Oooc oc

Somatic cells (continued) mutations, detecting, 3:93 replication of, 3:58-59 telomerase production, 4:106 variations transmitted through, 1:104-105, 2:192 Somatic, defined, 2:73, 3:24, 4:64 Somatic recombination, antibodies, 2:180, 2:182 Somatostatin, cloning, 1:72 Soot, as mutagen, 1:98-99, 1:244 Southern blotting defined, 1:86, 2:5 procedure, 1:86-88 to study chimeras, 2:5 to study hemophilia, 2:143 Southern blotting, defined, 3:221 SOX9 gene, 4:81 Soybeans as bioremediator, 1:61 genetically engineered, 1:9, 1:10, 2:108, 4:134 Spearman, Charles, 2:208 Speciation, 4:91-93 allopatric, 4:93

biological-species concept, 4:91 chimpanzees, 3:167-168, 3:168 conservation genetics research tools, 1:187-189 defined, 2:95

ecological (sympatric), 4:93 gene flow and, 2:70-71 genetic drift and, 2:95-96,

4:92-93 H. erectus distinguished from Neandertals, 3:66-67, 3:66, 3:69

homologies as indicators, 2:158 vs. individual genetic variation, 4:91-92

isolating mechanisms, 4:92-93 morphological-species concept, 4:91-92

natural selection and, 2:156, 4:92 repetitive DNA role, 4:10 transposon role, 4:147-148 See also Taxonomy (systematics) Speckles (interchromatin granules),

3:120, 3:125 Sperm acrosome cap, 2:35, 4:21 AZFa, b, and c genes and, 4:177 azoospermia, 4:21 chromosomal aberrations, 1:120 collecting or concentrating, assisted reproduction, 4:21, 4:28

developmental processes, 3:29

donor insemination, 4:24 external fertilization, 2:36 factors inhibiting success of, 2:35 frozen, 4:25

fusion with egg, 2:34, 2:35 as haploid, 2:113, 2:115, 3:24,

3:60, 3:163 human, size, 1:108 intrauterine insemination, 4:24 meiosis and, 1:115, 2:33-34,

3:24-29, 3:60, 3:75 microassisted fertilization, 4:22 mtDNA in, 2:197 mutation rates, 2:192 mutations, 3:99, 4:25 polyspermy, 2:35, 3:163-164 SRY gene and, 3:76 X chromosome role, 4:174 See also Fertilization Sperm donation, assisted reproduction, 4:24, 4:28 Spermatocytes, primary, 3:24 Spider silk, in goat's milk, 1:10 Spina bifida statistics, 1:75 symptoms, 1:78 Spinal muscular atrophy, 3:124 Spindle apparatus attachment region, 1:114 colchicine's impact on, 3:166 defined, 1:114

structure and function, 1:113, 1:135, 3:26, 3:59 Spindle checkpoint errors, nondis-

junction, 3:111-112 Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease), 1:26, 4:150, 4:151

Spinocerebellar ataxia, as triplet repeat disease, 4:150 Spinocerebellar ataxia, clinical features, 2:205 Spirilli bacterial form, 2:13 Spleen disorders, Gaucher disease,

3:40, 3:45, 4:4 Splice junction mutations, Tay-

Sachs disease, 4:101 Splice sites, 1:12-13 Splicing, alternative, 1:11-14 amount in human genome,

3:205, 4:59 function, 2:62, 3:106 gene expression role, 2:62, 2:63 genetic diversity and, 1:11-12, 2:31

human hearing applications, 1:12 mechanisms, 1:12-13, 1:12, 1:14 protein isoform synthesis, 2:53

Splicing factors, 1:13

Splicing, ribozyme-mediated, 4:45

4:59, 4:101, 4:110 Splicosomes, 1:12, 1:12, 3:124 defined, 2:12, 4:59 function, 4:59 Spondylopiphseal dysplasias, characteristics, 2:131 Spongiform encephalopathies, resistant transgenic animals, 2:106 Spontaneous, defined, 1:97 Spontaneous mutations, 1:97, 3:90,

3:100, 4:75, 4:153 Sporadic, defined, 1:75 Sporophytes, defined, 2:115 Spotfire, bioinformatics, 2:124 Spumavirus, characteristics, 4:35 Squamous cells, cancerous tumors, 1:94

SRY gene, and sex determination, 1:21, 3:76, 4:80-82, 4:126-127, 4:177

Ssa and Ssb proteins, 1:117 SSV (simian sarcoma retrovirus), and cancer, 3:130 Stahl, Franklin, 1:251-252 Standard deviation, in statistical analyses, 4:96 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 2:208

Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotic resistance, 1:27 STARLINK corn, 1:58 Start codons (transcription), 2:52, 2:52

function, 4:138

overlapping genes, 3:135 of retroviruses, 4:36 Shine-Dalgarno sequence, 4:138 Statistical geneticists, 3:193,

3:194-195, 4:93-95 Statistics, 4:95-98

association studies, 2:61 epidemiology, 2:6-7, 2:56 exploratory data analysis, 4:95-96 gene-environment interactions,

2:56-57 genomic screening tools, 2:59, 2:170

hypothesis testing, 4:96-97 in linkage and recombination studies, 3:7-8, 3:12-13, 3:15 misuse, in DNA profiling, 1:238 point estimations, 4:96 populations and samples, 4:96

100 Pregnancy Tips

100 Pregnancy Tips

Prior to planning pregnancy, you should learn more about the things involved in getting pregnant. It involves carrying a baby inside you for nine months, caring for a child for a number of years, and many more. Consider these things, so that you can properly assess if you are ready for pregnancy. Get all these very important tips about pregnancy that you need to know.

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