Ooocx

as indicator of evolutionary relat-

edness, 2:156-158 of insulin, 4:64 Internet tools, 2:212 mass spectrometry tools, 3:18-20 Maxam-Gilbert method, 4:70-71, 4:71

as molecular anthropology tool, 3:63-65

pairwise distributions, 3:167-168,

3:168 palindromic, 1:218 patent issues, 3:137 procedures, 3:1 Rh polypeptide, 1:86 in situ hybridization tools,

2:186-189 See also Automated sequencers; Human Genome Project; Mapping genes DNA sequencing, specific organisms Arabidopsis thaliana, 2:121, 2:172 E. colt, 1:140, 2:10, 2:11, 2:86,

2:116, 2:172 eubacteria, 2:172 fruit flies, 2:172 model organisms, 2:172 rice, 2:172

rodents, 3:61-62, 4:60 roundworms, 2:121, 2:122, 2:172,

2:174, 4:62-63 yeasts, 2:121, 2:172 DNA structure, 1:215-220, 2:51 3' and 5' ends, 1:216, 1:216, 2:51, 3:115, 3:116, 3:117-118, 3:118, 3:155-156, 4:12, 4:15-16, 4:15 antiparallel, 1:217 antisense nucleotides, 1:30-31, 1:30

base stacking, 1:217 B-DNA (canonical), 1:215-218,

1:218, 1:219 coiled in nucleus, 3:121, 3:122 components, 1:215-216, 3:115,

3:116, 3:117, 4:114 cruciform, 1:218, 1:219 curved, 1:219, 1:220 distinguished from RNA, 4:46 genomics role, 2:120-122 glycosidic bonds, 1:216, 1:216 hydrophobic interactions, 1:217 intermolecular triplex, 1:218, 1:219

intramolecular triplex, 1:219, 1:219

left-handed Z, 1:219-220, 1:219 looped domains, 1:126, 1:134, 1:134, 2:64, 2:65, 4:114

major and minor grooves, 1:217,

1:217, 1:218, 4:115, 4:116 packaged in nucleosomes, 4:111 phosphodiester bonds, 1:216,

1:216, 1:244 quadruplex, 1:219, 1:219 slipped-strand, 1:218, 1:219 stability, 2:84 unwound, 1:218, 1:219 van der Waal's forces, 1:217 See also Base pairs; Deoxyribose sugars; Double-helix DNA model; Hydrogen bonds; Nucleotides DNA structure and function, history, 1:248-253 DNA as transforming factor, 1:250-251, 1:250, 3:103, 3:104, 3:105, 4:120, 4:124 DNA discovery, 1:215,

1:249-250, 2:112, 3:103 DNA replication studies,

1:251-252 Watson and Crick's model, 1:62, 1:192-193, 1:251, 2:50, 2:120, 2:171, 3:105, 4:172 See also Chromosomal theory of inheritance, history; Gene nature, history DNA thermal cyclers, 3:157 DNA, transformed (T-DNA), 1:35 DNA transposons, 4:8, 4:9-10, 4:11 DNA triplets, as universal, 1:61,

1:152 DNA uptake, 4:121 DNA vaccines, 1:253-255 advantages, 1:254 clinical studies, 1:255 development, 2:121 testing on cattle, 1:254 uses, 1:72, 1:255 vaccination techniques, 1:254-255 Dna2 protein, 4:17 DnaA protein, 4:13, 4:18 DnaK chaperones, energy requirements, 1:117 DNase cystic fibrosis treatment, 1:201 DNA footprinting role, 1:220 in DNA purification, 3:221 as indicator of transformation, 4:123

DNMTs (DNA methyltransferases),

3:46, 3:49 Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 3:76 DOE (Department of Energy) Human Genome Project role, 2:173

radiation-caused-mutation studies, 2:171, 2:173 Dolly the sheep, 1:158, 1:160, 1:162,

1:163-164 Dominance hypothesis, for heterozygote advantage, 2:147 Dominant alleles codominance, 2:200 defined, 3:194, 4:69 distinguished from epistasis, 2:7 distinguished from imprinted genes, 2:183-184 genotype role, 2:127, 2:127-128 heterozygote advantage role,

2:147-148 incomplete dominance, 2:200, 3:36

Mendel's hypotheses, 1:147-148,

3:3 1, 3:33, 3:35-36 molecular meaning of, 2:200-201 See also Inheritance patterns Dominant disorders, autosomal achondroplasia, 1:75-76, 2:130 Alzheimer's disease, 1:16-18 Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome,

2:132, 2:185 cartilage matrix protein mutations, 2:132 defined, 3:153

diabetes, familial partial lipodys-

trophic, 1:211 diabetes, maturity onset, 1:211 endocrine disorders, 2:129-130 familial adenomatous polyposis,

1:168-169 familial hypercholesterolemia,

2:57, 2:201, 2:202 gain-of-function mutations, 3:96 gene therapy effectiveness, 2:74 Huntington's disease, 2:103-104,

2:127, 2:201 inheritance patterns, 1:213,

2:201, 2:205 Marfan syndrome, 1:75, 1:76 muscular dystrophies, 3:85-86,

3:153-154 neurofibromatosis, 3:153 progeria, 1:1-3 psychiatric disorders, 3:214 retinoblastomas, 4:153 selection for/against, 4:69 spinocerebellar ataxia, 2:205 table of, 2:202

toxic-gain-of-function mutations, 2:201

Dominant disorders, X-linked, 1:130-131, 2:203, 3:73-74, 3:91-92, 4:175 Dominant negative effect, 2:201

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