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Professions attorney, 1:42-43, 3:138 bioinformatics specialist, 1:54-56 biotechnology entrepreneur,

1:65-66, 1:72 cellular biologist, 3:70 clinical geneticist, 1:74, 1:149-152, 1:213-215, 2:90, 2:91-92, 3:193-194 computational biologist, 1:54-56,

1:181-182, 3:196 conservation geneticist, 1:190-192 cytochemist, 2:187-189 cytologist, 3:21 educator, 2:1-3 epidemiologist, 2:6-7, 2:56-57 evolutionary biologist, 3:70 genetic counselor, 2:89-90,

2:91-92, 3:186 geneticist, 2:110-111, 2:212 information systems manager,

2:192-194 laboratory technician, 3:1-3 microbiologist, 3:50-51 molecular biologist, 3:70-72 pharmaceutical scientist,

3:142-144, 3:145 phylogeneticist, 4:41 physician scientist, 3:147-148 plant genetic engineer,

3:149-150 science writer, 4:65-66 statistical geneticist, 3:193,

3:194-195, 4:93-95 taxonomist, 4:91 technical writer, 4:102-104 Progeny, defined, 1:147, 3:127 Progeria. See Aging, accelerated:

progeria Progesterone gene expression role, 2:161 ovaries and, 2:160 Progesterone receptor, function, 2:162

Programmed cell death. See Apopto-sis

Progressive era, eugenics movement, 2:16 Prokaryotes defined, 2:11, 3:16, 4:12 distinguished from eubacteria, 2:11

distinguished from eukaryotes, 1:108, 2:11, 2:12 origin of term, 1:139 ribosomes, 2:16, 4:42-43 See also Cells, prokaryotic; Eubacteria

Prokaryotes, genomes average protein length, 2:52 characteristics, 2:112, 2:121, 4:12 circular DNA, 2:14-15, 2:116, 4:12

gene expression, 2:53, 2:54, 2:62 mapping of, 2:116 operons, 1:142, 2:15, 3:105,

3:131-135 organization, 2:116, 2:117 overlapping genes, 3:135-136 promoter sequences, 4:107 repeated sequences, 2:117 RNA polymerase, 4:55 RNA processing, 2:53, 4:50, 4:57 RNA synthesis, 4:50 sizes and numbers, 2:116 transposable genetic elements, 2:116

See also Chromosomes, prokaryotic; DNA replication, prokaryotes; Plasmids Prolactin and breast cancer, 1:90 and endocrine disorders, 2:129 Proline (Pro)

chemical properties, 3:200 genetic code, 2:85, 4:137 Prometaphase, 3:59 Promoter clearance (escape),

4:109-110, 4:114 Promoter DNA sequences of antibody genes, 2:180, 2:182 defined, 1:221, 2:15, 3:47, 4:10 DNA methylation role, 3:47-48,

3:48, 3:49 eubacteria role, 2:15 function, 2:54, 4:56, 4:107-111,

4:108, 4:112 gene expression role, 2:63-64,

2:64, 4:111 impact on gene therapy, 2:77 lacking in retropseudogenes, 4:10 location of, 3:118 modification, imprinting role, 2:184

of operons, 3:132, 3:134 overexpression, 2:67 of pseudogenes, 2:30 of retroviruses, 4:36, 4:37 transcription factor binding to,

4:112-113, 4:113 in transgenic plants, 4:133 Promoter RNA sequences, 2:53 Promutagens, 1:20 Pronuclei defined, 4:124

in embryo transfers, 4:22, 4:124 Prophages, 2:116, 4:39, 4:119 Prophase meiosis, 3:25-26 mitosis, 3:59 Propionic acidemia, symptoms and treatment, 3:40, 3:43 Propionyl-CoA 3:43

Pro-proteins (zymogens), polypeptide cleavage by, 3:179, 3:181 Prosecution application procedure, for patents, 3:138 PROSITE database, 3:209 Prostaglandins, as extranuclear hormones, 2:161 Prostate gland cancer, 1:93, 3:175 tumors, and breast cancer, 1:91 Prostatic antigen screening (PSA), 3:175

Protanopia/anomaly, 1:172 Protease enzymes apoptosis role, 1:209 N-terminal signal sequence activation, 3:181 prion disease role, 3:188-189,

3:190 of retroviruses, 4:35 ubiquitination role, 3:179 Protease inhibitors, to treat

HIV/AIDS, 2:154 Protein Design Laboratories, humanized antibodies, 2:125 Protein domains functions, 1:24, 1:52-53, 2:30 noncovalent interactions, 3:201 and tertiary structure, 3:201, 3:203

Protein folding (secondary structure) a-helices, 3:188-189, 3:200-201, 3:203

^-sheets, 3:200-201, 3:203 by chaperones, 1:116-118, 3:203 coiled-coil motif, 3:201 and cystic fibrosis, 1:202 exon shuffling and, 2:30-31 helix-loop-helix motif, 3:201 hydrogen bonding, 3:200-201 predicted by computers, 2:177 prions and, 3:187-190 Protein kinase (PKA), signal trans-

duction role, 4:89 Protein kinase C (PKC), signal transduction role, 4:89 Protein sequencing, 3:196-198 BLAST applications, 3:196 carboxypeptidase tools, 3:198

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