Ooocx

major, Cooley's anemia, 2:140 and malaria, 2:141, 2:148 transposon recombinations and, 4:11

Thale cress. See Arabidopsis thaliana Thalidomide, and birth defects, 1:80 Thanatophoric dysplasia, characteristics, 2:130 T-helper cells, 4:140 Thermodynamics, defined, 4:48 Thermotoga maritima, genome characteristics, 1:142 Thermus aquaticus, 1:38, 1:199, 3:157 Thiamine, to treat TRMA, 1:212 Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (TRMA), 1:212

Thiogalactoside acetyltransferase enzyme, 3:132, 3:135 Thioguanine, 3:93

Threatened population status, 1:186,

1:190 Threonine (Thr)

genetic code, 2:85, 2:87, 4:137 glycosylation, 3:179 phosphorylation, 3:178 serine/threonine kinases, 4:87, 4:89-90 Thrush disease, 2:155 Thymidine kinase (TK), in selectable markers, 3:17, 4:125-126 Thymine depyrimidination, 1:240 in DNA alphabet, 2:83, 4:106 and DNA structure, 1:215-220,

1:250-251, 2:50, 2:51, 3:94 evolution of, 2:22-24 mutagenic base analogs, 3:87 origin of term, 1:249 replaced by AZT, 2:155-156 structure, 1:216, 3:115, 3:116,

3:118, 3:119, 3:119 See also Base pairs Thyroid glands, function, 2:160 Thyroid hormone concentration, 2:164 function, 2:160 influence on gene expression, 2:161, 2:164 Thyroid-stimulating hormone

(TSH), and endocrine disorders, 2:129-130 Ti plasmids, 2:107 TIGR (The Institute for Genomic

Research), 2:173 Time-of-flight (TOF) tubes, 3:20 Timofeeff-Ressovsky, Nikolay, 3:103 Tissue culture cells, as clones, 1:161

Tissue donors, legal ownership concerns, 3:3-4 Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), 1:72

Tissue scaffolding, 4:142 TK gene, gene targeting studies,

4:125-126 TK (thymidine kinase), in selectable markers, 3:17 T-lymphocytes, 4:74-76, 4:78, 4:140 TNT (trinitrotoluene), bioremedia-

tion to reveal, 1:62 Toba volcano, 3:168 Tobacco transgenic, firefly protein, 1:69,

4:130 See also Smoking Tobacco mosaic virus, replication, 4:168

Togaviruses, replication, 4:168-169 Tomato bushy stunt virus, 4:165 Tomato plant macho viroid, 4:163 Tomatoes

Flavr-Savr, 1:29, 1:73, 2:107 frost- and salt-tolerant, 2:107 genetically engineered, 4:6 Tongue-rolling trait, 2:191, 2:191 Top-down (unmeasured) genotype strategy, 4:3 Topoisomerase enzyme pseudogenes for, 2:30 replication role, 4:14-15, 4:18 Topological, defined, 3:114 Toshiba, genetic microchips, 2:119 Tourette's syndrome genetic components, 3:214 OCD and ADHD co-morbidity,

3:215 symptoms, 3:215 Toxic-gain-of-function mutations, 2:201

Toxoplasma gondii, 1:81 Toxoplasmosis, 1:81 TP53 gene. See p53 gene TPA (tissue plasminogen activator), 1:72

Traits. See Phenotypes Trans regulatory elements, 4:114 Transcriptase, reverse, 4:39-42 AIDS and, 4:40-41 defined, 3:159, 4:105 DNA library role, 1:223, 1:224, 4:6

as gene cloning tool, 1:153,

1:154, 4:40, 4:128 as gene discovery tool, 4:40 of HIV, 2:151, 2:152-153, 2:154, 2:155

how it works, 4:39-40, 4:40 inhibitors, 4:41, 4:41 of retroviruses, 4:168 telomerase enzymes, 1:135, 4:41, 4:105-106 Transcriptase, viral, 4:168 Transcription, 4:106-111

of antibody genes, 2:180, 2:182 assembly on DNA, 4:108 chromatin condensation/decon-densation, 1:137-139, 2:63, 2:65, 2:164, 3:25 defined, 1:221, 2:10, 3:60, 4:4 determining location of, 2:187, 4:50

directionality, 3:118, 3:155-156, 4:135

DNA footprinting tools, 1:221 DNA methylation and, 3:48 E. coli as research tool, 2:10 elongation phase, 4:56, 4:108, 4:110

energy requirements, 1:111 gene activation and repression,

1:137-139, 1:225, 2:15-16, 2:64 histone acetyltransferases and,

1:137-138 hormonal regulation of, 2:159,

2:162, 2:163-164 inhibition, imprinting, 2:184 initiation phase, 4:108,

4:109-110, 4:111, 4:112 interference by DNA crosslinks, 1:245

negative regulation, 4:111 of operon genes, 3:133,

3:134-135 pause sites, 4:110 positive regulation, 4:111 procedure, 2:62-63, 2:62, 3:70,

4:108, 4:135 retroposition, 2:28, 2:28 RNA transcript role, 1:229, 4:107 of rRNA genes, 3:123-124 termination phase, 4:56, 4:108, 4:110

See also Promoter DNA sequences; RNA polymerases; Splicing, alternative; Splicing, RNA; Start codons; Stop codons

Transcription factors, 4:112-117 defined, 1:23, 2:27, 3:48, 4:38 encoding for, 1:205 in fruit flies, 2:45 function, 2:54, 3:199, 4:56, 4:112 gene expression role, 2:63-64 gene-specific, and transcription rates, 4:113-114

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