mutations changes in DNA sequences


Capecchi, Mario R. "Targeted Gene Replacement." Scientific American (March 1994): 52-59.

Velander, William H., Henryk Lubon, and William N. Dorhan. "Transgenic Livestock as Drug Factories." Scientific American (January 1996): 70-74.

Watson, James D., Michael Gilman, Jan Witowski, and Mark Zoller. Recombinant DNA. New York: Scientific American Books, 1992.

Transgenic Microorganisms

A transgenic microorganism is a microbe, usually a bacterium, into which genetic information has been introduced from the outside and which possesses the ability to pass that information on to subsequent generations in a plasmids small rings of DNA found in many bacteria restriction enzymes enzymes that cut DNA at a particular sequence nucleotides the building blocks of RNA or DNA

stable manner. This is not an entirely novel idea in microorganisms, since bacteria have been practicing and perfecting this art over billions of years of evolution. We, on the other hand, have only recently learned to duplicate this phenomenon and turn it to our own purposes. Genetic engineering is the field that has developed as a consequence of research into this process. Its commercial application forms the basis of the biotechnology industry today.

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