Oooc oc

Epithelial cells abnormalities, cystic fibrosis,

1:199-203, 2:127-128 carcinomas, 1:93 colon cancer, 1:167, 1:169 defined, 1:199

telomerase production, 4:106 EPP (erythropoietic protoporphyria), 3:38 Epstein-Barr virus, and cancer, 1:92 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, genetic discrimination policies, 2:93 Equine encephalitis virus, characteristics, 4:165 ER. See Endoplasmic reticulum Ereky, Karl, 1:70 ERISA (Employee Retirement

Income Security Act), 2:93-94 Erwinia, to synthesize vitamin C, 1:63

Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease),

4:165 Erythrocytes damaged by sickle-cell disease,

2:137, 2:138 hemoglobin binding, 2:136 Erythromycin, ribosomal targets, 2:16

Erythropoietic protoporphyria

(EPP), 3:38 Erythropoietin cost and access concerns, 1:69 to treat sickle-cell disease, 2:138 ES. See Stem cells, embryonic Escherichia coli, 2:9-11

as BAC vectors, 1:222-224, 1:223 conjugation, 1:183, 1:183, 1:185,

3:151 defined, 1:153, 2:86 habitats, 2:9-10 as model organism, 2:10,

2:10-11, 3:60 as pathogen, 2:10 varieties (strains), 2:10 vitamin synthesis by, 2:10, 2:13 See also Eubacteria Escherichia coli, genomes amount of DNA, 1:132 binding protein tetramers, 3:202 characteristics, 2:11, 2:15, 2:86,

2:116, 2:121, 2:172 Chi sequences, 2:117 chromosomal domains,

1:140-141 chromosome shape, 1:139-140 chromosome size, 2:116 chromosome vs. cell size, 1:142

DNA polymerases, 1:231-232,

3:113-114, 3:157 DNA sequencing research, 2:10 DnaK chaperones, 1:117 endonuclease enzymes, 3:114 gene cloning role, 1:153, 2:10,

4:129 gene number, 2:116 GroEl chaperones, 1:117 Lambda phages, 4:119 mutation rates, 3:99 operons, 1:142, 3:131-135 plasmids, 1:140, 3:151 as recombinant DNA tool, 4:6 repeated extragenic palindromic sequences, 2:117 replication, 1:141, 2:10, 2:13 sequencing, 1:140, 1:142, 2:11,

2:86, 2:116, 2:172 transposons, 4:144-145 uid A markers, 3:18 ESI (electrospray ionization), 3:20 Eskimos, inbreeding coefficient, 2:190 Esophagus, cancer, 1:93 Essentialist (typological) view of evolution, 4:93 EST (expressed sequence tag) analysis, 1:223, 1:224, 1:229 Estradiol

17-/8, function, 2:162 and breast cancer, 1:90 Estriol, unconjugated, 3:185 Estrogen assisted reproduction and, 4:21 and cancer risk, 1:180 influence on gene expression,

2:161-163 ovaries and, 2:160 production in normal humans,

1:21, 1:22, 1:23 replacement therapy, 1:90 Estrogen receptors activity, diet and, 2:164 function, 2:162 Estrone, and breast cancer, 1:90 ETC. See Electron transport chain Ethical issues

Human Genome Project, 2:174, 2:177

organ transplants, 4:141,

4:142-143 population screening, 3:177-180 preimplantation genetic diagnosis, 3:186-187 See also Biotechnology; Cloning; Gene therapy; Genetic discrimination; Genetic testing; Reproductive technology

Ethicists, defined, 2:82 Ethics, Natural law, 4:28 Ethidium bromide, as mutagen, 3:88 Ethnic differences. See Racial and ethnic differences Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), 1:19 Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

(EDTA), 3:221 O6-ethylguanine, 1:19, 1:19 Etiology defined, 1:40, 3:213 See also specific diseases and disorders Eubacteria, 2:11-16

antibiotic resistance, 1:26-29, 1:140, 1:185, 4:44, 4:68-69 as biopesticides, 1:57 as bioremediators, 1:59, 1:61-62 as chloroplast ancestor, 2:12,

distinguished from Archaea,

1:36-37, 2:11, 2:16 distinguished from eukaryotes, 1:108, 2:11 DNA profiling, 1:233, 1:239 escaped transgene role, 1:68 as intracellular symbionts, 2:198 as mitochondrial ancestor, 2:12,

2:195, 3:52, 3:55, 3:56-57 phylogeny, 1:36, 1:37 recombinant, as biohazards, 3:152

to synthesize amino acids, 1:63 to synthesize antibiotics, 1:63 as teratogens, 1:79-80 vitamins synthesized by, 1:63, 2:13

See also Prokaryotes; specific bacteria; Transgenic microorganisms Eubacteria, genomes artificial chromosomes (BACs),

1:144-146, 1:222-224 C value paradox, 2:114 cDNA, 4:40

characteristics, 1:139-144, 2:116,

3:132, 4:12, 4:128 chromosomes, 2:15 DNA, 2:14-15 DNA methylation in, 3:47 exceptions to universal code, 2:87 gene expression, 2:15-16 histone proteins lacking, 1:141, 2:15

introns lacking, 2:31, 4:128 mapping chromosomes, 4:119 mutation rates, 3:99 operons, 1:142, 2:15, 3:105, 3:131-135

promoter sequences, 4:107 ribonuclease role, 3:114 RNA polymerase, 4:55 RNase P, 4:45, 4:46, 4:51 terminator sequences, 4:110 transcription elongation rates, 4:56

transcription factors, 4:112 translation initiation sequences, 4:138

transposable genetic elements,

3:22, 4:144-145 See also Plasmids; Restriction enzymes Eubacteria, metabolism aerobic and anaerobic, 2:13 chemolithotrophs, 2:13 electron-accepting compounds, 2:13

heterotrophs, 2:13 phototrophs, 2:13 Eubacteria, replication binary fission, 2:13 cell division, 1:113 translation, 2:16

See also Conjugation; DNA replication, prokaryotes; Transduction; Transformation Eubacteria, structure cell walls, 2:11 cytoplasm, 2:12 flagella, 2:12

gram negative, 1:27, 2:12 gram positive, 2:12, 2:13 LPS layer, 2:11-12 mitochondria, 2:12 nucleoids, 2:14-15 plasma membranes, 2:12 ribosomes, 2:16, 4:42-44 shapes, 2:13, 2:14 Euchromatin gene expression role, 2:63 heterochromatin-euchromatin conversion, 1:135, 2:65 structure and function, 3:121-122 Eugenics, 2:16-21

as artificial selection, 4:69 current status, 2:20-21 defined, 2:90, 3:81, 4:26 evolutionary fitness ranking,

2:17, 2:19 eye color and, 2:32 Fitter Family contests, 2:19 gene counseling to prevent abuses, 2:90 gene therapy and, 2:82-83

germinal choice, 3:81 Mendelian genetics and, 2:16, 2:18

Muller's contributions, 3:81 by Nazis, 2:16, 2:19-20, 2:90, 4:26

negative, 2:17, 2:20 origin of term, 2:16 policies and laws, 2:16-19 population screening and,

3:177-178 positive, 2:17, 2:20-21, 3:81 prenatal genetic testing,

3:186-187 reproductive technology concerns, 4:26 Sir Francis Galton and, 2:16-18 Eukaryotes defined, 1:152, 2:27, 3:16, 4:12 distinguished from eubacteria, 2:16

distinguished from prokaryotes, 1:108, 2:11, 2:12 origin of term, 1:139 phylogeny, 1:36, 1:37 ribosomes, 4:42-43 ribozymes, 4:44 See also Cells, eukaryotic Eukaryotes, genomes of advanced groups, 2:114-115 characteristics, 2:112-113, 2:121, 4:12

distinguished from mitochondria and chloroplasts, 2:195-196 gene expression, 2:53, 2:54 gene structure, 2:63-64, 2:64 haploid complements, 2:113 promoter sequences, 4:107, 4:112 protein length, average, 2:52 repeated sequences, 2:115,

4:10-11 RNA polymerases, 4:55-56 RNA processing, 4:50, 4:57, 4:58 RNA synthesis, 4:50 terminator sequences, 4:110 transcription factors, 4:112 See also Chromosomes, eukary-otic; DNA replication, eukary-otes

European (predestined) model of development, 1:205-206 Euthanasia, eugenics and, 2:16, 2:18, 2:20

Evans, Martin, 4:126 Evolution

typological (essentialist view),

4:92 vertical, 4:92 See also Natural selection Evolution, human. See Anthropology, molecular Evolution, molecular, 2:21-26 future goals, 2:25 oldest known life, 2:21-22 RNA as enzyme, 2:25 RNA nucleotide origins, 2:22-23 RNA replication without enzymes, 2:23-25 subunit linking, 2:23 Evolution, of chloroplasts endosymbiont ancestors, 1:112,

2:12, 2:194-196, 3:56-57 genome characteristics, 3:55 genome size reduction, 2:116 See also DNA, chloroplast (cpDNA) Evolution, of genes, 2:26-31 accumulation of noncoding

4:145-146 balanced polymorphism, 1:45-46 bioinformatics tools, 1:52, 1:56 chromosomal aberration role,

2:28, 3:97 crossing over, 2:28 cytochrome C, 3:94 DNA polymerases, 1:232 and DNA repair, 1:248 early studies, 3:32 exon shuffling, 2:29, 2:30-31 extranuclear genes to study, 2:198

gene duplication, 2:28-29, 2:68-69

gene families, 2:29, 2:30, 2:67-69 genetic code, 2:86-87 genomics tools to study, 2:121 globin proteins, 2:68, 2:69, 2:136,

3:212-213, 3:212 histone proteins, 3:94, 3:96 homologies as indicators,

2:156-158 intragenic distances, 2:115 molecular clocks, 3:63, 3:67, 3:98 mouse vs. human chromosomes,

3:96, 3:97 natural selection and, 2:26,

3:93-94 number of genes, 2:115 overlapping genes, 3:136 point mutations, existing genes, 2:26-27

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