Oooc oc

Mitogen activated protein (MAP)

kinase cascades, 4:90, 4:91 Mitosis, 3:57-60, 3:58 anaphase, 3:59

cell cycle phases, 1:104, 1:104,

3:57-59 centromere role, 1:114, 3:58 cytokinesis, 3:59 defined, 3:106, 4:152 distinguished from meiosis, 3:24,

3:26, 3:29, 3:59, 3:60 kinetochore role, 3:58-59 metaphase, 3:59 prophase, 3:59

spontaneous tetraploids, 3:166 telophase, 3:59

tumor suppressor gene role, 4:162 vegetative segregation, 2:197 See also Chromosomes, eukary-otic; Chromosomes, prokary-otic; DNA replication Mob genes, 3:152

Mobile elements. See Transposable genetic elements Model organisms, 3:60-62 Archaea, 1:38 behavior genetics, 1:48-49 developmental processes,

1:204-205 disease identification studies,

2:170 examples, 3:60-61 genome sequencing, 2:120-121,

2:172, 2:173 homologous chromosomes of, 2:122

pigs, 4:141, 4:142-143 useful traits and attributes, 1:33-34, 2:10, 2:43-44, 3:60-61, 3:73 See also Arabidopsis thaliana; Escherichia coli; Fruit flies; Maize (corn); Rodent models; Roundworms; Yeasts Modified Gomori trichome stains,

3:53, 3:53 Modifier genes, Muller's concept, 3:81

MODY (maturity onset diabetes),

1:209, 1:211 Molecular anthropology. See Anthropology, molecular Molecular biologist. See Biologists:

molecular Molecular Biology of the Gene (J. Watson), 4:173 Molecular clocks divergence from common ancestry, 3:63, 3:94, 3:98, 3:100-101, 3:167-168

precision, 3:67 Molecular cloning. See Cloning genes

Molecular Dynamics, automated sequencers, 1:44-45 Molecular systematics defined, 2:158

See also Taxonomy (systematics) Molecules, evolution. See Evolution, molecular Monochromat color vision defects,

1:171, 1:172 Monocots, genetic modification techniques, 2:107-108 Monocytes, cancerous tumors, 1:94 Monod, Jacques, 3:131 Monohybrid crosses, 3:33 Monomers, defined, 3:178 Monosomy defined, 1:121

Monozygotic, defined, 4:83 Monozygotic twins. See Twins, identical Montagneer, Luc, 4:40 Montmorillonite, and ribose-phos-

phate backbone, 2:23 Moore v. Regents of the University of California, cell line ownership, 3:3-4

Moorhead, P. S., 4:105 Morag the sheep, 1:163 Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 3:72-76, 3:73

collaboration with Delbrück, 1:204

fruit fly genome mapping, 2:42-43, 3:7, 3:12, 3:14-15, 3:74, 3:75 genes described by, 1:155, 1:249,

2:50, 3:32, 3:73 X-linked inheritance studies, 1:130-131, 3:73-74, 3:102 Morgan, unit of measurement, 3:75 Morphogens defined, 1:206 gradients, and development, 1:206

Morphologically, defined, 4:62 Morphological-species concept, 4:91-92

Morquio syndrome, symptoms and treatment, 3:41 Morton, Newton, 2:148 Mosaicism, 1:120, 3:76-80 calico cat example, 3:77, 3:78 cause and symptoms, 1:123 chromosomal, 3:79

Down syndrome, 1:257 germinal, of progeria, 1:3 inheritance patterns, 2:204 mitochondrial, 3:79-80 nonrandom inactivation, 3:78 X-chromosome inactivation, 3:77-78, 4:175-176 Mouse mammary tumor virus, 4:35 MRNA. See RNA, messenger Mu opioid receptors, 1:5 Mucoid, defined, 4:123 Mucopolysaccharidosis, symptoms and treatment, 3:45 Mucous membranes, defined, 4:134 Muller, Hermann, 3:80-81, 3:80 The Mechanism of Mendelian

Heredity, 3:76 mutation rate measurements, 3:80

on polyploidy, 3:164 radiation-induced mutations,

3:81, 3:88, 3:103 Watson and, 4:172 X-linked inheritance studies, 1:130-131, 2:42-43, 3:73, 3:91-92

Mullerian inhibiting substance, 4:79 Mullis, Kary, 2:172, 3:91, 3:154 Multi-drug resistance (MDR), 1:26,

1:27, 1:28 Multifactorial inheritance about, 1:77, 1:178 threshold model, 1:77, 1:77 Multifactorial traits defined, 2:206 inheritance patterns, 2:206 Multimers, defined, 1:146, 3:202, 4:45

Multinucleate, defined, 2:115 Multiple alleles. See Alleles, multiple Multiple endocrine neoplasia, 4:153 Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, 2:132 Multiple genetic hit theory, 3:131, 4:153

Multiple sclerosis, family studies,

2:168-169 Multiplicative effects of genes,

1:178-179, 1:179 MuM phage, 4:144 Municipal wastes, bioremediation tools, 1:60 Munitions dumps, bioremediation tools, 1:62 Murine, 4:35-36

Murine leukemia virus, 4:35, 4:36 Muscle and skeletal disorders, birth defects, 1:75

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