Ribosome Function

Translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) by ribosomes occurs in the cytoplasm. In bacterial cells, ribosomes are scattered throughout the cytoplasm. In eukaryotic cells, they can be found both as free ribosomes and as bound ribosomes, their location depending on the function of the cell. Free ribo-somes are found in the cytosol, which is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm, and are responsible for manufacturing proteins that will function as soluble proteins within the cytoplasm or form structural elements, including the cytoskeleton, that are found within the cytosol.

Bound ribosomes are attached to the outside of a membranous network called the endoplasmic reticulum to form what is termed the "rough" endoplasmic reticulum. Proteins made by bound ribosomes are intended to be in vivo "in life"; in a living organism, rather than in a laboratory apparatus in vitro "in glass"; in lab apparatus, rather than within a living organism cytoplasm the material in a cell, excluding the nucleus endoplasmic reticulum network of membranes within the cell

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