plants to direct the plants to produce industrial enzymes used in the manufacture of paper. Other genes direct crops to produce small polymers useful in the manufacture of plastics. This general approach is being termed "plant molecular farming."

Rice is another plant that has been engineered for a new trait. During commercial processing, a substantial part of the white rice grains are removed, leaving very little vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency is a significant health problem in regions dependent on rice as a dietary staple. Scientists engineered a certain form of rice, known as "golden rice" because it has a yellow tinge, to express three introduced genes. These genes let the plant produce the precursor of vitamin A in the portion of the grain that remains after processing, thereby providing a dietary source of the vitamin. see also Agricultural Biotechnology; Biopesticides; Biotechnology; Cloning Genes; Cloning Organisms; Gene Targeting; Genetically Modified Foods; Plant Genetic Engineer; Transformation.

precursor a substance from which another is made

Brent McCown


Translation is the cellular process in which the genetic information carried by the DNA is decoded, using an RNA intermediate, into proteins. This process is also known as protein synthesis.

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