TEs across the Evolutionary Tree

TEs are ubiquitous throughout the evolutionary tree from microorganisms to mammals. For instance, a bacterial virus called phage MuM (mutator) is characterized as a TE based on similarities with other transposons. Mu integration into the host bacterial chromosome is considered transposition because it can occur nearly anywhere, thereby inactivating host genes and generating insertions and deletions.

Transposons also occur naturally in bacterial genomes. The extensively studied species Escherichia coli (E. coli) contains insertion sequences (IS) and transposons in its genome. IS elements are generally small, have inverted sequence repeats at their ends (important for their mobility), and contain

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