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Genetic testing (continued)

mutation detection procedures, 3:92-93

newborns, 2:98-99, 3:42-43, 3:44 patent issues, 3:137 PCR contamination concerns, 3:158

presymptomatic, 2:100, 2:100-101 presymptomatic, children, 2:100-101 procedures, 2:102 public health role, 3:218 symptomatic, 2:99 See also Population screening; Prenatal diagnosis Genetic testing, ethical issues, 2:101-106

CLIA standards, 3:218 clinical geneticist role, 1:149-150 eugenics concerns, 3:177-178,

4:29-30 genetic counselor role, 2:92,

2:102-104, 2:105 genetic determinism, 2:102 Human Genome Project concerns, 2:177 informed consent, 2:102, 3:175 personal autonomy, 2:101, 2:103 population screening, 3:177-178 prenatal and childhood testing,

2:100-101, 2:103 privacy concerns, 1:68, 2:100,

2:177, 3:190-193 risks and benefits, 2:100,

2:102-103, 3:218 support mechanisms, 2:105 termination of pregnancies,

2:103, 2:177 who should receive, 2:96 See also Genetic discrimination Genetic testing, specific diseases AIS, 1:21, 1:25 Alzheimer's disease, 1:18 behavior, 1:48 blood type, 1:83

cancer, colon, 1:168-170 cardiovascular disease, 1:102, 2:105

chromosome disorders, 1:79 congenital adrenal hyperplasia,

3:176, 3:177 congenital hearing loss, 1:76 cystic fibrosis, 1:202-203, 3:177 diabetes, 1:210 Down syndrome, 1:256, 1:257-258

fragile X syndrome, 1:76, 2:40 hemoglobinopathies, 3:177 Huntington's disease, 2:100,

2:101, 2:103-104 hypothyroidism, 3:176-177 muscular dystrophies, 2:101,

2:99, 2:119, 3:42-43, 3:176 retinoblastomas, 2:100-101 sickle-cell disease, 3:177 Tay-Sachs disease, 2:96, 2:99-100, 3:174, 3:177, 4:98, 4:101-102 triplet repeat diseases, 4:152 X-linked disorders, 2:101 Genetically modified (GM) foods, 2:106-110 benefits, 1:9-11, 1:73 biopesticides, 1:57-58 consumer acceptance of, 2:107,

2:108-109 ethical issues, 1:11, 1:67-68, 1:57, 1:73, 3:3, 4:130-132 field production, 2:108 labeling, 1:67, 1:68, 2:109, 4:130 modification technique,

2:107-108 plant genetic engineer role,

3:149-150 recombinant DNA technology, 4:6-7

regulations, 2:107, 2:108-109 statistics, 2:108

substantial equivalence principle,

4:130-131 traits, 2:106-107 Genetically modified organisms (GMOs). See Transgenic organisms

Geneticists, 2:110-111 clinical, 1:74, 1:149-152, 1:213-215, 2:90, 2:91-92, 3:193-194 conservation, 1:190-192 Internet tools, 2:212 statistical, 3:193, 3:194-195,

4:93-95 See also specific geneticists Genetics, 2:111-112 biochemical, 3:103 origin of term, 1:130 See also Classical hybrid genetics; Mendelian genetics; Population genetics

Genetics professors. See College professors Genital and urinary tract disorders, birth defects, 1:75

Genitals

AIS individuals, 1:25 normal human, 1:21, 1:22, 1:23, 4:78-79 Genocide, eugenics and, 2:16 Genograms, distinguished from pedigrees, 3:139 Genome Web site, 1:142, 2:156,

2:176, 2:212 Genomes, 2:112-117

chromosome number range,

2:113-114 comparisons, molecular anthropology, 3:63-70 databases of sequences, 1:142,

2:123-124, 2:156 defense, DNA methylation role,

3:46-49 defined, 1:9, 2:11, 3:22, 4:6 distinguished from proteomes, 3:205

homologies, comparing,

2:157-158 McClintock's concept of, 3:22 nuclear genes, gene density, and intergenic sequences, 2:114-115 in nucleus, 1:112, 1:132-133,

3:119-126 size range, 2:114 See also Chloroplasts, genome; Eukaryotes, genomes; Human genome; Mitochondrial genome; Ploidy; Prokaryotes, genomes; specific organisms and organelles Genomic clones, vs. cDNA clones, 1:154

Genomic medicine, 2:118-120 DNA microarray tools, 2:119 genetic microchips, 2:119-120, 2:119

Human Genome Project contributions, 2:118, 2:119 SNP role, 2:118-119, 2:122 See also Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics Genomic parasites. See Transposable genetic elements Genomic plasticity, 2:117 Genomic screening gene discovery role, 2:59,

2:169-170 gene evolution role, 2:61 selected disease-causing genes, 2:168

See also Genetic testing Genomica, bioinformatics, 2:124 Genomics, 2:120-123

applications, 2:121-122, 4:133

defined, 2:177, 3:143 functional, 2:122, 2:124 high-throughput screening tools,

2:120, 2:150, 3:205 model organism sequencing, 2:120

repeated sequences as tools, 4:11 See also Human Genome Project Genomics industry, 2:123-125 bioinformatics companies, 2:124 defined, 2:123

established pharmaceutical companies, 2:124-125 functional genomics companies,

2:122, 2:124 future of, 2:125 gene mining companies,

2:123-124 large-scale sequencing companies, 2:123 new pharmaceutical companies, 2:125

population-based genomics companies, 2:124 Genotype, phenotype and, 2:125-129

adverse drug reactions,

3:144-145 CEPH families, 3:12 eugenics applications, 2:20 gene discovery, 2:57-61 induced mutagenesis to study,

3:90-93 in maize, 3:9-10 in Mendelian genetics, 3:33-37, 3:102

silent mutations, 2:127, 2:157,

3:93, 3:96, 3:99 See also Alleles; Dominant alleles; Individual genetic variation; Phenotypes; Polymorphisms; Recessive alleles Genotypes adaptation to environment, 4:67 of AIS individuals, 1:21, 1:23 blood groups, 1:83 defined, 1:21, 2:95, 3:140, 4:2 frequencies in gene pool,

3:171-172 genomic medicine applications, 2:118-120 Hardy-Weinberg predictions of, 2:135

represented in pedigrees, 3:140 standards for specifying, 2:133 variations, consequences, 2:126 Genotypic means, 4:2 Genotyping techniques, 3:160-161 GenPharm, transgenic cows, 1:73

Genzyme Transgenics, biopharma-

ceuticals, 2:125 Germ cells defined, 2:80, 3:93, 4:106 mutations, consequences, 2:192,

3:93, 3:99 telomerase production, 4:106 Germinal choice, 3:81 Germ-line gene therapy, advantages/disadvantages, 2:80-81 Gertsmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, 3:189-190 Gestational diabetes (GDM), 1:209, 1:212

GEY gene, for eye color, 2:33 GFP (green fluorescent protein),

2:73, 3:16, 3:17-18 GH (growth hormone), and endocrine disorders, 2:129-130 Giemsa stains, 1:127, 1:135 GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer), 4:23

Glaucoma, genomic screening, 2:168 Glaxo-SmithKline, drug development, 2:124 Globin proteins, 2:139

alpha, beta, and gamma chains, 2:136, 2:148, 3:153, 3:212-213, 3:212 defined, 2:29

3:211-213, 3:212 function, 2:136 gene family, 2:67-68, 3:211, 3:212

pseudogenes in, 3:211 sequence comparisons, mammals, 2:157

Glucocorticoids, function, 2:160 Glucokinase, maturity onset diabetes and, 1:211 Glucose breakdown in mitochondria, 1:111-112 defined, 1:110 diabetes and, 1:209, 1:212 glucocorticoids to regulate, 2:160 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), heterozygote advantage, 2:148 Glutamic acid (Glu)

chemical properties, 3:200 genetic code, 2:85, 2:87, 4:137 substitution, sickle-cell disease, 2:137, 2:139, 2:148, 3:200 Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehy-drogenase genes, 3:213

Glycine (Gln)

chemical properties, 3:200 genetic code, 2:85, 4:137 substitution, Tay-Sachs disease, 4:101

Glycoaldehyde phosphate, and ribose synthesis, 2:23 Glycogen, function, 3:41 Glycogen storage diseases, symptoms and treatment, 3:40, 3:44 Glycolipids, defined, 4:4 Glycolysis

ATP production, 3:52 defined, 3:43

metabolic disorders, 3:43-44 Glycoproteins blood group substances, 1:83 defined, 1:82, 3:178, 4:165 HIV and, 2:151, 2:152 in prions, 3:188 structure and function, 1:113 Glycosidic bonds, 1:216, 1:216 Glycosylation congenital disorders, 3:40 of proteins, 3:178-179, 3:180, 3:205

Glypican 3 proteoglycan, 2:132 GM foods. See Genetically modified foods

GM2 gangliosides, and Tay-Sachs disease, 4:98-100, 4:99, 4:102 GM-CSF (granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factors), as gene therapy tools, 2:79 GNG3 (seipin) gene, and diabetes, 1:211

Goddard, Henry Herbert, 2:18, 2:19 Gold, hyperaccumulators of, 1:61 Goldschmidt, Richard, 3:102-103 Golgi apparatus, 1:105, 1:113

defined, 4:100 Gonadotropins assisted reproductive technologies, 4:19, 4:21 and endocrine disorders, 2:129 Gonads defined, 1:21, 2:185, 4:78 development, AIS, 1:23-26 development, normal human,

1:21, 1:22, 1:23 hypogonadism, 1:79 See also Ovaries; Sex determination; Testes Gonorrhea, antibiotic resistance,

1:26, 1:27, 1:28 Goodfellow, Peter, 4:80 Gout, and uric acid, 3:44 Gp41 protein, HIV, 2:152, 2:152

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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