References And Further Reading

American Association of Suicidology. (1998). Suicide postvention guidelines Suggestions for dealing with the aftermath of suicide in the schools. Washington, DC Author. Bearman, P. S., & Moody, J. (2004, January). Suicide friendships among American adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 94(1), 10-14. Brock, S., & Poland, S. (2002). School crisis preparedness. In S. Brock, P. Lazarus, & S. Jimerson (Eds.), Best practices in school crisis prevention and intervention (pp....

Technology

Computer Technology Media and Children Steven W. Lee is an associate professor and director of the School Psychology Program at the University of Kansas. He has been on the faculty at the University of Kansas for 18 years. Dr. Lee is a nationally certified school psychologist and practiced in the Omaha Public Schools and the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Nebraska-Medical Center before coming to Kansas. He has numerous research presentations and publications to his credit. He...

Mentoring Research And Literature

Cabot, a Harvard-trained physician, initiated the first systematic study on the effects of mentoring in his Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study (CSYS), which examined various intervention programs for delinquent youth (Baker & Maguire, in press). The 30-year follow-up study revealed the potentially negative effects of poorly run intervention programs that do not sufficiently counter delinquent youth's tendency to undermine authority (Dishion & colleagues, 2003). They...

Infant Assessment Is

Because assessing infants is a unique process, it is important to identify what it is all about. First, infant assessment is nontraditional. Professionals assessing infants cannot use traditional tools or tests that require paper and pencil skills or the ability to answer complex questions. Instead, they use direct assessment methods such as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, which rely heavily on observations of behavior and...

National School Psychology Certification System

In 1988, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) approved the National School Psychology Certification System (NSPCS), which established standards by which school psychologists should be trained. School psychology programs may apply to NASP to offer approved programs, which will culminate in a graduate being eligible to be endorsed as a Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP). Students must complete a course of study of at least 60 semester hours, which includes a...

Bias Testing

Bias in testing is a concern of psychologists, sociologists, and the general public but the word bias has numerous meanings. Much of the controversy regarding bias in testing is reflected in what might be considered racial or ethnic bias. For the general public and sometimes with other groups, simple group differences in test performance are often interpreted as evidence of bias in the test (e.g., white versus African American intelligence quotient IQ scores). This assertion makes an assumption...

Head Start Research And Evaluation

In 1968, the government mandated a national evaluation of Head Start, which was conducted by the Westinghouse research group. The planning committee requested a prospective study in which children would be randomly assigned to a Head Start or nonHead Start group before entering the program. The government, however, funded a retrospective study, locating former Head Start participants who were now in first, second, and third grades. A retrospective design had the major problem that the control...

Students Perspectives On Grade Retention

It is also important to consider children's perspectives regarding grade retention. In a study published in 1987, students in first, third, and sixth grade were asked to rate 20 stressful life events that included such occurrences as losing a parent, going to the dentist, and getting a bad report card. The results indicated that sixth-grade students reported only the loss of a parent and going blind as more stressful than grade retention. This study was replicated in 2001, and it was found that...

Motivational Interventions

School psychologists use the results of assessments to design interventions that promote motivation for learning. The most commonly used method to increase motivation in schools is providing incentives for desired learning behaviors. From preschool onward, parents as well as teachers bestow rewards on students who are good citizens, name the capitols of the 50 states, sit quietly, and read every day. Students receive material reinforcers such as candy, erasers, pencils, or stickers, as well as...

Impact Of Involvement In Bullying

Peer victimization is associated with short- and long-term negative effects on academic, social, and emotional functioning. Children who are bullied may develop negative attitudes about school as early as kindergarten. They also tend to view their school environment as unsupportive and report wanting to stay home from school due to bullying. A relationship between peer victimization and emotional problems has been documented for children as young as preschool and kindergarten. Emotional...

The School Psychologist And Separation Anxiety

Unfortunately, SA frequently goes unrecognized in the schools (except in severe cases) because of the internalizing nature of the disorder (i.e., anxious thoughts, physiological reactions). Because SA is frequently difficult to detect, teachers may not be aware of students that have poor or nonexistent social lives, feel alienated, or simply miss their parents. For these reasons, school psychologists and educators must recognize the problem and act proactively to screen, evaluate, and offer...

Separation Anxiety Disorder

Separation anxiety (SA) is nervousness or distress about being separated, or becoming separated, from the home or from an important person (e.g., mother, father) in the child's life. The anxiety experienced by the child impairs his or her ability to function in important areas of life (e.g., school and social settings). To make a diagnosis of separation anxiety, the child must be under 18 years of age at the onset of anxiety and the problem must exist for at least four weeks. The anxiety...

Early Intervention

Early intervention (EI) is best seen as a system of multidisciplinary services designed to support those family interactions that enhance optimal development of children ages birth to three years. The benefits of such a system include remediating existing developmental difficulties, preventing the future effect of these difficulties, alleviating potential delays, limiting the development of additional handicaps, and promoting improved family functioning. These goals are accomplished by...

Trends In Education And Service

The civil rights movement in the United States spawned a disability rights movement. Brown v. the Board of Education (1954) became a legal landmark in the desegregation of schools. Schools could no longer deny admittance or segregate children based on race or ethnicity. Seventeen years later in the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1971) case, it was successfully argued that all children, regardless of mental age, were entitled to a free and...

Designed for Teaching Children at Risk

It is said that for no apparent reason, 10 to 20 of school children experience difficulty in learning to read. This condition is recognized by different labels such as learning disability, specific reading disability, and dyslexia. Since it was first recognized that some children with normal mental ability experience an inordinate amount of difficulty in learning to read, specialized methods for teaching these children have been developed and promoted. Fernald and Keller in 1921, Monroe in...

Career Assessment Instruments

Although formal career assessment is not common in elementary schools, assessments such as the Wide Range Interest-Opinion Test or the Career Awareness Inventory are occasionally used at the elementary level to help to foster students' self-awareness and promote broad occupational considerations. Informal assessment and experiential activities that promote self-efficacy beliefs, combat gender-role stereotyping, and encourage understanding of the relations between school and work are appropriate...

Combined Series Designs

The combined-series designs allow for comparisons within and between series. That is, participant variability is evaluated over time, as well as in response to different conditions. Similar to the within-series designs, there are several types of combined-series designs (e.g., multiple baseline, crossover, and constant-series control designs), with the multiple baseline design being the most common. The multiple baseline design's structure is a simple phase-change design (A B series) in which...

Learning Disabilities

Children and adults classified with learning disabilities (LD) are individuals of normal intelligence, but they suffer with mental information processing difficulties. Several definitions refer to persons with LD as reflecting a heterogeneous group of individuals with intrinsic disorders that are manifested by specific difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. Most definitions assume that the learning difficulties of...

What Is The Role Of School Psychologists In Providing Or Referring A Child For Psychotherapy

Many school-based school psychologists, at the specialist and doctoral levels, have voiced a desire to provide or expand school-based counseling and psychotherapy for children and adolescents. The opportunity to do so will be impacted by many attitudinal, systemic, and resource issues, alluded to previously. An additional factor to consider is the education, training, and competence of the individual school psychologist. School psychologists vary greatly in their preparation to provide...

Importance Of Classroom Climate

Classroom climate is seen as a major determiner of classroom behavior and learning. Understanding how to establish and maintain a positive classroom climate is seen as basic to improving schools. Research suggests significant relationships between classroom climate and such matters as student engagement, behavior, self-efficacy, achievement, social and emotional development, principal leadership style, stages of educational reform, teacher burnout, and overall quality of school life (Fraser,...

Types Of Attention

The types of attention required for learning and memory are selective, sustained, divided, and alternated. Selective and sustained attention types are important for orienting and vigilance to the intended stimulus. Selective attention enables a person to overcome other inputs from the environment (e.g., noise) and concentrate on the signal of interest, with structures deep in the brain that help filter environmental distractions. If these structures are disabled, the person has difficulty...

Latchkey Children

The term latchkey originated in the 18th century and referred to lifting the door latch to gain entrance into one's home (Lamorey & colleagues, 1999). Door keys were often worn around their necks on a piece of string. In the 1940s, the term latchkey children was used to describe children who took care of themselves while their fathers were away at war and their mothers contributed to the labor force (Lamorey & colleagues, 1999). After World War II, women did not return to their...

Within Series Designs

The within-series designs are the most commonly used single-case experimental designs and are characterized by the evaluation of data points across time and within phases or conditions (e.g., treatment vs. no-treatment conditions). Specifically, data are gathered over time and grouped into phases, with each phase consisting of a certain number of consecutive data points. Changes are then assessed as they occur across time. Although there are a number of within-series designs (e.g., simple...

Somatoform Disorders

Soma and somato are both Greek words that mean body. Disorder means an ailment in the body. Thus, a somatoform disorder is a physical illness or illness in the body. Somatoform disorders vary by type and frequency of occurrence among school-age children. Depending on the type of disorder and age and gender of the person, prevalence rates range from less than 1 to 15 . Somatoform disorders rarely begin before age six years, and usually begin in late childhood and early adolescence. According to...

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Homeschooling

According to the literature, there are advantages and disadvantages associated with homeschooling. Some advantages include Parents are able to spend quality time with their child. Parents can control what their child is learning. Parents can be more involved in teaching their child their values and ways of life. Parents can provide their child with protection from negative social situations. Parents can give their child one-on-one attention and extra help in areas that their child may be...

Current Trends In Homeschooling

Different approaches to homeschooling include (Kochenderfer, 2003) School-at-home (the most familiar) The teacher (or parent) orders a curriculum set with all of the materials and supplies included, and follows structured lesson plans. Unit studies The teacher and student find an area of interest for the student and work the area of interest into every subject (e.g., math, reading, science, history). Relaxed or eclectic This is the most used homeschool method. This approach includes elements of...

The Psychoanalytic Model

The psychoanalytic model, developed initially by Sigmund Freud, presents a view of development that is revolutionary in both its content and its implications for the nature of development. The basic assumption of this model is that development consists of dynamic, structural, and sequential components, each influenced by a continuously renewed need for the gratification of basic instincts. How psychic energy (or the energy of life, as it is sometimes called) is channeled through these different...

Serious And Chronic Behavior Problems

Common strategies and techniques for developing self-discipline and for preventing and correcting misbehavior are sufficient for responding to the behavioral needs of the majority of students. However, most educators recognize that a small percentage of students, varying in number from school to school but generally being less than 5 , require more than what can reasonably be expected of teachers in the regular classroom. These students repeatedly disobey rules and are unresponsive to common...

Expulsion

Expulsion, a punishment technique used to manage serious behavior problems, involves the long-term exclusion of a student from school and school-related activities. Such exclusion occurs following a set of procedures, usually including a formal school board hearing with the student and parent present. Written notification of the hearing and its results are provided. Readmission following expulsion is generally not permissible until the following academic year and after action from the school...

Importance Of Friendships

Although it is difficult to ascertain the role friendships play in the development of an individual, there is a general consensus among researchers in this field that close, positive relationships are developmen-tally significant throughout the life span. However, the importance of friendships varies as a function of age as one progresses through major developmental milestones (e.g., toddlers learn to cooperate and play games with their friends, whereas adolescents seek friendship for intimacy...

Classification Systems Or Approaches Related To Personality Assessment

Framing the personality assessment process are three influential classification systems or approaches. While the functional assessment of a student's behavior and affect is more relevant to planning viable and effective intervention programs, the presence of these classification systems cannot be ignored given their widespread use and their determination of much of our diagnostic nomenclature. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) (American...

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Selfmanagement Interventions

Few disadvantages have been documented in the use of self-management strategies. This is at least partially related to the types of problems addressed using self-management (i.e., simple, discrete behaviors). External control techniques (e.g., teacher-managed interventions) raise concerns regarding generalization of the intervention (i.e., transfer of the skills beyond the immediate intervention setting), and passivity and motivation of the student. Self-management procedures theoretically are...

Assessment Of Social Skills

The purposes of social skills assessments are to Identify and classify social skill strengths and deficits Identify target behaviors for intervention Provide data on environmental influences on social skill development Provide data for intervention and monitoring progress An important issue in the assessment of social skills is the determination of whether a child has a social skill acquisition or performance deficit. An acquisition deficit is one in which the child has not acquired the...

Validity

Validity is the meaning, or value, of assessment results or test scores. Whereas reliability refers to the precision of a test or assessment outcome, validity refers to the meaning of the test or assessment outcome. Historically, school psychologists have considered tests to have three forms of validity content, construct, and criterion (American Education Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education, 1985). Content validity...

Career Assessment

Career assessment involves systematic appraisal for the purpose of assisting an individual in the career exploration, career development, or decision-making process. It may include, but is not limited to, assessing an individual's academic and work history, interests, skills, learning styles, personality, needs, and self-efficacy beliefs. Career assessment may be conducted in a formal manner using norm-referenced paper-and-pencil inventories or it may be conducted less formally using counseling...

Applying Ecobehavioral Consultation

Applying this theory to the process of providing help to children has a long-standing history in school psychology (Minor, 1972). When a school psychologist who is operating from an ecobehavioral orientation approaches a problem situation associated with a child, the problem symptoms are seen as indicators of a mismatch between the child and the ecology where the problem is occurring. Additionally, the other ecological systems where the child resides are seen as potential resources to...

Assessment of Spelling Skills

It is a widely held belief that spelling is a visual memorization task. However, developmental studies of spelling indicate that it is more closely related to phonological skills than to rote visual memory (Treiman, 1993). As a result, spelling errors committed by children often reflect their efforts to phoneticize English words (e.g., girl spelled as gal and light spelled as lite). Standardized tests of spelling ability (e.g., the Wide Range Achievement Test) use a list of words to assess...

Puberty

Puberty represents the process of moving from reproductive immaturity to maturity (Alsaker, 1996). Changes occur with respect to overall body stature and composition, hormone levels, and the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics. This process can take two to six years to complete four years is considered average. Whereas puberty is considered one of the true universals of human development, one of its hallmarks is the tremendous variability that exists between and within...

Unstructured Interviews With Parents And Teachers

As a routine practice, school psychologists and mental health professionals often conduct interviews with parents and teachers that are less structured than the interviews described in the preceding sections. Unstructured clinical interviews with parents can cover the child's presenting problems (referral complaints), developmental and medical history, educational history, family factors and stressors, other possible problem areas, and what interventions (if any) have already been tried at home...

P

See Performance-based assessment PALS (Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies), 379 Parametric and periodic intervention experimental designs, 502 Parasymathetic nervous system (PNS), 69 PARC (Pennsylvania Assn. for Retarded Children), 298 PARC (Pennsylvania Assn. for Retarded Children) v. Pennsylvania, 298 Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT, Foote & colleagues) parent training program, 368-369 Parent education (PE) and parent training (PT) authoritative parenting, 367, 373 cultural...

Childrens Bereavement From A Developmental Perspective

Children's understanding of death, family, and cultural influences, family stability, personal characteristics, relationship with the deceased, and the circumstances of the death affect the bereavement process. There is no specific model that targets the bereavement process based on child development, although theories of Freud, Piaget, and Erikson are evident in discussions of a child's ability to grieve, to understand the finality of death, or to create an identity after the death of a...

The School Psychologist And Generalized Anxiety Disorder

School psychologists' training and experience places them in a position to respond to the needs of children with GAD through screening and prevention, assessment and diagnosis, and intervention or referral. A GAD prevention program that is implemented in the schools may include screening measures completed by parents to assess risk factors, such as parental GAD or other anxiety disorder, parent availability to the child, and child temperament. The collection of this type of information would...

Sociometric Assessment

Sociometric assessment is the measurement of interpersonal relationships in a social group. Socio-metric measurement or assessment methods provide information about an individual's social status, which is their social standing within a group. School-based sociometric assessment focuses on a child's relationships with peers. Most sociometric assessment methods derive information on social relationships by assessing children's positive and negative social perceptions of one another. Researchers...

Affective Outcomes And Homeschooling

On measures of adaptive behaviors, homeschooled children reportedly score higher on daily living skills, communication, and social maturity than their peers attending regular school. However, studies comparing homeschooled students' to regular students' self-concepts have either found no difference or only a slight difference favoring homeschooled students between the two groups (Medlin, 2000). Many public school children are exposed to bullying, cruel teasing, and violence on a daily basis...

Obesity In Children

Childhood obesity is a serious problem in the United States because of its association with detrimental social and physical outcomes and its rising prevalence in recent years. Although several proposed methods for determining childhood obesity exist, the most widely used is to define childhood obesity as equal to or above the 95th percentile on the body mass index (BMI). Epidemiological studies employing the BMI method suggest that approximately 11 to 15 of children in the United States are...

Adjustment Disorder

A normal part of child development involves experiencing events that are unexpected or unpleasant and learning how to overcome these challenges. However, for some individuals, recovery after a stressful event is not so easy and distress appears long after the event is over. Children who exhibit problematic reactions to stressful experiences beyond typical levels may be demonstrating symptoms of an adjustment disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth...

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Homework

Aside from the question of the basic effectiveness of homework as a learning strategy, there are both positive and negative potential outcomes or side effects of homework (Cooper & colleagues, 1998). On the positive side, homework is believed to improve learning and achievement through better retention of factual knowledge, increased understanding, and improvements in critical thinking. Homework is also thought to reinforce self-discipline, organizational strategies, and study habits and...

Parent Training

While PE programs are designed to improve general parenting skills, PT programs are designed to teach parents to address their children's disruptive behaviors. So, unlike many forms of child therapy, in which the child works directly with a therapist, PT programs teaches parents to serve as the primary therapist for their child, while the clinician serves as a consultant or trainer for the parent. In most PT programs, parents learn methods of positively reinforcing appropriate behaviors,...

Selective Mutism

Selective mutism (SM) is a disorder of childhood of unknown cause. It is characterized by a lack of speech in many social settings and is often first noticed when a child begins school. Adolf Kussmaul first identified SM in publication in 1877, as aphasis voluntaria. In 1934, Moritz Tramer renamed it Elective Mutism. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (2000) identifies six major characteristics that must be satisfied for a...

The Consultant Consultee Relationship

Caplan and Caplan (1993 1999) outline the unique features of the consultant consultee relationship found in mental health consultation (MHC). Although also underlying other models of consultation, these features distinguish MHC from other professional relationships such as supervision, teaching, and psychotherapy. They include The consultation relationship is triadic, involving a consultant, consultee(s), and client(s). Consultees typically lack the training and experience that consultants...

Authentic Assessment

Authentic assessment requires the respondent to construct, rather than select, a response to academic stimuli e.g., tests, papers Salvia amp Ysseldyke, 2001 . A rubric, based on set criteria, is used to evaluate and assign a number or proficiency level Write a response to the story starter, The best day of my life was. . . . Given four different liquids, design and execute a study to determine which liquid nourishes a bean seedling the best. Record your observations and conclusions in you lab...

Methods Of Career Assessment

Herring 1998 notes that career guidance programs in schools often include processes such as classroom instruction, counseling, paper-and-pencil career assessment, career information, placement, consultation, and referral. Counselors promoting the career development of school-aged children should be trained to administer and interpret career assessment instruments and should have training in career development theory and assessment. Further, they should be aware of the potential cultural,...

Supply And Demand In The Job Market

The current outlook for employment is stable or improving. The American Association for Employment in Education, which monitors employment trends across the United States, has noted overall shortages in recent years that tend to be concentrated in the Midwest, Northeast, and South Central regions of the United States. Training programs report stable or growing numbers of applicants, promising a steady supply of new professionals. Some concern has been expressed Curtis amp colleagues, 2003...

Grade Equivalent Scores

Grade equivalent scores are norm-referenced, developmental scores. They are most frequently reported for achievement tests. Grade equivalent scores compare an individual's score to those of a norm group comprised of students attending the same grade in school as the individual whose score is being reported. For example, developmental scores may be expressed as 5.6 or 5-6 and interpreted as the average scores of fifth graders at the sixth month of fifth grade. Some grade equivalent scores are...

Council Of Directors Of School Psychology Programs

Council of Directors of School Psychology Programs CDSPP was formed in 1977 to coincide with similar leadership groups representing clinical psychology Council of University Directors of Clinical Psychology CUDCP , counseling psychology Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs CCPTP , professional schools National Council of Schools of Professional Psychology NCSPP , and internship organizations Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers APPIC . The mission of the...

Autism

Autism is a disorder that is first diagnosed in childhood. Children with autism demonstrate qualitative deficits in their social interaction with others in communication and play skills and demonstrate restricted or stereotyped interests and behaviors. In 1943, Kanner was the first to describe the characteristics of children with autism, based on a sample of 11 children he saw in his office with a similar constellation of symptoms Kanner, 1943 . Although the defining characteristics of autism...

Characteristics Of Gang Members

The typical age for gang members ranges from 12 to 26 years old. However, gang members have been seen as young as 8 years of age and as old as 50, with an average age of 17 to 18 years old. Male gang members outnumber female gang members however, actual estimates of female gang involvement vary greatly. Law enforcement records indicate that fewer than 10 of gang members are female nonetheless, self-report studies consistently find rates ranging from 10 to 40 . Females have been found to join...

Characteristics Of Retained Students

Numerous studies have examined the gender and ethnic characteristics of retained students. Boys are twice as likely to repeat a grade as girls, and retention rates are higher for minority students, particularly African American and Latino children. In general, retained students have lower achievement scores relative to the average student in a classroom. Yet, it is essential to consider additional characteristics of this population because low achievement is not a distinguishing characteristic...

Theories Of Intelligence

Theories of intelligence can generally be divided into those that support a general factor theory of intelligence and those that support a multiple-factor theory of intelligence. Theorists who adhere to a general factor model espouse that intelligence is composed of a general or global ability g . In contrast, multiple-factor theorists assert that this global ability is comprised of multiple, interrelated, but distinct abilities. Across these models, some theories are hierarchical, while others...

International School Psychology Association

The International School Psychology Association ISPA emerged from efforts by Calvin Catterall and Francis Mullins to broaden the views of school psychologists within the United States to include international perspectives. They initiated the International School Psychology Committee, first within the American Psychological Association's Division of School Psychology and later within the National Association of School Psychologists. This committee served as a vehicle through which Dr. Catterall...

The Evolution Definition And Purpose Of Middle Schools

During the 1800s, the eight-four elementary school-high school pattern dominated education. It provided basic skills and vocational training to large numbers of students, and college preparation for some. During the late 1800s psychologists, such as G. Stanley Hall, began to identify the unique biological, social, and cognitive changes underlying early adolescent development, which then were seen as requiring educational curricula and methods different from the existing elementary and secondary...

Common Topics Of Research

There are many topics of research in school psychology. Most of the topics listed here fall under one of the broad domains discussed previously. This list is provided to give a sense of the breadth and depth of research topics in school psychology. Some of these topics are defined further in this volume. The most frequently researched topics in school psychology are, but are not limited to, reading and other academic domains, intelligence, instruction, special education, counseling, parenting,...

Dare Program

DARE is an acronym for the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program and was created in 1983 by Los Angeles Police Chief Daryl Gates. DARE is the most widely used drug use prevention program in the United States, being delivered to 26 million school children in nearly 75 of the nation's school districts, and to 10,000 million in more than 54 countries around the world. DARE's primary mission is to provide children and adolescents with the information and skills they need to live...

Organizational Consultation And Development

Organization development OD is a term that refers to a planned and sustained long-term effort to improve the ability of an organization to achieve its self-identified goals within an atmosphere that promotes the growth and well-being of its individual members. Organizations that are successful in attaining both of these elements are thought of as healthy organizations. Organizational consultation is the process through which one or more professionals facilitates the efforts of an organization...

Gender Differences

There are important gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior. Females attempt suicide approximately two to three times more often than males CDC, 2004 Reynolds amp Mazza, 1993 . According to the recent YRBS data, incidence rate of suicide attempts for females was 11.5 compared to 5.2 for males, a 2 1 ratio. Similarly, Reynolds and Mazza, who sampled more than 3,400 adolescents across eight states, also reported a 2 1 female-to-male attempt ratio. In examining suicidal ideation,...

The Role Of The School Psychologist In Family Counseling

Given the dramatic shifts in the social demographics of the American family, and given that children's problems often persist despite school-based interventions, it behooves the school psychologist to be prepared to facilitate intervention at the family level. This facilitation can occur at several levels, including understanding the role of family dynamics in children's school problems, conducting family-school meetings, providing consultation with parents and families, leading parent and...

Treatment For Oppositional Defiant Disorder

A variety of treatments for disruptive behavior disorders have been described in the literature. Parent training programs have demonstrated improvements in ODD symptoms by focusing on teaching parents effective methods for managing their children's behavior Barkley, 1997 Forehand amp McMahon, 1981 Patterson, 1974 Webster-Stratton, 1984 . Other school-based interventions that have demonstrated success with ODD include social skills training, problemsolving training, effective classroom...

Peer Tutoring

Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that uses pairs of students to teach one another academic skills. Peer tutoring has been used successfully across a wide range of students, subject areas, educational settings, and grade levels. It is a promising strategy for diverse students including low income, ethnic minority, and language minority students. This strategy has been implemented to enhance student learning in the areas of mathematics, reading, spelling, social studies, science, and...

Addressing Consultee Difficulties

Especially when engaged in consultee-centered MHC, a consultant must determine the likely cause s of consultee difficulty. These include lack of knowledge, lack of skill, lack of self-confidence, and lack of objectivity. The first three mentioned are relatively straightforward, but lack of objectivity appears more complicated. Lack of objectivity occurs when a consultee loses his or her usual professional distance when working with a client, and consequently is unable to apply established...

Echolalia

Echolalia refers to persistent and inappropriate repetition or echoing of heard speech, either immediately or after a brief delay. The individual may repeat a single word or a phrase. For example, if someone says, Let's walk over here, a child might echo, here or Let's walk over here. This behavior is usually associated with Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, or dementia, but most commonly occurs in children with autism. Echolalia may also be associated with focal brain injury or other...

Student Improvement Teams

Student improvement teams SITs are school-based teams that use a problem-solving process and the collective expertise of educators and families to assist students who are having difficulty, either academically or behaviorally. The role of the student improvement team is to facilitate a problem-solving process that results in the creation of a plan that will adequately address these academic or behavioral concern s . Over the last decade, these teams have become instrumental in facilitating...

Contributions Of Sleeter And Grant

Sleeter and Grant 1987, 1999 argue that much of the existing literature addresses only limited aspects of multicultural education. Recognizing that Four Approaches to Content Integration Primary focus on ethnic heroes, holidays, cultural elements e.g., food, dances, and music and artifacts with little attention to other aspects of ethnic content. The addition of content, concepts, themes, and perspectives to the curriculum without change in the basic structure, purpose, and characteristics of...

The Four Types Of Mental Health Consultation

Caplan and Caplan 1993 1999 delineate four types of MHC, which are based on two major considerations whether the content focus is on a client concern or an administrative concern, and whether the primary goal is to provide information drawn from the consultant's area of expertise or to improve the problem-solving capacity of the consultee. Client-centered case consultation perhaps is the most frequent type of consultation conducted by school psychologists. For example, a teacher who is...

Sample Selected Response Items

Which dictionary definition describes the word ring as it is used in the following sentence Detective Hugh Jamison uncovered the false claims filed by the ring of dishonest insurance clerks. a. a circular band, usually of precious metal, worn on a finger as an ornament or a token of marriage or betrothal b. a roped enclosure for boxing or wrestling c. a combination of traders, bookmakers, spies, politicians, etc., acting together for the control of operations or profit d. a thin band or disk of...

Gender And School Success

Competency in school can be attributed to intrinsic e.g., innate ability, self-concept and external influences e.g., experiences, peers, parental and teacher expectations . Some apparently innate differences in ability were reported by Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklin in their 1974 classic work, The Psychology of Sex Differences, including that girls have higher verbal abilities, while boys surpass them in quantitative and spatial reasoning. However, more recent research has found smaller and...

Types Of Observations And Recording Techniques

One of the most common ways to observe and record a behavior is to use a frequency count, which is when the observer counts the number of times the behavior occurs over a period of time. Counting the number of times a student speaks without raising his or her hand is an example of a frequency count. Duration recording, another type of observation technique, is when the observer determines the amount of time an event lasts. For example, how long a student is out of his or her seat. When an...

Adaptive Behavior Assessment

Adaptive behavior includes those skills necessary for personal independence and social responsibility. The criteria for evaluating adaptive behavior vary according to age because those skills expected and needed to be independent and responsible develop as an individual grows. As noted by Sattler 2002 , adaptive behavior is most commonly evaluated only when there are questions about an individual's overall functioning and skills. Specifically, adaptive behavior is included as one of the areas...

Assessment Of Adaptive Behavior

As noted above, assessment of adaptive behavior is commonly done as part of an evaluation for mental retardation. Nonetheless, the specific steps and methods used to conduct adaptive behavior assessments can vary. For adaptive behavior assessments to be useful, three major questions should be asked both before and during the assessment 1. What type of decision is needed 2. What adaptive behavior domains need to be evaluated 3. Can the results be used to inform program planning and monitoring...