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Human Genome Project (continued) clinical geneticist role, 1:149-151 code sample, 2:113 computational biologist role, 1:181

data acquisition, 1:54 disease genetics contributions, 1:214-215, 2:102, 2:118, 2:119, 4:75

drug discovery applications, 1:54 E. coli model, 1:142 ethical issues, 2:174, 2:177 as gene cloning tool, 1:157 gene discovery role, 2:60 gene therapy contributions, 2:83, 2:92

genetic testing contributions,

2:99-100, 3:176, 3:187, 3:216 genomics industry role,

2:123-125 history, 1:73-74 individual variation questions, 2:175

McKusick's contributions, 3:23 mtDNA compared to nuclear

DNA, 3:57 origin, 2:171-173 patenting the genome, 2:174,

2:175-176 pharmacogenomics applications,

3:146-147 protein sequencing contributions, 3:198

proteomics and, 2:177 public and private sector competition, 2:173-174 racial and geographic differences, 2:175

recombinant DNA tools, 4:6 Watson's contributions,

2:173-174, 2:175, 2:176, 4:173 Working Group on Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of, 2:94

Human Genome Sciences, gene sequence data, 2:123 Human growth hormones antibodies against, 1:255 genetically engineered, 1:63, 1:153, 4:6 Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

See HIV/AIDS Human leukocyte antigen (HLA). See Major histocompatibility complex Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cancer, 1:92, 4:155, 4:169 characteristics, 4:165 vaccines to combat, 4:171

Human PSD database, 3:209 Human telomerase reverse tran-

scriptase (hTERT), 4:106 Human Tlymphotropic virus

(HTLV), 4:34, 4:36, 4:38, 4:169 Humans (Homo sp.) archaic, 3:66-67 divergence from chimpanzees,

3:167-168, 3:168 geographic origin, 3:64, 3:66-67,

3:66, 3:167-170, 3:174, 4:179 H. erectus distinguished from Neandertals, 3:66-67, 3:66, 3:69, 3:167 replacing Neandertals, 3:170 See also Anthropology, molecular Hunkapiller, Michael, 1:44 Hunter syndrome (iduronate sul-tatase deficiency), symptoms and treatment, 3:41, 3:45 Huntingtin gene, 1:179, 4:151, 4:152 Huntington's disease apoptosis and, 1:33 Chi-square test to predict,

3:194-195 clinical features, 2:202, 4:151 genetic counseling, 2:103-104 genetic testing, 2:100, 2:101,

2:103-104, 2:168 inheritance patterns, 2:104,

2:127, 2:201 mutation rates, 3:100 pharmacogenomics to predict, 3:146

as polyglutamine disorder, 4:151 protein conformation role, 3:190 as simple trait, 1:177, 1:179 as toxic-gain-of-function mutation, 2:201 as triplet repeat disorder, 2:42, 3:96, 4:4, 4:11 Hurler syndrome (a-iduronidase deficiency), symptoms and treatment, 3:41, 3:45 Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, 1:2 diagnosis, 1:1, 1:3 telomere shortening, 1:3 Hutterite colonies, asthma, 2:37,

2:37, 2:38-39 Huxley, Aldous, 4:26 Hybrid superiority (hybrid vigor).

See Heterozygote advantage Hybridization (molecular). See In situ hybridization Hybridization (plant and animal breeding)

Arabidopsis thaliana, 1:33-35 as artificial selection, 4:67, 4:68-69

classical hybrid genetics,

1:146-149 distinguished from transgenic organisms, 2:106 extranuclear inheritance role, 2:194

heterozygote advantage,

2:146-147 inbreeding, 2:189-190 of maize, 3:8-10 plant genetic engineer role,

3:149-150 polyploidy, 2:114 quantitative trait role, 4:1 See also Mendelian genetics Hybrids/hybridize, defined, 1:11, 4:68

Hydrogen bonds defined, 1:215, 2:24, 3:119, 4:12 and DNA structure, 1:215-217, 1:217, 1:251, 2:24, 2:51, 2:85, 2:186, 3:116, 3:119, 4:12, 4:172 from DNA to gene regulatory proteins, 2:64 and protein secondary structure,

Hydrogen cyanide, and adenine synthesis, 2:23 Hydrolysis defined, 1:117

errors, DNA damage, 1:240, 1:240 Hydrolysis reactions, of nucleases,

3:113, 3:114 Hydrophilic, defined, 1:109, 3:200 Hydrophobic, defined, 1:109, 1:217, 3:200

Hydroxylation of proteins, post-

translational, 3:203 Hydroxyurea, to treat sickle-cell disease, 2:138 Hyper- and hypoacetylation of his-

tones, 1:137-138 Hyperaccumulator plants, 1:60, 1:62 Hyperactivity. See Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Hyperammonemia, 3:45 Hypercholesterolemia, 3:40, 3:43, 4:4-5

Hyperhomocysteinemia, symptoms and treatment, 3:40 Hyperlipidemia, symptoms and treatment, 3:40, 3:43 Hyperplastic cells, defined, 1:95 Hypertension and cardiovascular disease, 1:101 defined, 1:101 populations studies, 2:124

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