Oooc oc

Panic disorder, genetic components,

3:213 Pap smears, 3:175

Papaya, genetically engineered, 2:109 Papaya ringspot potyvirus, 1:58 Paracentric inversions, 1:123 Paracrine hormones, 2:160 Paralogous genes and pseudogenes,

3:210 Paralogs, 2:158 Paramecium sp.

C value paradox, 2:114 intracellular symbionts of, 2:198 ploidy, 2:115 Parental genomic imprinting, 2:183 Parkinson's disease and cigarette smoking, 4:161 DNA microarray analysis, 1:228 protein conformation role, 3:190 stem cell research tools, 2:5-6 symptoms, 4:160 twin studies, 4:159, 4:160-161 Particle-mediated transformation,

4:132-133 Partitioning, random of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes, 2:195, 2:197 of plasmids, 2:198 Parvovirus, characteristics, 4:165 The Passing of the Great Race (M.

Grant), 2:19 Patent agents and attorneys,

1:42-43, 3:138 Patent depositories, 3:138 Patenting genes, 3:136-138 history, 1:72-73, 3:136-137, 4:129

Human Genome Project, 2:174,

2:175-176 international protection, 3:138 legal issues, 3:3-4 procedure, 3:138 requirements, 3:137-138 Patents, defined, 3:136 Paternity anonymous, assisted reproduction, 4:28 DNA profiling to identify, 1:238 Pathogenicity islands, 1:27-28 Pathogenic/pathogenicity defined, 1:27, 2:124, 3:151, 4:134 virulence plasmids, 3:151 Pathogens changes, immune system response to, 2:178 defined, 1:57, 2:10, 4:34 opportunistic, 2:151, 2:155

See also Eubacteria; Prions; Retroviruses; specific pathogens; Viruses

Pathology/pathological, defined,

1:16, 1:171, 4:94 Pathophysiology, defined, 1:39 Pauling, Linus, 3:95, 3:200 PBR322, cloning vector, 4:128 PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), bioremediation to remove, 1:59 PCR. See Polymerase chain reaction Peach latent mosaic viroid, 4:163 Pearson, Karl, 3:102, 4:95 Peas (garden), Mendelian genetics,

1:146-148, 3:30-31, 3:32-36 Pedigrees, 3:138-142 confidentiality of, 3:142 defined, 3:7

degrees of relationship, 3:141 distinguished from genograms, 3:139

drawing and recording,

3:140-141 of ethnic backgrounds, 3:141-142 in Mendelian genetics, 3:36 sample, 3:140

symbols, 3:139, 3:140, 3:141 terminology, 3:140 uses, 3:139-140 Y chromosomes as tools, 3:65, 4:178

Penetrance/nonpenetrance age-dependent, 1:18 epistatic interactions, 2:8 incomplete, 2:201, 2:205 reduced, 2:61, 3:214 Penicillin, resistance to, 1:26, 1:27,

1:185, 2:11, 4:69 Peptide bonds defined, 4:137

and protein structure, 3:197,

3:200, 4:138 ribosomal RNA role, 4:42, 4:137 Peptide mass fingerprinting, 3:208 Peptide sequencing. See Protein sequencing Peptides defined, 3:20, 4:85 fusion, 4:167 Peptidoglycan, in cell walls, 1:36, 2:11

Peptidyl (P) site, in translation, 4:138

Peptidyl-transferase center, 4:138 Percutaneous, defined, 2:97 Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, prenatal genetic testing, 2:97-98

Pericentric inversions, 1:123-124 Perkin-Elmer sequencers, 2:173 Peroxisome metabolism, disorders,

3:41, 3:45-46 Peroxisomes, 1:105 Perutz, Max, 4:151 Pesticides biopesticides, 1:57-59 damage to natural enemies, 1:57 resistance to, 1:11 role in disease, 1:214 Pets cloned, 1:158-159, 1:159 illegal trade in, 1:186 Pfam database, 3:209 PG (polygalacturonase) gene, 1:29 PGD. See Preimplantation genetic diagnosis The phage group, 1:204 Phagocytic, defined, 1:33 Pharmaceutical scientists,

3:142-144, 3:145 Pharmacogenetics and pharmacoge-nomics, 3:144-147 antisense nucleotide tools, 1:29,

1:30-31 apoptosis studies, 1:33 Arabidopsis research, 1:35 bacterial genome mapping studies, 1:142 bioinformatics tools, 1:53-54,

1:55-56 biopharmaceuticals, 2:125 cardiovascular disease treatments, 1:103

cost and access concerns, 1:69 DNA microarray tools, 3:146 gene cloning tools, 1:153-154,

1:163-164 genetically engineered products, 1:10-11, 1:63-64, 1:72, 1:74, 4:5-7

genomics industry role, 2:124-125 Human Genome Project contributions, 2:121-122, 2:171, 3:146-147 pharmaceutical scientist role,

3:142-144 predisposition predictions, 3:146, 3:148

side effects, preventing, 2:118-120, 2:122, 3:144-146, 4:22

signal transduction targets, 4:91 SNP comparisons, 3:146-147 transgenic animal models, 2:106, 4:127

See also Drugs (medications); Genomic medicine

Phenocopies, defined, 2:61 Phenotypes

Bombay, 2:8, 2:9 defined, 1:21, 2:8, 3:9, 4:1 endophenotypes, 4:2, 4:2 Hardy-Weinberg predictions from, 2:135 mutation manifestations, 1:35, 1:75, 1:155, 1:156-157, 2:43 QTL effects on, 4:2-3 simple vs. complex, 1:177, 2:55, 2:60-61 See also Genotype, phenotype and; specific diseases and traits Phenylalanine (Phe)

genetic code, 2:85, 4:137 and PKU, 3:42-43 Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), 1:82, 2:55, 2:99, 3:42-43, 3:176, 4:5

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

as frameshift mutation, 4:5 gene-environment interactions,

2:55-56 Guthrie test, 3:176 maternal condition and, 1:82 newborn screening, 2:99, 2:119,

symptoms and treatment, 2:202, 3:40, 3:42-43, 3:176 Phenylthio-carbamide (PTC), ability to taste, 2:191 Pheromones, defined, 2:158 Philadelphia chromosome, 4:154 Phimthop, Thawiphop, 1:78 PhiX174 bacteriophage, 3:135, 4:64 Phosphatase enzymes in DNA sequencing, 4:70 post-translational phosphoryla-

tion by, 3:178 signal transduction role, 4:87 Phosphate groups defined, 1:105, 4:70 and DNA structure, 1:105, 2:50, 2:51, 3:115, 3:116, 3:117 Phosphatidylcholine, function, 1:242 Phosphodiester bonds defined, 1:244, 3:112 and DNA structure, 1:216, 1:216,

1:244, 3:117-118, 3:118 hydrolysis of, 3:113, 3:114 lyase reactions, 3:113 and RNA structure, 4:47, 4:49 Phosphoglycerate kinase 2, 2:28 Phospholipase C, signal transduction role, 4:89

Phospholipids, in cell membranes,

1:109, 2:12, 3:55 Phosphorimidazolide, and ribose-phosphate backbone, 2:23, 2:24 Phosphorous, toxicity, 1:61 Phosphorylation of antibiotics, 3:17 by ATP, 3:178, 3:204, 4:87 by CREB, 4:89 defined, 1:53, 2:62, 3:51, 4:86 DNA replication initiation role, 4:18

by GDP and GTP, 4:88, 4:89-90 of proteins, 1:105-107, 2:62, 3:20, 3:178, 3180, 3:203-204, 3:205, 4:86-87, 4:87, 4:111 of resistance genes, 3:16-17 of RNA polymerase, 4:113 RTK pathway, 4:87-88 signal transduction role, 4:86-87, 4:87

See also Kinase enzymes Phosporimadazote, nucleotide linking role, 2:24 Photopigments, role in color vision,

1:170-172 Photoproducts, as mutagens, 1:244 Photoreceptors

Arabidopsis research, 1:36 role in vision, 1:170-172 Photosynthesis by chloroplast ancestor, 2:195 chloroplast role, 1:112, 2:108, 2:194

Phototrophs, described, 2:13 Phylogenetic Species Concept, 1:189 Phylogenetic/phylogeneticists, defined, 1:36, 4:41, 4:146 Physical maps (genes), 1:155, 1:156 Physician, defined, 3:147 Physician scientists, 3:147-148 Phytochelatins, 1:60 Phytophthora infestans, potatoes resistant to, 2:108 Phytoremediation, 1:60-61 Picornaviruses, structure, 4:165 Pigs cloned, 4:143

knock-out, for organ transplants, 41 40, 4:142-143 Pilus, sex, 1:183, 1183, 1184, 2:15, 3:151

Pineapples, genetically engineered, 2:107

PIP-2 lipids, signal transduction role, 4:89 PIQ (performance ability) intelligence scores, 2:208

Pituitary glands and endocrine disorders, 2:129 function, 2:160

suppressing, assisted reproduction, 4:21 PKA regulatory II^ mice, 1:5 PKA (protein kinase), signal trans-

duction role, 4:89 PKC (protein kinase C), signal transduction role, 4:89 PKC, mice, 1:5 PKU. See Phenylketonuria Placenta chromosomal mosaicism, 3:79 stem cells, 4:30 Plague, as bioterrorism tool, 1:69-70 Plant genetic engineers, 3:149-150 Plant molecular farming, 4:134-135 Plaque, and cardiovascular disease, 1:102 Plasma membranes defined, 1:113, 3:202, 4:89 of eubacteria, 2:12 structure and function, 1:105, 1:109, 1:113, 3:202 Plasmids, 3:150-153

cleaved by restriction enzymes,

conjugative (fertility factors), 1:140-142, 1:182-185, 1184, 2:117, 3:151 defined, 1:27, 1:222, 3:16, 4:128 degradative and catabolic, 3:151 for DNA vaccines, 1:254-255 electrophoresis to separate, 2:49 as gene therapy vectors, 2:78 inheritance of, 2:198, 3:151 mobilization, 3:152 promiscuous, 1:183, 1:185 in recombinant organisms, 1:71,

2:15, 3:152 relaxed, stringent, and incompatible, 3:151 replication of, 1:152-153, 2:15,

3:151-152 resistance (R), 1:27, 1:140, 1:185, 2:117, 2:198, 3:16-17, 3:151, 4:69

structure and function, 1:140-142, 1:144, 2:14-15, 2:116, 3:150-151 Ti, 2:107

of transgenic bioremediators, 1:61

3:152 virulence, 3:151

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