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Viruses, specific types of (continued) herpesviruses, 4:166, 4:169, 4:171 HPV, 4:155, 4:165, 4:169, 4:171 HTLV, 4:34, 4:36, 4:38, 4:169 influenza, 4:165 Lassa fever, 4:165 lentiviruses, 2:151 lysogenic, 4:118-119 lytic, 4:117-118 measles, 4:165 parvovirus, 4:165 picornaviruses, 4:165 poliovirus, 4:165, 4:166, 4:168,

4:169, 4:170-171 poxviruses, 4:164, 4:166, 4:167 proviruses, 2:152, 4:35-37, 4:39 reoviruses, 4:167 rhabdovirus, 4:165, 4170, 4:171 rhinovirus, 4:165 rice dwarf, 4:165 Rous sarcoma, 1:99-100, 4:39,

4:169 satellite, 4:164 Sin Nombre, 4:165 smallpox, 1:69, 4:165, 4:171 tobacco mosaic, 4:168 togaviruses, 4:168-169 tomato bushy stunt, 4:165 variola, 4:165 See also Hepatitis viruses; HIV/AIDS Viruses, treatments antibiotics, 1:28 DNA methylation, 3:47-48 DNA vaccines, 1:255 interferon, 1:63 RNA interference, 4:53-54 vaccines, 4:170-171 Virusoids, 4:162, 4:164 helper viruses, 4:164 hepatitis delta, 4:164 satellite, 4:164 subemovirus, 4:164 subterranean clover mottle virus, 4:164 Vision blindness, 1:7, 1:171-172, 1:179,

1:209, 1:212 mechanisms, 1:170 signal transduction role, 4:89 Vision, color, 1:170-173 acquired defects, 1:171-172 hereditary defects, 1:171-172 inheritance patterns, 3:78 normal mechanisms, 1:170-171 opsin protein genes, 1:171

tests for, 1:172

as X-linked disorder, 2:203, 3:78 Vitamins

A, transgenic rice, 2:106-107,

2:108, 3:149, 4:135 B12, synthesized by bacteria, 2:10

C, from genetically engineered bacteria, 1:63 D3, and hormonal regulation,

2:161, 2:164 folate, 1:78, 1:128 K, synthesized by bacteria, 2:10, 2:13

metabolic role, 3:37, 3:39 Vitelline membrane, 4:21 Vitravene, 1:30-31 VNTRs. See Variable number of tandem repeats Vogelstein, Bert, 3:131 Volcanic winter, and population bottlenecks, 3:168 Volta, Alessandro, 1:37 Von Willebrand factor, 2:145 V-sis oncogene, 3:130 V-src (viral-sarcoma) gene, 1:100 Vulnerable population status, 1:186

Waldeyer, Heinrich Wilhelm, 1:132 Wallace, Alfred Russel, 4:92 Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, 4:35 Warren, Stephen, 2:42 Watermelons, seedless, 3:165, 3:165 Watson, James, 4:171-173 Delbrück and, 1:204, 4:172 DNA structure research, 1:62, 1:192, 1:251, 2:50, 2:120, 2:171, 3:105, 4:172 on genetic coding, 1:252 Human Genome Project role,

2:173-174, 2:175, 2:176, 4:173 Muller and, 4:172 Web sites. See Internet Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 2:208

Weed control, herbicide-resistant crops, 1:58 Weidemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome, progeroid aspects, 1:2 Weight gain and aging, 1:7

and cardiovascular disease, 1:101 and diabetes, 1:210 Weinberg, Robert, 3:127 Weinberg, Wilhelm, 2:133 Weissmann, Charles, 3:188 Weldon, Walter F. R., 3:102

Werner's syndrome, 1:1, 1:3 Western blotting, 1:86 Wet lab, defined, 1:181 Whales illegal trade concerns, 1:189 population bottlenecks, 1:189 What is Life? (E. Schridinger), 1:192,

1:203 Wheat genome size, 1:34 Hessian fly resistance, 1:58 Wheat, polyploid, 2:114, 3:166 White, Raymond, 3:130 Widow's peak hairlines, 2:191, 2:202 Wiener and Landsteiner, Rh system, 1:84

Wigler, Michael, 3:127 Wild-type alleles/traits, defined,

1:45-46, 3:100, 4:137 Wilkins, Maurice, 4:172 Wilms tumor defined, 2:132 imprinting disorder, 2:185 Wilson, Allan, 3:67 Wilson, Edwin, 3:73 Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, 1:68 Wobble hypothesis, 2:85, 4:4 Wolffian ducts, 1:21, 1:22, 1:23,

4:79, 4:79 Wolfram syndrome, 1:212 Working Group on Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of the Human Genome Project, 2:94 World Health Organization, addiction criteria, 1:4 World Trade Center, terrorist attacks, 1:70 World War II Veteran Twins Registry, 4:159, 4:160 Wright, Sewall, 3:103, 4:1 Wright, Woodring, 4:105

X chromosomes, 2:114, 4:173-176 aberrations, detecting, 3:183 characteristics, 4:174, 4:174, 4:175

and color vision, 1:171-172 condensation of, 2:63 crossovers, 1:196-197 fruit fly, 2:43, 3:7, 3:73, 3:164 heterochromatin, 1:134-135 human, 1137, 2:113, 2:199,

3:106, 3:164 inactivation of, 2:63, 2:204, 3:76-78, 3:111, 4:175-176 monosomy, 3:111

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