Oooc oc

Protein sequencing (continued) databases, 2:156, 2:212, 3:18,

3:198, 3:208-209 defined, 3:197

Edman degradation technique, 3:197

HPLC tools, 3:197-198 as indicator of evolutionary relat-

edness, 2:156-158, 2:157 Internet tools, 2:212 mass spectrometry tools,

3:18-20, 3:198 role of, 1:252 Protein structure, 3:197 C and N termini, 3:181,

3:197-198, 3:207 conformational changes, 3:204 disulfide bridges, 3:200, 3:201 domains, 1:24, 1:52-53, 2:30,

3:201, 3:203 peptide bonds, 3:200 primary, 3:197, 3:200 quaternary (multimeric), 3:202, 3:203

techniques for studying, 3:2 tertiary, 3:201, 3:203 tools to predict, 1:53, 1:55 See also Protein folding (secondary structure) Protein synthesis. See Translation Proteinaceous infectious particles.

See Prions Proteinase K, 3:221 Proteins, 3:198-204

alternative splicing role, 1:12-14 apparent mass, 3:207 blotting to identify, 1:86-89 and cell cycle regulation,

1:105-107, 1:106 cell death, 1:32-33 defective, dominance relations, 2:200-201 degradation of, 1:33, 2:62,

3:197-198 digestion roles, 3:197 DNA footprinting role, 1:220-221, 1:221 DNA repair role, 3:197 drugs that target, 1:54,

3:206-207 engineering of, 1:64 as enzymes, 2:52, 3:103 gene families and, 2:29 as gene regulators, 2:52 human, cloned, 1:72 immune system role, 3:197 induced mutagenesis to study, 3:89, 3:90-92

interactions among, epistasis, 2:9, 2:207

interactions with drugs,

2:149-150 isoelectric points, 3:207 isoforms, 1:13, 1:14, 1:14, 2:31,

and membrane transport, 1:109

methyl-binding, 3:48

one gene-one protein model,

3:103 orthologs, 2:158 packaging, 1:113 proteomes, 2:212 sarcomeres, 4:63 signal transduction role, 1:110,

2:52, 3:103, 3:197, 4:85-91 structural roles, 3:103, 3:197,

3:199, 4:135 transport through cell membranes, 1:112-113 See also Post-translational control; Proteomics; specific proteins and enzymes Proteobacteria, genome characteristics, 2:116 Proteomes databases, 3:209 defined, 2:212, 3:205 distinguished from genomes, 3:205

Proteomics, 3:204, 3:205-209 2-D electrophoresis tools, 2:49 2-D PAGE tools, 3:207-208 bioinformatics tools, 1:52-54, 3:205

challenges, 3:205-206 defined, 1:52, 2:9, 3:124 gel electrophoresis tools, 3:206 as gene cloning tool, 1:157 human nucleoli analysis, 3:124 mass spectrometry tools, 3:18-20, 3:206, 3:208 yeast two-hybrid system, 2:9, 3:209, 4:181 Proteosomes, ubiquitination, 3:179,

3:180 Protista genome characteristics, 3:57 inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast genes, 2:197 intracellular symbionts of, 2:198 ploidy, 2:115 Protocols, defined, 1:19, 2:187 Protonated, defined, 1:218 Proto-oncogenes activation by retroviruses, 3:127

activation without retroviruses,

3:128-129 Bcr, 3:129 c-Abl, 3:129 function, 4:152 mutations, 1:99-100, 1:155 transcription factors as, 3:128, 3:130 Protozoans

African trypanosomes, 4:145 as biopesticides, 1:57 ciliated, 4:45, 4:104 exceptions to universal code, 2:87 as model organisms, 3:61 ploidy, 2:115 Proviruses (proviral DNA) HIV, 2:152

of retroviruses, 4:35-37, 4:39 Prusiner, Stanley, 3:187-188, 3:188 PS1 and PS2 (presenilin 1 and 2) genes. See Amyloid precursor protein

PSA (prostatic antigen screening), for prostate cancer, 3:175 Psd-95 gene, learning and memory, 2:5

Pseudoachondroplasia, 2:132 Pseudoautosomal region, 1:196-197 Pseudogenes, 3:209-213 defined, 2:28

distinguished from functional genes, 3:209-210 evolution of, 2:28, 2:29-30,

3:211-213 globin gene family, 3:211,

3:212-213, 3:212 mutations, 2:29-30, 3:209-212 nonprocessed, 3:210-211, 3:210 paralogous, 3:210 processed (retropseudogenes), 3:210, 3:211-212, 4:8, 4:10 Pseudohypertrophic muscles, 3:84 Pseudomonas stutzeri, competence development, 4:121 Psychiatric disorders, 3:213-216 ADHD, 1:39-42, 3:213, 3:215 autism, 3:213

bipolar disorder, 3:213, 3:214, 3:215

as complex traits, 1:213 dementia, defined, 2:103 epistatic interactions, 2:9 eugenics and, 2:17-20 genetic components, 3:213 genetic counseling, 2:88-89, 2:100

obsessive-compulsive disorder, 3:213

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