Oooc oc

Genetic testing (continued)

mutation detection procedures, 3:92-93

newborns, 2:98-99, 3:42-43, 3:44 patent issues, 3:137 PCR contamination concerns, 3:158

presymptomatic, 2:100, 2:100-101 presymptomatic, children, 2:100-101 procedures, 2:102 public health role, 3:218 symptomatic, 2:99 See also Population screening; Prenatal diagnosis Genetic testing, ethical issues, 2:101-106

CLIA standards, 3:218 clinical geneticist role, 1:149-150 eugenics concerns, 3:177-178,

4:29-30 genetic counselor role, 2:92,

2:102-104, 2:105 genetic determinism, 2:102 Human Genome Project concerns, 2:177 informed consent, 2:102, 3:175 personal autonomy, 2:101, 2:103 population screening, 3:177-178 prenatal and childhood testing,

2:100-101, 2:103 privacy concerns, 1:68, 2:100,

2:177, 3:190-193 risks and benefits, 2:100,

2:102-103, 3:218 support mechanisms, 2:105 termination of pregnancies,

2:103, 2:177 who should receive, 2:96 See also Genetic discrimination Genetic testing, specific diseases AIS, 1:21, 1:25 Alzheimer's disease, 1:18 behavior, 1:48 blood type, 1:83

cancer, colon, 1:168-170 cardiovascular disease, 1:102, 2:105

chromosome disorders, 1:79 congenital adrenal hyperplasia,

3:176, 3:177 congenital hearing loss, 1:76 cystic fibrosis, 1:202-203, 3:177 diabetes, 1:210 Down syndrome, 1:256, 1:257-258

fragile X syndrome, 1:76, 2:40 hemoglobinopathies, 3:177 Huntington's disease, 2:100,

2:101, 2:103-104 hypothyroidism, 3:176-177 muscular dystrophies, 2:101,

2:99, 2:119, 3:42-43, 3:176 retinoblastomas, 2:100-101 sickle-cell disease, 3:177 Tay-Sachs disease, 2:96, 2:99-100, 3:174, 3:177, 4:98, 4:101-102 triplet repeat diseases, 4:152 X-linked disorders, 2:101 Genetically modified (GM) foods, 2:106-110 benefits, 1:9-11, 1:73 biopesticides, 1:57-58 consumer acceptance of, 2:107,

2:108-109 ethical issues, 1:11, 1:67-68, 1:57, 1:73, 3:3, 4:130-132 field production, 2:108 labeling, 1:67, 1:68, 2:109, 4:130 modification technique,

2:107-108 plant genetic engineer role,

3:149-150 recombinant DNA technology, 4:6-7

regulations, 2:107, 2:108-109 statistics, 2:108

substantial equivalence principle,

4:130-131 traits, 2:106-107 Genetically modified organisms (GMOs). See Transgenic organisms

Geneticists, 2:110-111 clinical, 1:74, 1:149-152, 1:213-215, 2:90, 2:91-92, 3:193-194 conservation, 1:190-192 Internet tools, 2:212 statistical, 3:193, 3:194-195,

4:93-95 See also specific geneticists Genetics, 2:111-112 biochemical, 3:103 origin of term, 1:130 See also Classical hybrid genetics; Mendelian genetics; Population genetics

Genetics professors. See College professors Genital and urinary tract disorders, birth defects, 1:75

Genitals

AIS individuals, 1:25 normal human, 1:21, 1:22, 1:23, 4:78-79 Genocide, eugenics and, 2:16 Genograms, distinguished from pedigrees, 3:139 Genome Web site, 1:142, 2:156,

2:176, 2:212 Genomes, 2:112-117

chromosome number range,

2:113-114 comparisons, molecular anthropology, 3:63-70 databases of sequences, 1:142,

2:123-124, 2:156 defense, DNA methylation role,

3:46-49 defined, 1:9, 2:11, 3:22, 4:6 distinguished from proteomes, 3:205

homologies, comparing,

2:157-158 McClintock's concept of, 3:22 nuclear genes, gene density, and intergenic sequences, 2:114-115 in nucleus, 1:112, 1:132-133,

3:119-126 size range, 2:114 See also Chloroplasts, genome; Eukaryotes, genomes; Human genome; Mitochondrial genome; Ploidy; Prokaryotes, genomes; specific organisms and organelles Genomic clones, vs. cDNA clones, 1:154

Genomic medicine, 2:118-120 DNA microarray tools, 2:119 genetic microchips, 2:119-120, 2:119

Human Genome Project contributions, 2:118, 2:119 SNP role, 2:118-119, 2:122 See also Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics Genomic parasites. See Transposable genetic elements Genomic plasticity, 2:117 Genomic screening gene discovery role, 2:59,

2:169-170 gene evolution role, 2:61 selected disease-causing genes, 2:168

See also Genetic testing Genomica, bioinformatics, 2:124 Genomics, 2:120-123

applications, 2:121-122, 4:133

defined, 2:177, 3:143 functional, 2:122, 2:124 high-throughput screening tools,

2:120, 2:150, 3:205 model organism sequencing, 2:120

repeated sequences as tools, 4:11 See also Human Genome Project Genomics industry, 2:123-125 bioinformatics companies, 2:124 defined, 2:123

established pharmaceutical companies, 2:124-125 functional genomics companies,

2:122, 2:124 future of, 2:125 gene mining companies,

2:123-124 large-scale sequencing companies, 2:123 new pharmaceutical companies, 2:125

population-based genomics companies, 2:124 Genotype, phenotype and, 2:125-129

adverse drug reactions,

3:144-145 CEPH families, 3:12 eugenics applications, 2:20 gene discovery, 2:57-61 induced mutagenesis to study,

3:90-93 in maize, 3:9-10 in Mendelian genetics, 3:33-37, 3:102

silent mutations, 2:127, 2:157,

3:93, 3:96, 3:99 See also Alleles; Dominant alleles; Individual genetic variation; Phenotypes; Polymorphisms; Recessive alleles Genotypes adaptation to environment, 4:67 of AIS individuals, 1:21, 1:23 blood groups, 1:83 defined, 1:21, 2:95, 3:140, 4:2 frequencies in gene pool,

3:171-172 genomic medicine applications, 2:118-120 Hardy-Weinberg predictions of, 2:135

represented in pedigrees, 3:140 standards for specifying, 2:133 variations, consequences, 2:126 Genotypic means, 4:2 Genotyping techniques, 3:160-161 GenPharm, transgenic cows, 1:73

Genzyme Transgenics, biopharma-

ceuticals, 2:125 Germ cells defined, 2:80, 3:93, 4:106 mutations, consequences, 2:192,

3:93, 3:99 telomerase production, 4:106 Germinal choice, 3:81 Germ-line gene therapy, advantages/disadvantages, 2:80-81 Gertsmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, 3:189-190 Gestational diabetes (GDM), 1:209, 1:212

GEY gene, for eye color, 2:33 GFP (green fluorescent protein),

2:73, 3:16, 3:17-18 GH (growth hormone), and endocrine disorders, 2:129-130 Giemsa stains, 1:127, 1:135 GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer), 4:23

Glaucoma, genomic screening, 2:168 Glaxo-SmithKline, drug development, 2:124 Globin proteins, 2:139

alpha, beta, and gamma chains, 2:136, 2:148, 3:153, 3:212-213, 3:212 defined, 2:29

3:211-213, 3:212 function, 2:136 gene family, 2:67-68, 3:211, 3:212

pseudogenes in, 3:211 sequence comparisons, mammals, 2:157

Glucocorticoids, function, 2:160 Glucokinase, maturity onset diabetes and, 1:211 Glucose breakdown in mitochondria, 1:111-112 defined, 1:110 diabetes and, 1:209, 1:212 glucocorticoids to regulate, 2:160 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), heterozygote advantage, 2:148 Glutamic acid (Glu)

chemical properties, 3:200 genetic code, 2:85, 2:87, 4:137 substitution, sickle-cell disease, 2:137, 2:139, 2:148, 3:200 Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehy-drogenase genes, 3:213

Glycine (Gln)

chemical properties, 3:200 genetic code, 2:85, 4:137 substitution, Tay-Sachs disease, 4:101

Glycoaldehyde phosphate, and ribose synthesis, 2:23 Glycogen, function, 3:41 Glycogen storage diseases, symptoms and treatment, 3:40, 3:44 Glycolipids, defined, 4:4 Glycolysis

ATP production, 3:52 defined, 3:43

metabolic disorders, 3:43-44 Glycoproteins blood group substances, 1:83 defined, 1:82, 3:178, 4:165 HIV and, 2:151, 2:152 in prions, 3:188 structure and function, 1:113 Glycosidic bonds, 1:216, 1:216 Glycosylation congenital disorders, 3:40 of proteins, 3:178-179, 3:180, 3:205

Glypican 3 proteoglycan, 2:132 GM foods. See Genetically modified foods

GM2 gangliosides, and Tay-Sachs disease, 4:98-100, 4:99, 4:102 GM-CSF (granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factors), as gene therapy tools, 2:79 GNG3 (seipin) gene, and diabetes, 1:211

Goddard, Henry Herbert, 2:18, 2:19 Gold, hyperaccumulators of, 1:61 Goldschmidt, Richard, 3:102-103 Golgi apparatus, 1:105, 1:113

defined, 4:100 Gonadotropins assisted reproductive technologies, 4:19, 4:21 and endocrine disorders, 2:129 Gonads defined, 1:21, 2:185, 4:78 development, AIS, 1:23-26 development, normal human,

1:21, 1:22, 1:23 hypogonadism, 1:79 See also Ovaries; Sex determination; Testes Gonorrhea, antibiotic resistance,

1:26, 1:27, 1:28 Goodfellow, Peter, 4:80 Gout, and uric acid, 3:44 Gp41 protein, HIV, 2:152, 2:152

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment