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endoscope tool used to see within the body endoscopic describes procedure wherein a tool is used to see within the body endosymbiosis symbiosis in which one partner lives within the other enzyme a protein that controls a reaction in a cell epidemiologic the spread of diseases in a population epidemiologists people who study the incidence and spread of diseases in a population epidemiology study of incidence and spread of diseases in a population epididymis tube above the testes for storage and maturation of sperm epigenetic not involving DNA sequence change epistasis suppression of a characteristic of one gene by the action of another gene epithelial cells one of four tissue types found in the body, characterized by thin sheets and usually serving a protective or secretory function

Escherichia coli common bacterium of the human gut, used in research as a model organism estrogen female horomone et al. "and others"

ethicists a person who writes and speaks about ethical issues etiology causation of disease, or the study of causation eubacteria one of three domains of life, comprising most groups previously classified as bacteria eugenics movement to "improve" the gene pool by selective breeding eukaryote organism with cells possessing a nucleus eukaryotic describing an organism that has cells containing nuclei ex vivo outside a living organism excise remove; cut out excision removal exogenous from outside exon coding region of genes exonuclease enzyme that cuts DNA or RNA at the end of a strand expression analysis whole-cell analysis of gene expression (use of a gene to create its RNA or protein product)

fallopian tubes tubes through which eggs pass to the uterus fermentation biochemical process of sugar breakdown without oxygen fibroblast undifferentiated cell normally giving rise to connective tissue cells fluorophore fluorescent molecule forensic related to legal proceedings founder population fractionated purified by separation based on chemical or physical properties fraternal twins dizygotic twins who share 50 percent of their genetic material frontal lobe one part of the forward section of the brain, responsible for planning, abstraction, and aspects of personality gamete reproductive cell, such as sperm or egg gastrulation embryonic stage at which primitive gut is formed gel electrophoresis technique for separation of molecules based on size and charge gene expression use of a gene to create the corresponding protein genetic code the relationship between RNA nucleotide triplets and the amino acids they cause to be added to a growing protein chain genetic drift evolutionary mechanism, involving random change in gene frequencies glycoprotein protein to which sugars are attached

Golgi network system in the cell for modifying, sorting, and delivering proteins gonads testes or ovaries gradient a difference in concentration between two regions

Gram negative bacteria bacteria that do not take up Gram stain, due to membrane structure ooooc genetic predisposition increased risk of developing diseases genome the total genetic material in a cell or organism genomics the study of gene sequences genotype set of genes present geothermal related to heat sources within Earth germ cell cell creating eggs or sperm germ-line cells giving rise to eggs or sperm gigabase one billion bases (of DNA) glucose sugar glycolipid molecule composed of sugar and fatty acid glycolysis the breakdown of the six-carbon carbohydrates glucose and fructose oooc ,oc

Gram positive able to take up Gram stain, used to classify bacteria gynecomastia excessive breast development in males haploid possessing only one copy of each chromosome haplotype set of alleles or markers on a short chromosome segment hematopoiesis formation of the blood hematopoietic blood-forming heme iron-containing nitrogenous compound found in hemoglobin hemolysis breakdown of the blood cells hemolytic anemia blood disorder characterized by destruction of red blood cells hemophiliacs a person with hemophilia, a disorder of blood clotting herbivore plant eater heritability proportion of variability due to genes; ability to be inherited heritability estimates how much of what is observed is due to genetic factors heritable genetic heterochromatin condensed portion of chromosomes heterozygote an individual whose genetic information contains two different forms (alleles) of a particular gene heterozygous characterized by possession of two different forms (alleles) of a particular gene high-throughput rapid, with the capacity to analyze many samples in a short time histological related to tissues histology study of tissues histone protein around which DNA winds in the chromosome homeostasis maintenance of steady state within a living organism homologous carrying similar genes homologues chromosomes with corresponding genes that pair and exchange segments in meiosis homozygote an individual whose genetic information contains two identical copies of a particular gene homozygous containing two identical copies of a particular gene hormones molecules released by one cell to influence another hybrid combination of two different types hybridization (molecular) base-pairing among DNAs or RNAs of different origins hybridize to combine two different species hydrogen bond weak bond between the H of one molecule or group and a nitrogen or oxygen of another hydrolysis splitting with water hydrophilic "water-loving"

hydrophobic "water hating," such as oils hydrophobic interaction attraction between portions of a molecule (especially a protein) based on mutual repulsion of water hydroxyl group chemical group consisting of -OH

hyperplastic cell cell that is growing at an increased rate compared to normal cells, but is not yet cancerous hypogonadism underdeveloped testes or ovaries hypothalamus brain region that coordinates hormone and nervous systems hypothesis testable statement identical twins monozygotic twins who share 100 percent of their genetic material immunogenicity likelihood of triggering an immune system defense immunosuppression suppression of immune system function in vitro "in glass"; in lab apparatus, rather than within a living organism in vivo "in life"; in a living organism, rather than in a laboratory apparatus incubating heating to optimal temperature for growth informed consent knowledge of risks involved insecticide substance that kills insects interphase the time period between cell divisions intra-strand within a strand intravenous into a vein intron untranslated portion of a gene that interrupts coding regions karyotype the set of chromosomes in a cell, or a standard picture of the chromosomes kilobases units of measure of the length of a nucleicacid chain; one kilobase is equal to 1,000 base pairs kilodalton a unit of molecular weight, equal to the weight of 1000 hydrogen atoms kinase an enzyme that adds a phosphate group to another molecule, usually a protein ooooc immunosuppressive describes an agent able to suppress immune system function

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