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Ribozymes (continued)

structure and function, 2:25, 4:44-45

viroid cleavage role, 4:163, 4:163 virusoid cleavage role, 4:164 Ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase, 3:199 Rice (Oryza sativa)

genetically engineered, 1:10,

1:10, 2:106-108, 3:149, 4:135 genome characteristics, 1:34, 2:121, 2:172 Rice dwarf virus, 4:165 Rice, George, 4:84 Rickets, vitamin D-resistant, 4:175 Rickettsia prowazekli, genome characteristics, 1:142 Risch, Neil, 1:214 RNA (ribonucleic acid), 4:46-52 antisense nucleotides, 1:29, 1:30 cytoplasmic RNPs, 4:51 defined, 1:224

distinguished from DNA, 4:46 as first genetic material, 2:22-25 oligonucleotides, 1:176-177 polymer formation, 3:117-118,

3:118, 4:108, 4:109-110 preserving, in situ hybridization, 2:188

primary transcript, 4:56, 4:57-59,

2:151, 4:35, 4:39-40, 4:52 ribozymes, 2:25, 4:45-46 in viroid genomes, 4:162-163 See also RNA processing; Transcription; Translation RNA, 7SL, 3:211-212 RNA binding sites. See Promoter

RNA sequences RNA catalysts. See Ribozymes RNA, complementary (cRNA), in situ hybridization role, 2:187-188 RNA, double-stranded (dsRNA),

1:31, 4:53-54 RNA editing, 4:58 RNA interference, 1:31, 4:52-54 dicing dsRNA, 4:53 interference process, 4:53-54 research applications, 4:54 RNA, messenger (mRNA) alternative splicing, 1:11-13,

2:62, 2:63 ambisense segments, 4:166 antisense nucleotides, 1:29, 1:30,

1:97, 2:106 of cloned organisms, 1:164-165 coding for, 3:105

correlation to protein levels, 3:206

Crick's contributions, 1:193, 1:252

determining location of, 2:187 function, 2:53, 2:62, 3:70, 3:114,

4:50-51, 4:57, 4:135, 4:136 genomics studies of, 2:120 impaired, and metabolic disease,

3:39 instability, 2:84

introns lacking in, 1:154, 1:157, 1:224, 2:53, 3:124, 3:211, 4:51-52, 4:110 maturation and degradation, 2:62, 3:114-115, 4:51, 4:53, 4:107

molecular hybridization mapping of, 1:225-226 polycistronic, 3:135 positive and negative polarity,

4:165, 4:166 processed pseudogenes and, 3:211

processing, 4:57-59, 4:58

RNA interference, 1:31, 4:52-54

splicing of, 4:59

synthesis, 1:112

synthesis of, 4:55

translation role, 2:84, 4:44,

4:50-51 transport from nucleus, 2:62 of viruses, 4:165-168 RNA polymerases, 4:54-56 clamps, 4:56

defined, 2:63, 2:163, 2:184, 3:134 DNA primase, 4:13, 4:16, 4:18 DNA-dependent, 4:168 function, 1:112, 1:205, 2:30, 2:52, 2:54, 2:62, 4:48, 4:55, 4:56, 4:107, 4:108, 4:110 inhibition, imprinting, 2:184 laboratory analysis of, 4:55 operon role, 3:133, 3:134-135 pol I, 4:55, 4:112 pol II, 4:55, 4:112-113, 4:145 pol III, 4:55, 4:112 prokaryotes, 4:55 RNA-dependent, 4:168 structure, 4:55-56, 4:55, 4:56 RNA processing, 4:57-60 in antibody genes, 2:180 editing, 4:58

evolution of, 2:22-25

exo- and endo-ribonuclease role,

4:57-58 function, 4:49, 4:110 gene expression role, 2:62 of messenger RNA, 4:57-59, 4:58 polyadenylation, 4:59 by prokaryotes, 2:53, 4:50, 4:57 retroposition, 2:28, 2:28, 2:30 of ribosomal RNA, 2:53,

3:119-120, 4:57, 4:58, 4:58 ribozyme role, 2:25, 2:79, 4:44-45

splicing, 3:181, 4:57, 4:58, 4:59 of transfer RNA, 4:57, 4:58, 4:58, 4:59

See also RNA polymerases; Splicing, alternative RNA purification, electrophoresis techniques, 2:49-50 RNA, ribosomal (rRNA) banding techniques, 1:128 of ciliated protozoa, 4:45 coding for, 2:52, 3:105 in eubacteria, 2:16 function, 1:112, 4:51, 4:57 gene clusters (tandem arrays), 1:132, 2:28, 2:68, 2:69, 2:117 human, amount, 3:123 in mitochondria, 3:53, 3:55-56 peptide bond role, 4:42 phylogenetic relationships, 1:36 processing, 2:53, 3:119-120,

4:57, 4:58, 4:58 as pseudogenes, 3:211 and ribosome synthesis, 4:42-43 as ribozyme, 4:45 structure, 4:47-48, 4:50 synthesis of, 3:119, 4:55 transcription of, 3:123-124 RNA, satellite (satellite viruses),

4:164 RNA sequencing blotting procedures, 1:86-89, 1:152

electrophoresis tools, 2:49-50 by eubacteria, 2:16 in situ hybridization tools, 2:186-189 RNA sequencing, mass spectrometry tools, 3:18-20 RNA, small nuclear (snRNA), 3:211,

4:51, 4:57, 4:59 RNA, small temporal, 4:54 RNA (ribonucleic acid), structure 3' and 5' ends, 4:47, 4:49, 4:109, 4:135

alphabet, 2:84, 4:46, 4:106, 4:135 analysis techniques, 4:48 base pairs, 4:47, 4:49, 4:106, 4:107

directionality, 4:47, 4:49, 4:109 hydrogen bonding, 2:24, 2:186, 4:47

phosphodiester bonds, 4:47, 4:49,

4:49, 4:54, 4:107, 4:109 rudders, 4:56 secondary, 4:47

susceptibility to cleavage, 3:115 tertiary, 4:47-48, 4:50 RNA synthesis. See Transcription RNA, transfer (tRNA)

anticodons, 2:84, 4:50, 4:137-138 coding for, 2:52 Crick's contributions, 1:193, 1:252

4:136, 4:137-138 initiator, 4:137

in mitochondria, 3:53, 3:55-56 processing, 4:57, 4:58, 4:58, 4:59 as pseudogenes, 3:211 in retroviruses, 4:37 RNase P precursor, 4:45, 4:46 splicing of, 4:59 structure, 4:47-48, 4:50, 4:50 synthesis of, 4:55 RNA triplets, defined, 1:61 RNA tumor viruses. See Retroviruses RNA, viroid, 4:162-163, 4:163 RNA viruses. See Retroviruses;

Viroids; Virusoids "RNA world," 4:46 RNA-protein particles (RNPs), 4:49-50

cytoplasmic, 4:51 export, 4:51 RNase contamination, in situ hybridization, 2:188 as gene cloning tool, 1:153, 1:154 H enzyme, 4:16, 4:17 P enzyme, 4:45, 4:46, 4:51 Robson and Aurbach, mustard gas studies, 3:90 Rodent models, 4:60-62 addiction studies, 1:5 aging studies, 1:7 behavior genetics, 1:48-49 chimeras, 2:3-5, 2:5, 4:125 cloned mice, 1:160, 1:164 developmental processes, 1:205

embryonic stem cell research,

4:60, 4:61 SCID studies, 4:75 Tay-Sachs disease studies, 4:102 testis-determining factor, 4:80-81 transgenic mice, 2:4-5, 3:62, 4:61-62, 4:124-127, 4:125 Rodent models, genomes characteristics, 2:120, 2:122,

3:61-62, 4:60 DAT gene knock outs, 1:41 DNA mutation libraries, 2:122, 4:60

epistatic interactions, 2:8, 2:8 FMR-1 gene knock outs, 2:42 gene targeting, 2:73 Hox gene knock outs, 1:208 vs. human chromosomes, 3:96, 3:97

mutation rates, 3:99 PrP gene knock-outs, 3:188 RNA interference, 4:53 Rods (bacterial form), 2:14 Rods, role in color vision, 1:171, 1:172

Roe v. Wade, right to privacy, 2:92 Rothmund's syndrome, progeroid aspects, 1:2 Roundworms (Caenorhabditis elegans), 4:62-64, 4:63 aging studies, 1:7, 4:64 apoptosis studies, 1:32-33 behavior studies, 3:61 developmental processes, 1:204,

1:205, 1:206, 1:208, 4:63-64 genome characteristics, 2:115, 2:121, 2:122, 2:172, 2:174, 4:62-63

as model organism, 3:60, 3:61,

4:62-64 nuclear receptor genes, 2:161-162 restriction maps, 1:155-156 RNA interference, 4:53 sex determination, 4:81-82 Rous, Peyton, 1:99-100, 3:127 Rous sarcoma virus, and cancer,

1:99-100, 4:39, 4:169 Roux, Wilhelm, 1:132 Rowley, Janet, 3:127 RPA binding protein, 4:14 RTK (receptor tyrosine kinases), signal transduction role, 4:87-88, 4:89, 4:90 Rubella (German measles) and birth defects, 1:75, 1:81

vaccine, 4:129 virus, characteristics, 4:165 Rubin, Harry, 4:169 Ruddle, Frank, 4:124 RXR (9-cis-retinoic acid receptor), function, 2:163

Saccharomyces sp.. See Yeasts Sachs, Bernard, 4:98 S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), 1:242 SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) analysis, 1:228-229 Saline conditions, Archaea adaptations, 1:37 Salk, Jonas, 4:170 Salmon, transgenic, 4:130 Salmonella choleraceus, generalized transduction, 4:118 Salmonella, endotoxins produced by, 2:12

Salmonella Newport, antibiotic resistance, 1:28 Salmonella typhimurium, Ames test,

1:19-20, 1:20, 3:92 Salt tolerance, transgenic plants,

2:106, 2:107, 3:149 SAM (S-adenosylmethionine), 1:242 Sample statistics, 4:96 Sandhoff disease, 4:100, 4:102 Sandhoff, Konrad, 4:100 Sanfilippo syndrome, symptoms and treatment, 3:41 Sanger, Fred, 4:64-65, 4:65 DNA sequencing techniques, 1:43, 1:72, 1:198, 2:172, 4:70 Sanger method. See Chain termination method Sarcolemma, muscular dystrophy and, 3:84-85 Sarcomas defined, 1:93, 4:169 Kaposi's, 2:151, 4:169 Sarcomeres, in roundworms, 4:63 Satellite sequences. See Short tandem repeats Schizophrenia, 2:9, 3:213-215, 4:162 Schridinger, Erwin, 1:192, 1:203 SCID. See Severe combined immune deficiency Science writers, 4:65-67 Scientist, defined, 3:147 Scrapie, 3:188, 3:189 defined, 3:188

resistant transgenic animals, 2:106 Screenable markers (reporter genes), 2:73, 3:16, 3:17-18, 3:91 in situ hybridization role, 2:188

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