Ooocx

phenylketonuria, 2:55-56 progeria, 1:1-3

psychiatric disorders, 3:214, 3:215 retinoblastomas, 4:153 sickle-cell disease, 2:137-138,

3:142 thalassemias, 2:140 thyroid hormone deficiency/resistance, 2:129-130 Y chromosomes, 4:176-177 In silico, defined, 2:212 In utero, defined, 2:81 In utero gene therapy, 2:81, 2:82 In vivo, defined, 2:212, 4:43 Initiation codons and sites. See Start codons (transcription) Initiation complexes, translation,

4:138 Initiation factors transcription, 4:107 translation, 4:138 INK family proteins, 1:107 Inquiries into the Human Faculty and Its Development (F. Galton), 2:17 Insect-resistant crops

Bacillus thuringiensis, 1:58, 1:64,

3:149, 4:134 ecological concerns, 1:68 genetically engineered, 1:63, 2:108 genomics role, 2:121 statistics, 1:57 transgenic plants, 2:106 Insects ants, chromosome numbers,

2:113 haplodiploidy, 2:113 holocentric chromosomes, 1:114 intracellular symbionts, 2:198 polytene chromosomes, 1:126,

1:136-137, 1:136 See also Fruit flies (Drosophila) Insemination donor, 4:24 intrauterine, 4:24 Insertion sequence (IS) elements, prokaryotes, 2:116, 2:117, 4:144-145 Insertional mutagenesis, 4:38 The Institute for Genomic Research

(TIGR), 2:173 Insulin as extranuclear hormone, 2:161 function, 1:209, 3:199 gene expression role, 2:66-67 genetically engineered, 1:63, 1:66, 1:72, 1:153-154, 2:125, 4:6, 4:129

post-translational control, 3:181 RTK pathway, 4:87-88 sequence of, 4:64 Insulin receptors, pleiotropic effects on, 3:154 Insulin resistance and diabetes, 1:210-211 insulin receptor gene defects, 1:211

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (diabetes type 1), 1:209-210, 2:202

Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and, 2:132 DNA methylation, 3:48 imprinting, 2:185 intelligence and, 2:211 Insurance discrimination, genetic testing and, 1:18, 1:68, 2:92-94, 2:100, 2:177, 3:4, 3:146, 3:192, 3:193 Integrase enzymes

HIV, 2:152-153, 2:155 of retroviruses, 4:35, 4:37 Inteins, post-translational control, 3:179

Intelligence, 2:207-211

Down syndrome, average IQ, 1:79

environmental factors, 2:207,

2:209-210, 2:211 eugenics concepts, 2:18 expanded concepts, 2:209 Flynn effect, 2:209 genes for, 2:5, 2:211 IQ measurements, 2:207-208 MENSA, 2:208 racial and ethnic differences,

2:209 standard tests, 2:208 twin and adoption studies,

2:207-208, 2:209-210 X chromosome role, 4:174 See also Mental retardation Intelligence quotient tests. See IQ tests

Interbreeding, 3:171, 3:173-174,

4:92-93 Intercalating agents, 3:88 Interchromatin compartment, 3:120,

3:121, 3:122-123, 3:122 Interchromatin granules (speckles),

3:120, 3:125 Intercrossing, defined, 1:147 Interference, crossover, 1:197, 3:12-13

Interferons as extranuclear hormones, 2:161 from genetically engineered bacteria, 1:63 Interleukin receptors, SCID and,

4:75, 4:76, 4:77 Interleukins as extranuclear hormones, 2:161 as gene therapy tools, 2:79 from genetically engineered bacteria, 1:63 Intermediate filaments, 3:120, 3:121 International Congress of Eugenics, 3:81

International Human Genome Consortium, 2:174, 2:176 International Rice Research Institute, 2:108 International World Conservation

Union (IUCN), 1:186 Internet, 2:211-213

bioinformatics tools, 1:53, 3:18 biotechnology resources, 1:64, 1:65

gene mutation listings, 2:143 genetic maps, 3:15 Genome Web site, 1:142, 2:176 Human Genome Project information, 2:174 International Human Genome

Consortium, 2:176 Mendelian Inheritance in Man, 3:23

Interphase, 2:112-113

banding techniques for, 1:129 defined, 1:134 DNA synthesis (S) phase, 1:104-105, 1:104, 3:25-26, 3:57-59 growth (G1 and G2) phases, 1:104-105, 3:57-59 Intersex organisms, 1:25, 3:77,

3:164, 4:80, 4:82, 4:127, 4:175 Interstitial region, 4:78 Intervention strategies, public health role, 3:218-219 Intestinal disorders. See Gastrointestinal disorders Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, 4:22

Intra-strand UV crosslinks, 1:244, 1:245

Intrauterine insemination, 4:24 Intravenous, defined, 2:145 Intrinsic terminators, 4:110 Introns, 1:12, 4:58

of antibody genes, 2:180, 2:182 defined, 1:224, 2:30, 3:56, 4:10 discovery of, 3:105-106

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Supplements For Diabetics

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