Ooocx

immune response genes, 2:128,

2:178-183 inheritance patterns, 2:199-200, 3:102

Mendel's studies, 1:147, 3:101 wild-type, 1:45-46, 3:100 See also Crossing over (recombination); Dominant alleles; Genotype, phenotype and; Recessive alleles Alleles, multiple, 3:82-83 ABO blood group system,

1:83-84, 2:128, 3:82 distinguished from polymorphisms, 3:82 gene mapping applications, 3:83 MHC proteins, 2:183, 3:82 in noncoding DNA, 3:82-83 for quantitative traits, 4:1-3 See also Polymorphisms, DNA Allelic disorders, defined, 3:84 Allergens defined, 1:11

in genetically modified foods, 1:11

Allografts, 4:139, 4142 Allolactose defined, 3:134 lac operons and, 3:134-135 Allopatric speciation, 4:93 Allopolyploid plants, 3:165-166 Alomoxeline, for ADHD, 1:39 Alper, Tikvah, 3:188 Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) test, 3:185 Alpha globin genes, 2:136-138, 2:148

Alpha particles, defined, 3:89 Alpha satellites, 4:7 Alpha-amanitin, 4:55 Alpha-antitrypsin gene, 1:180 Alpha-retrovirus, characteristics, 4:35

Alternate reading frames, 2:117 Alternation of generations, 2:115 Alternative splicing. See Splicing, alternative Altman, Sydney, 4:44 Alu sequences copies in human genome, 2:30, 2:67-68, 2:115, 3:211-212, 4:10, 4:145-146 dimorphisms, 4:146, 4146 evolutionary origin, 3:211-212,

4:11, 4:145-146 human disorders and, 3:153, 4:146

Alzheimer, Alois, 1:14-15 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 1:14-19 aging and, 1:7, 1:8 amyloid precursor protein and,

1:16, 1:18, 4:127 and APOE gene, 1:17, 1:18, 1:180-181, 1:213, 2:56, 2:105, 4:95

assisted living facilities, 1:15 beta-amyloid protein and, 1:157 chaperone role, 1:118 as complex trait, 1:15-18, 1:178,

1:180-181, 1:213, 2:61 diagnosing, 1:14-16, 1:18, 3:146 "Disease Model" mouse strains, 3:62

and Down syndrome, 1:3 gene-environment interactions,

1:180, 1:213, 2:56, 3:213 genetic counseling, 2:90 genetic testing, 1:18, 3:186 genomic screening, 2:168 health care costs, 1:14 history, 1:14-15 memory loss and, 1:7, 1:14-15, 1:180

populations studies, 2:124 protein conformation role, 3:190 tissue pathology, 1:15-16 Amanita phalloides, alpha-amanitin, 4:55

Ambrose, Stanley, 3:168 American Board of Medical Genetics (ABMG), clinical geneticist certification, 1:149, 1:150-151 American (local environment) model of development, 1:205-206 American Psychiatric Association, addiction criteria, 1:4 American Society for Reproductive

Medicine, 3:187 American Society of Human

Genetics' Ad Hoc Committee on Genetic Testing/Insurance Issues, 2:94 Americans with Disabilities Act

applications, 1:20-21, 1:100,

3:87, 3:92 procedure, 1:19-20, 1:20 Amgen, biopharmaceuticals, 2:125 AMH (anti-Mullerian hormone),

1:22, 1:23 Amino acid metabolism, disorders, 3:40, 3:42-43

Amino acids alphabet, 1:252, 2:83-84, 3:199-200, 3:205, 4:135 anticodon specificity, 2:84, 4:51,

4:137-138 breakdown in mitochondria, 1:111

3:197-198, 3:207 defined, 1:63, 1:107, 1:109, 2:26,

2:52 in diet, 3:41 extein role, 3:181 from genetically engineered bacteria, 1:63 glycosylation, 3:178-179, 3180,

3:205 intein role, 3:181 phosphorylation, 3:20, 3:178,

3180, 3:204, 3:205 polypeptide synthesis, 1:13,

3:103, 4:44 and protein primary structure,

3:197, 3:200 sequences, mutations and, 2:27, 3:94-95

sequences similar to DNA polymerases, 1:232 signal transduction role, 4:85,

4:87-90 structure, 3:197, 3:200 transport through cell membranes, 1:109 ubiquitination, 3:179, 3:180 See also Protein sequencing; Proteins; specific amino acids Amish populations bipolar disorder, 3:214 founder effect, 2:37, 3:174 Amnesiac mutant fruit flies, 1:5-6 Amniocentesis defined, 1:258 for Down syndrome, 1:258 risks, 3:184 uses, 2:97, 3:183 Amoeba dubia, C value, 2:114 Amphibians

African clawed frog, 3:60, 3:61 cloning, 1:158, 1:161-163 polyploid, 3:165 Amphiuma means, C value, 2:114 Amplification defined, 3:1 of mtDNA, 3:51

PCR as tool, 1:153, 1:177, 1:187, 1:190-191, 2:50, 2:166, 3:68, 3:154-159, 3:161 of proto-oncogenes, 3:128-129

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