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Franklin, Rosalind, 4:172 Free radicals, as mutagens, 3:88, 3:89

Friedreich's ataxia clinical features, 2:202 and diabetes, 1:212 as triplet repeat disease, 4:150 Frog, African clawed (Xenopus laevis),

3:60, 3:61 Frontal lobe, defined, 1:40 Frost tolerance, transgenic plants,

2:106, 2:107 Fruit flies (Drosophila), 2:42-45 addiction studies, 1:5-6 aging studies, 1:7 developmental processes, 1:204-208, 1:207, 1:208, 2:44-45, 2:65-66 early studies, 2:42-43 as model organism, 2:43, 2:44,

3:60, 3:73 sex determination, 4:81-82 Fruit flies, genomes characteristics, 2:43, 2:121, 2:122 DNA methylation, 3:46 effects of radiation on, 2:173,

3:81, 3:90-92, 3:90, 3:166-167 exceptions to universal code, 2:87 Fly lab, 3:73, 3:80 gene identification studies, 1:155 genes, number, 2:115, 2:174 homeotic genes, 2:45, 2:65-66, 2:68

mapping studies, 2:43, 3:7,

3:12-15, 3:74, 3:75, 3:80, 3:83 naming genes, 3:107 nondisjunction studies, 1:131 number of genes, 1:11-12 phenotype manifestations, 2:43 polyploidy, 3:166 polytene chromosomes, 1:126,

1:136-137, 1:136, 2:43-44 restriction maps, 1:155-156, 1:156

RNA interference, 4:53 sequencing, 2:172 transposons, 2:43, 3:97-98,

4:145, 4:146, 4:148 X-linked inheritance studies, 1:130-131, 2:43, 3:73-74, 3:80, 3:91-92, 3:102 FSH hormones, and endocrine disorders, 2:129 FSIQ (full scale) intelligence scores, 2:208

Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis, eye color changes and, 2:33 Fucosyltransferase, 2:207

Functional group substitution, combinatorial chemistry, 1:173-174, 1:174 Fungi alternation of generations, 2:115 as biopesticides, 1:57 heterokaryosis, 2:115 inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast genes, 2:197 as opportunistic pathogens, 2:155 plasmids in, 3:150 FX174 virus, genome characteristics, 2:117

G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway, signal transduction role, 4:88-89, 4:88, 4:90 G proteins, signal transduction role,

4:88-89 G2/S boundary, 4:154 G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehy-drogenase deficiency), heterozygote advantage, 2:148 G418, as gene targeting tool, 4:125 Gag gene, 4:35, 4:36, 4:144, 4:145 Gain-of-function mutations defined, 2:74 inheritance patterns, 3:96 in pseudogenes, 3:211 sickle-cell disease, 2:78-79, 2:80 toxic, 2:201

transposable genetic elements, 4:144

Gajdusek, D. Carleton, 3:189 Galactose operons, 3:134 Galactosemia, symptoms and treatment, 3:40, 3:44 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl trans-

ferase, 3:44 j8-galactosidase enzyme, 3:132,

3:134, 3:135 Gall, Joseph, 1:135 Gallo, Robert, 4:40 Galton, Francis eugenics movement, 2:16-18 gemmule experiments, 1:129-130 statistics contributions, 4:95 twin studies, 2:207-208, 2:210 Gamete intrafallopian transfer

(GIFT), 4:23 Gametes chromosomal makeup, 2:33-34 crossing over and, 1:194-197 defined, 1:120, 2:33, 3:24, 4:78 fertilization role, 3:24 fusion of, 2:34, 2:35, 2:133 gene flow between, 2:70-71

haploid complements, 2:113,

2:115, 3:24, 3:60, 3:163 imprinting of, 2:184, 3:48 independent assortment of,

3:34-35 mutations, consequences, 3:93 mutations, de novo, 1:120 segregation of, 3:34 unbalanced, 1:123 See also Eggs; Fertilization; Meio-sis; Sperm Gametogenesis, aneuploidy, 1:121 Gametophytes, defined, 2:115 Gamma rays, as mutagens, 3:88 Gamma-retrovirus, characteristics, 4:35

Gamow, George, 1:193 Ganciclovir, 2:79, 3:17, 4:126 Gangliosides, and Tay-Sachs disease,

3:45, 4:98-100 Gangrene, causal organism, 2:13 Garrod, Sir Archibald, 3:37, 3:43 Gastro-intestinal disorders cystic fibrosis, 1:200 mitochondrial diseases, 3:54 stomach cancer, 169, 1:93 See also Cancer, colon Gastrulation, defined, 4:182 Gating process, of nuclear pores,

3:126 Gaucher disease as frameshift mutation, 4:4 symptoms and treatment, 2:202, 3:40, 3:45 Gaurs, cloning, 1:164 Gautier, Marthe, 1:119 G-banding of chromosomes,

1:127-128, 1:127, 1:135 GCN5-regulated genes, 1:138 GCP (green cone pigment) genes, 1:171

GDP and GTP (guanine diphos-phate and triphosphate), signal transduction role, 4:88, 4:89-90 Gel electrophoresis, 2:45-50 acrylamide gels, 1:86, 2:47 agarose gels, 1:86, 2:49 anthrax analysis, 3:71 for automated sequencers,

1:43-45, 1:53, 1:198 for blotting procedures, 1:86-89, 1:152

considerations in choosing, 2:46 defined, 1:43, 3:18, 4:33 in DNA purification, 3:221 in DNA sequencing, 4:70-72 electrophoresis, defined, 1:198 ethidium bromide, 3:88

to identify polymorphisms,

3:160-162, 3:161 isoelectric focusing, 2:48, 3:208 nucleic acid separation, 2:49 PAGE, 2:46-47 PAGE, 2-D, 2:48-49, 2:48,

procedure, 2:45-46, 2:46, 2:47 as proteomics tool, 3:18-19, 3:206

pulse-field, 2:49-50, 4:33 in STR analysis, 1:236 Gelsinger, Jesse, 1:69, 2:77 Gemmules, 1:129-130 Gems, subnuclear bodies, 3:124 Genazyme, 1:29

2:174 Gender differences color vision defects, 1:172 crossing-over rates, 1:197 intelligence, 2:209 recombination frequencies, 3:7 See also Sexual development; X chromosomes; Y chromosomes Gender identity. See Sexual orientation

Gene annotation, defined, 2:116 Gene capture, 3:127 Gene cloning. See Cloning genes Gene clusters. See Gene families Gene discovery, 2:57-61 association studies, 2:61 candidate gene approach, 2:59, 2:60

defining traits, 2:58 genomic screen approach, 2:59, 2:61

genomics industry role, 2:123-125

linkage and recombination tools,

3:4-8 mapping tools, 3:11 naming genes, 3:107-108 ortholog tools, 2:158 polymorphisms as tools, 3:162 positional cloning tools, 2:59-60 reverse transcriptase as tool, 4:40 See also Human disease genes, identification of; Human Genome Project; specific diseases and traits Gene dosage nondisjunction and, 3:111 of polyploids, 3:164 Gene duplication

Bar eyes mutation, 3:81 consequences, 3:111, 4:67-68 gene evolution role, 2:28-29,

2:28, 2:68-69 globin gene family, 3:212 pseudogenes, 3:209-210, 3:211 tandem arrays (gene clusters), 2:28, 2:68-69, 2:115, 2:132, 2:192 Gene expression by bacteriophages, 4:118-120 and cancer growth, 1:95 defined, 1:56, 2:61, 4:54 ectopic, 2:74

gene family differences, 2:68-69 gene-environment interactions, 1:160

longevity, gene therapy, 2:77,

2:79, 2:81 in marker systems, 3:15-18 vs. mRNA abundance, 3:206 patterns, progeria, 1:3 point mutation role, 2:27 of retroviruses, 4:36 transformation competence, 4:121 in transgenic plants, 2:108, 4:133 Gene expression, control overview, 2:61-67

during development, 2:65-66 DNA coiling in nucleus, 3:122 early studies, 3:103-106 environmental factors, 2:61-62 eubacteria, 2:15-16 eukaryotes, 2:54

expression failures, consequences, 2:67

flow from DNA to proteins, 2:62, 2:62 growth factors, 2:66 hormonal regulation, 2:66-67,

2:161-164, 4:113-114 intein and extein role in, 3:181 mRNA role, 3:70 operons, 1:142, 2:15, 3:105,

RNA interference, 1:31, 4:52-54 transcription repression/ promotion, 4:110-111 See also Epistasis; Imprinting; Mosaicism; Pleiotropy; Signal transduction; Splicing, alternative; Transcription factors; X chromosomes: inactivation of Gene expression, research tools artificial chromosomes,

1:145-146 autoradiography, 1:136-137

blotting, 1:87-89 DNA footprinting, 1:221 DNA libraries, 1:224 DNA microarrays, 1:225-229 E. colt, 2:10

gene cloning tools, 1:157 Gene families, 2:67-70 defined, 1:132 evolution of, 2:29, 2:30,

3:212-213, 3:212 expressed and nonexpressed genes, 2:67, 2:68-69 globin proteins, 2:67, 2:68, 2:69,

3:211, 3:212-213, 3:212 location on chromosomes, 2:68 sizes and numbers, 2:67-68 Gene flow, 2:70-71

in fragmented plant/animal populations, 1:187-189 speciation and, 4:92-93 See also Founder effect; Genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

4:132-133 Gene knock-ins. See Knock-in mutants

Gene knock-outs. See Knock-out mutants

Gene machines (oligonucleotide synthesizers), 3:155 Gene mapping. See Mapping genes Gene mining, 2:123-124 Gene nature, history, 3:101-106 DNA as heredity material, 1:250-251, 1:250, 3:103, 3:104, 3:105, 4:120, 4:124 gene action and mutation,

3:102-103 gene coding studies, 1:252-253 genes as hereditary particles,

3:101-102 See also Chromosomal theory of inheritance; DNA structure and function, history; Mendelian genetics

Gene patents. See Patenting genes Gene pools, 3:171-172 Gene silencing. See Imprinting; Methylation, of DNA; RNA interference; X chromosomes: inactivation of Gene splicing. See Splicing, alternative; Splicing, RNA Gene targeting adding/deleting genetic material, 2:73

homologous recombination method, 2:71-72, 2:72, 2:73, 3:91, 4:125-126

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