Oooc oc

Crossing over (recombination) (continued)

gene amplification, 2:28, 2:28 as gene mapping tool, 1:197,

2:59, 3:11-13, 3:26, 3:83 genetic diversity role, 1:195-196,

3:24, 3:25, 3:26, 3:29, 3:60 homologues and chromatids,

1:194, 1:195 interference, 1:197, 3:12-13 knock-out and knock-in genes, 3:91

lacking in Y chromosomes, 3:65,

4:174, 4:177, 4:178 mechanisms, 1:194-195, 1:195, 1:196, 2:28, 3:24, 3:25, 3:26, 3:29

pseudogenes, 3:210, 3:210 recombination fraction, 3:6-7,

3:12-13 recombination rates, 1:196,

1:197, 3:26 in transposons, 4:148 unequal, 1:197, 3:7 X-Y crossovers, 1:196-197 See also Linkage and recombination (linkage analysis); Meiosis Cross-matching blood, 1:83 Crown gall disease (Agrobacterium tumefaciens), 1:9, 1:35, 4:132 CRS (congenital rubella syndrome).

See Rubella Cryogenic electron microscopy

(cryoEM), 4:165 Cryopreservation defined, 4:20

in reproductive technology, 4:26 C-src (cell-sarcoma) gene, 1:100 C-terminus, of amino acids/proteins,

3:181, 3:197-198, 3:207 Cultivars, defined, 1:146 Cumulina the cloned mouse, 1:160 Cumulus oophorus, 2:35 CVS (chorionic villus sampling) defined, 1:258, 2:97 uses, 3:184, 3:187 Cyanobacteria as chloroplast ancestor, 2:195, 3:57

in stromatolites, 2:21-22, 2:22 Cycle sequencing. See Automated sequencers Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), signal trans-duction role, 4:88, 4:89 Cyclic AMP, signal transduction role, 1:5-6, 1:110, 4:89 Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), 1:104, 1:105-108, 1:106

Cyclins, cell cycle role, 1:105-108 Cyclosporine, 4:141 Cystic fibrosis (CF), 1:199-203 CFTR protein, 1:201-202,

2:127-128 clinical features, 1:199-200, 2:202 damaged DNA role, 1:239 and diabetes, 1:212 "Disease Model" mouse strains, 3:62

disease prevalence studies, 1:214 gene therapy, 2:81 genetic mutations, 1:200-202, 1:200

genetic testing, 1:202-203, 2:168,

3:177, 3:186 inheritance patterns, 1:200-201, 1:213, 2:127-128, 2:203, 3:142, 3:193-194 laboratory diagnosis, 1:200 pleiotropy, 2:206 preimplantation genetic diagnosis, 3:186 Punnett squares to predict,

3:193-194, 3:194 as simple trait, 1:177, 2:101-102 statistics, 1:199

transmembrane conductance regulator gene, 4:127 treatment, 1:201, 1:201 Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, 1:202, 2:60, 2:127-128 Cystine (Cys)

chemical properties, 3:200 genetic code, 2:85, 4:137 in transcription factors, 4:115 Cytochemists defined, 2:187 in situ hybridization role, 2:187-189 Cytochrome b protein, 2:194 Cytochrome C protein apoptosis role, 1:33 evolution of, 3:94 Cytochrome P450, poor and ultrarapid metabolizers, 3:144-145 Cytogenetic analysis chromosomal banding techniques, 1:125-129 defined, 1:119, 2:44, 3:10 for Down syndrome, 1:257-258 Cytogeneticists, defined, 3:182 Cytokines from cloned genes, 1:153 defined, 4:75, 4:85 gene paralogs, 2:158 signal transduction role, 4:85

Cytokinesis defined, 1:113, 3:29 lacking in polyploidy, 2:69 in meiosis, 3:29 in mitosis, 3:59 Cytology/cytologists, defined, 1:130, 3:21

Cytomegalovirus, 1:30, 3:124 Cytoplasm, 1:111

defined, 1:109, 2:53, 3:29, 4:22 of eubacteria, 2:12 Cytosine, 1:216

concentration, for in situ hybridization, 2:187 depyrimidination, 1:240 in DNA alphabet, 2:83, 4:106 and DNA structure, 1:215-220,

1:250-251, 2:50, 2:51, 3:94 evolution of, 2:22-25 methylation of, 2:184, 3:46-49,

3:47, 3:95, 3:100 mutagenic base analogs, 3:87 origin of term, 1:249 pronated, 1:218

in RNA alphabet, 4:46-47, 4:106 structure, 3:115, 3:116, 3:118-119, 3:118, 3:119, 4:48, 4:49

See also Base pairs Cytoskeleton actin protein role, 2:29 signal transduction role, 4:87 structure, 1:113 Cytosol defined, 1:109

glucose breakdown, 1:111

ribosomes in, 4:43

D4 and D5 dopamine receptor genes (DRD4 and DRD5), 1:41 DAG, signal transduction role, 4:89 DAPI dyes, 1:127

2:26, 2:156, 4:67, 4:92 Darwinian evolution (Darwinism), 1:131, 2:17, 2:26, 2:156, 3:32, 4:67, 4:92 DAT (dopamine transporter) gene, 1:41

Data Deficient population status, 1:186 Databases analysis, 1:55-56 bioinformatics data, 2:124 of chromosomal abnormalities, 3:182

clinical trials, 1:102-103

data acquisition, 1:54 data integration, 1:56 development, 1:54 disease registry, 1:102 of DNA samples, 3:192-193 of gene and protein sequences, 1:52-54, 2:123-124, 2:156, 2:173, 2:174, 2:176, 3:18, 3:198, 3:208-209 gene mining companies,

2:123-124 high-throughput screening data,

2:150 Internet tools, 2:212 relational, 1:55

twin registries, 4:84, 4:159-161 Databases, specific BLOCKS, 3:209 GenBank, 1:52, 1:54, 2:156,

2:174 Human PSD, 3:209 Pfam, 3:209 PRINTS, 3:209 PROSITE, 3:209 SWISS-PROT, 1:52, 3:209 Yeast Proteome, 3:209 DAX1 gene, 4:81 DBH mice, 1:5

DCMP (deoxycytosine monophosphate), 3:117 DDAVP, to treat hemophilia, 2:145 De novo mutations, 1:120 De Silva, Ashanti, 4:77-78 De Vries, Hugo, 1:130, 3:102 Dead Sea, Archaea adaptations, 1:37 Deafness. See Hearing loss Deamination errors, DNA damage, 1:240-242,

1:240, 3:47, 3:88 of methyl cytosine, 3:47, 3:47 Death, as biological process, 1:31 Death, cell. See Apoptosis Decker, Donovan, 2:75 DeCODE, populations studies, 2:124

Defective particles, viruses, 4:119 Degeneracy of genetic code, 2:27,

2:84, 4:4, 4:5, 4:135 Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and breast cancer, 1:90 Deinococcus radiodurans, genetic studies, 1:139-140 Delano, Susana, 3:71 Delbrück, Max, 1:192, 1:203-204,

3:103, 4:172 Deleterious, defined, 2:147, 2:190,

Delta-retroviras, characteristics, 4:35 Dementia aging and, 1:7

defined, 1:1, 1:7, 1:15, 3:189 non-Alzheimer causes, 1:15 progeria and, 1:1 See also Alzheimer's disease; Brain disorders; Psychiatric disorders

Demography, defined, 1:191 Denaturation in cycle sequencing, 1:198 defined, 2:47 DNA unwinding, 1:218 in PCRs, 3:157 Dendritic cells, immune system function, 2:152 Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, triplet repeat diseases, 4:150 DeoxyATP, SCID role, 4:75 Deoxycytosine monophosphate

(dCMP), 3:117 Deoxynucleotides, defined, 1:230 Deoxyribonuclease enzymes, function, 3:112, 3:113-114 Deoxyribonucleic acid. See DNA Deoxyribose sugars discovery, 1:249 and DNA structure, 1:215-220,

2:50, 2:51 structure, 3:115, 3:116, 3:117 Department of Education, genetic discrimination studies, 2:94 Department of Energy (DOE) Human Genome Project role, 2:173

radiation-caused-mutation studies, 2:171, 2:173 Depurination, 1:240 Depyrimidination, 1:240 DeSalle, Rob, 1:190 Desipramine, for ADHD, 1:39 Detergents, genetically engineered proteases, 1:63-64, 1:73 Detoxifying agents, to treat metabolic diseases, 3:39, 3:45 Deuteranopia/anomaly, 1:172 Development, defined, 1:204 Development, genetic control of, 1:204-209

apoptosis role, 1:208-209 axis determinations, 1:206-207, 2:68

DNA methyltransferase role, 3:49 early studies, 3:103 embryonic stem cells, 2:3-6 European and American models, 1:205-206

in fruit flies, 2:44-45 gene expression regulation,

2:65-66 hedgehog protein role, 3:181 homeobox sequence, 1:208 homeotic genes, 1:207-208, 2:29, 2:65-66

hormonal regulation, 2:159-164 McClintock's hypothesis, 3:21-22 mitosis and, 3:57 morphogen gradients, 1:206 polyploids, 3:164, 3:166 in roundworms, 1:204, 1:205,

1:206, 1:208, 4:63-64 transcription factor role, 1:205, 4:115

transgenic animals to study,

4:125-127 triplet repeats and, 4:149 in zebrafish, 3:61, 4:182-183 See also Imprinting; Sex determination; Sexual development DHPLC (denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography), 2:165-167 DHT (dihydrotestosterone), function, 2:163 Diabetes, 1:209-212

A3243G mutations, 3:54 and birth defects, 1:77, 1:82 and cardiovascular disease, 1:101, 1:209

as complex trait, 1:178, 1:210,

1:213, 2:102 congenital generalized lipodys-trophic (CGL), 1:211, 2:203 diet and, 1:210

"Disease Model" mouse strains, 3:62

embryonic stem cell research tools, 2:5-6 excess blood glucose, impact, 1:209

familial partial lipodystrophic

(FPLD), 1:211 genetic counseling, 2:90 genetic susceptibility to complications, 1:212 gestational (GDM), 1:209, 1:212 maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD), 1:211 maturity onset (MODY), 1:211 as metabolic disease, 3:42 nongenic, 1:210 physical activity and, 1:210 populations studies, 2:124 racial and ethnic differences, 1:210 statistics, 1:209

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