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Knowledge bases, bioinformatics tools, 1:56 Knudson, Alfred Jr., 3:131 Koch, Christof, 1:194 Koonin, Eugene, 1:143 Kosambi, Damodar, 3:13 Kosambi map functions, 3:13 Kossel, Albrecht, 1:249 K-ras gene, and colon cancer,

1:167-168 Krebs cycle defects, 3:42, 3:43, 3:44 described, 1:111 Kremer bodies. See PML bodies Kuru disease, cause, 3:189

L929 cancer cells, 4:104-105 La Quinta High School, tuberculosis, 1:26

Laboratory information management systems, 1:54 Laboratory technicians, 3:1-3, 3:2 automated sequencing by,

1:43-45, 3:1 microbiologists as, 3:50-51 molecular biologists as, 3:70-72 plant genetic engineers as, 3:149-150 Lac operons discovery, 3:131 function, 2:15, 3:132 gene expression regulation, 3:132, 3:133, 3:134-135 Lac Saint-Jean population, and Tay-

Sachs disease, 4:101 LacA gene, 3:132 Lactose, lac operons, 2:15, 3:131-135, 3:132, 3:133 Lactose permease enzyme, 3:135 LacYgene, 3:132 LacZ gene, 3:132, 3:152 Lahr, Marta, 3:168 Lake Magadi (Kenya), Archaea adaptations, 1:37 Lambda constant regions, antibodies, 2:179, 2:179 Lambda phages, 4:119 Lamin A/C gene, and diabetes, 1:211 Lamin proteins, 3:125 Landsteiner, Karl, 1:82, 1:84, 1:233 Laparoscopies, 4:21, 4:28 Laron syndrome, 2:129 Lassa fever virus, characteristics, 4:165

Latanoprost, eye color changes and, 2:33

Latent infections defined, 4:169

by viruses and retroviruses, 4:169 Laughlin, Harry Hamilton, 2:19-20 "Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Progeny," 2:19 Law of independent assortment genes on homologous chromosomes, 3:36, 3:75 incomplete dominance, 3:36 linked genes, 3:5-6, 3:14-15 meiosis and, 3:26, 3:29, 3:60, 3:75

Mendel's hypothesis, 1:130, 1:148, 3:31, 3:34-35 Law of segregation, Mendel's hypotheses, 1:130, 1:148, 3:31, 3:34

Lawyers. See Attorneys Leading and lagging strands, DNA replication, 4:14, 4:14, 4:15-16, 4:15

Learning disabilities, ADHD and, 1:39-40

Learning, psd-95 gene and, 2:5 Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy cause, 3:53

clinical features, 2:202 Lederberg, Joshua, 1:141, 1:183-184 Leewenhoek, Antoni van, 3:119 Legal issues, 3:3-4

antimiscegenation laws, 2:17 blood typing, 1:233-234, 1:236 compulsory sterilization, 2:16-20, 2:90

cryopreservation, 4:26

DNA profiling, 1:73, 1:233-239,

3:3, 3:4 genetic discrimination, 1:68,

2:93-94, 3:3-4 genetically modified foods, 2:107, 3:3

genetics tools, 1:42 illegal trade of endangered species, 1:186, 1:189-190 inbreeding prohibitions, 2:189 patenting genes, 1:42-43, 1:72,

3:191-193 surrogacy, 4:24, 4:29 tissue ownership, 3:3-4 in vitro fertilization, 4:29 Legionnaires' disease, testing tools, 1:64

Leigh, Dennis, 3:54 Leigh's disease, 3:52, 3:54 Lejeune, Jerome, 1:119, 1:256 Lentiviruses, 2:151, 4:35, 4:38

Leprechaunism, 1:211 Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, symptoms and treatment, 3:40, 3:44 Lesions, defined, 1:167 Leucine (Leu)

chemical properties, 3:200 genetic code, 2:85, 2:87, 4:137 Leukemia, 1:93, 1:94

acute myeloid, 3:96, 4:11 adult T-cell, 4:34 chronic myelogenous, 3:127,

3:129, 4:154 human acute promyelocytic, 3:124

human Tlymphotropic virus,

4:34, 4:36, 4:38, 4:169 murine virus, 4:35, 4:36 T-cell, 4:38, 4:165, 4:169 tumor suppressor gene role, 4:154, 4:155 Leukotrienes, as extranuclear hormones, 2:161 Levene, Phoebus Aaron, 1:249-250 Levine and Stetson, Rh system, 1:84 Lexicon, functional genomics role, 2:124

LGMD (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy), 3:86 LH hormones, and endocrine disorders, 2:129 LI elements, 4:145-146 Life span. See Aging and life span Lifestyle and cancer, 1:91, 1:92, 2:90 and cardiovascular disease, 1:6,

1:101, 2:105 and diabetes, 1:210 as disease treatment tool, 2:118 and longevity, 1:6 Li-Fraumeni syndrome, 3:98, 4:154 Ligands defined, 2:163, 4:87 GPCR pathway, 4:89 RTK pathway, 4:87-88 Ligase enzymes, defined, 1:246, 4:33 Ligation in BER pathway, 1:244 defined, 1:244, 3:158, 4:45 for DNA libraries, 1:223, 1:224 by ribozymes, 4:45 Light and high-energy particles, as mutagens, 3:88 Light chain polypeptides, 2:179, 2:179

LINEs (long interspersed repeated elements), 4:8, 4:10-11, 4:144, 4:145, 4:147-148

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