in which the child has not acquired the...

Validity

Validity is the meaning, or value, of assessment results or test scores. Whereas reliability refers to the precision of a test or assessment outcome, validity refers to the meaning of the test or assessment outcome. Historically, school psychologists have considered tests to have three forms of validity content, construct, and criterion (American Education Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education, 1985). Content validity...

Career Assessment

Career assessment involves systematic appraisal for the purpose of assisting an individual in the career exploration, career development, or decision-making process. It may include, but is not limited to, assessing an individual's academic and work history, interests, skills, learning styles, personality, needs, and self-efficacy beliefs. Career assessment may be conducted in a formal manner using norm-referenced paper-and-pencil inventories or it may be conducted less formally using counseling...

Applying Ecobehavioral Consultation

Applying this theory to the process of providing help to children has a long-standing history in school psychology (Minor, 1972). When a school psychologist who is operating from an ecobehavioral orientation approaches a problem situation associated with a child, the problem symptoms are seen as indicators of a mismatch between the child and the ecology where the problem is occurring. Additionally, the other ecological systems where the child resides are seen as potential resources to...