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Gp120 protein, HIV, 2:152, 2152 GPCR (G protein coupled receptor) pathway, signal transduction role, 4:88-89, 4:88, 4:90 Gram negative bacteria defined, 1:27 LPS layer, 2:11-12 as pathogens, 2:12 Gram positive bacteria

Clostridium perfringens, 2:12 defined, 2:13 LPS layer, 2:11-12 as pathogens, 2:13 Grant, Madison, 2:19 Granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factors (GM-CSF), as gene therapy tools, 2:79 Granulocytes, cancerous tumors, 1:94 Great Salt Lake, Archaea adaptations, 1:37 Green cone pigment (GCP) genes, 1:171

Green fluorescent protein (GFP),

2:73, 3:16, 3:17-18 Greenhouse gases, methane, 1:37 Greenland, ice sheet analysis, 3:168 Greider, Carol, 4:105 Griffith, Frederick, transformation studies, 4:122, 4:123-124 Griffith, J.S., 3:188 GroEl chaperones, 1:117 Growth disorders, 2:129-132

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome,

2:132, 2:185 collagen and, 2:131-132, 2:201 diastrophic dysplasia, 2:38 dwarfism, 1:75-76, 2:82, 3:186, 4:1

excessive growth, 2:132 gene therapy, ethical issues, 2:82 skeletal dysplasias, 2:130-132 Growth factor receptors mutations, 2:130, 3:129-130 RTK pathway, 4:87-88 Growth factors as extranuclear hormones, 2:161 gene expression role, 2:66,

4:113-114 IGF2, 2:132, 2:185, 2:211, 3:48 oncogene impact on, 3:128,

3:129-130 signal transduction role, 4:85 Growth hormone (GH) and endocrine disorders,

2:129-130 in genetically modified salmon, 4:130

from recombinant DNA, 2:125

Growth regulators, imprinting and, 2:186

GTG banding of chromosomes, 1:127

GTP (guanosine triphosphate), structure, 3:115, 3:117 Guanine concentration, for in situ hybridization, 2:187 in CpG dinucleotides, 3:46-49, 3:47

depurination, 1:240 in DNA alphabet, 2:83, 4:106 and DNA structure, 1:215-220,

1:250-251, 2:50, 2:51, 3:94 evolution of, 2:22-25 mutagenic base analogs, 3:87 origin of term, 1:249 pronated, 1:218 reactions with aflatoxins, 1:245 in RNA alphabet, 4:46-47, 4:106 structure, 1:216, 3:115, 3:116,

3:118, 3:118, 3:119, 4:48, 4:49 See also Base pairs Guanine diphosphate and triphos-phate (GDP and GTP) signal transduction role, 4:88,

4:89-90 structure, 3:115, 3:117 Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules, 3:152

Guillardia, nucleomorphs, 3:136 Gurdon, John, 1:158, 1:161-162 Guthrie test, for phenylketonuria, 3:176

Gynandromorphs, 4:82 Gynecomastia, defined, 1:79 Gypsies, killed by Nazis, 2:20

H antigen, 2:8 H substance, 1:83

HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), 2:155 Habitat loss, implications for wild populations, 1:186-187, 1:188, 1:190

Habitat use, as species isolation mechanism, 4:93 Haemophilus influenzae competence development, 4:121 genome characteristics, 1:142, 1:143, 2:121, 2:172 Hagedoorn, A.L. and A.C., 3:102 Haldane, John Burdon Sanderson, 3:13

Haldane map functions, 3:13

Halobacterium adaptations to salty environments, 1:37 genome characteristics, 2:121 Hamer, Dean, 4:84 Hanta fever, causal organism, 4:165 Haplodiploidy, in insects, 2:113 Haploid defined, 3:163, 4:176 gametes as, 3:24-29, 3:60, 3:163 Haploid complements, C values,

2:113, 2:114 Haploin-sufficiency, 2:201 Haplotype analysis, founder populations, 2:38 Haplotypes defined, 2:38, 3:140 represented in pedigrees, 3:140 Hardy, Godfrey, 2:133 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 2:133-136

allele frequency calculations,

2:134-135, 3:172-173 assumptions, 2:133-134,

3:173-174 basic concepts, 2:133 Chi-square test application, 3:195 departures from, 2:135-136 dominant alleles frequencies, 2:201

as eugenics rebuttal, 2:20 Harley, Calvin, 4:105 HATs (histone acetyltransferases),

1:137-138 Hayflick, Leonard, 4:105 Hayflick Limit, 4:104-106 HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), 3:185, 4:21, 4:24 Health care and biotechnology, ethics, 1:68-69 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 2:94, 3:191-192 Hearing loss aging and, 1:7

autosomal dominant disorders, 2:201 congenital, 1:76 diabetes and, 1:211 Martha's Vineyard population, 2:37

Hearing, role of alternative splicing,

1:12, 1:13-14 Heart disease. See Cardiovascular disease

Heat-shock protein chaperone systems ( Hsp70 and Hsp60), 1:116, 1:117, 1:118

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