Oooc oc

McClintock, Barbara (continued) transposable genetic elements, 3:10, 3:21-22, 3:97, 4:143-144 McKusick, Victor, 3:10, 3:22-24, 3:23

MCM (mini-chromosome maintenance) proteins, 4:18 MD. See Muscular dystrophy MDR (multi-drug resistance), 1:26,

1:27, 1:28 Measles, German (rubella) and birth defects, 1:75, 1:81 vaccine, 4:129 virus, characteristics, 4:165 Measured (bottom-up) genotype strategy, 4:3 The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity, 3:76

Meconium ileus, 1:201

MeCP2 protein, and Rett syndrome,

3:48, 3:49, 3:78 Media (for bacterial cultures), defined, 3:50, 4:22 Medical genetics. See Clinical geneticists Medical records, privacy of,

3:191-192 Mediterranean heritage sickle-cell disease, 2:137, 2:148 thalassemias, 2:140, 2:148 Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, newborn screening, 3:176 MegaBase sequencer, 1:44-45 Megan the sheep, 1:163 Meiosis, 3:24-30

centromere role, 1:114-115,

3:25, 3:29 chiasmata role, 1:194, 1:195, 3:26 chromosomal aberrations, 1:79, 3:29

chromosome packaging errors,

1:257 cytokinesis, 3:29 defined, 1:194, 2:35, 3:5, 4:68 distinguished from mitosis, 3:24,

3:26, 3:29, 3:59, 3:60 early studies, 1:130, 1:149 gamete formation, 1:115, 2:33-34, 3:24-25, 3:75 independent assortment of chromosomes, 3:26, 3:29 kinetochore role, 3:25, 3:26,

3:27, 3:28, 3:29 microtubule role, 3:26, 3:27, 3:29 purpose, 3:24 spindle role, 1:135, 3:26, 3:111-112

See also Chromosomes, eukary-otic; Crossing over (recombination); Nondisjunction Meiosis I, 3:24-26

anaphase, 3:26, 3:27, 3:28 gamete dormancy, 2:34-35, 3:29 metaphase, 3:26, 3:27, 3:28 prophase, 3:25-26 telophase, 3:26 Meiosis II, 3:25, 3:29

gamete dormancy, 2:35, 3:29 metaphase, 3:27, 3:28 telophase, 3:27 Melanin and albinism, 2:32, 2:128, 2:200-201, 2:206 in iris, 2:32 Melanocytes, defined, 2:32 MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke), 2:202, 3:54 Melatonin, as extranuclear hormone, 2:161

Membrane proteins, structure, 3:201 Memory loss aging and, 1:7

Alzheimer's disease and, 1:7,

1:14-15, 1:180 psd-95 gene and, 2:5 MEN1 gene, and Multiple endocrine neoplasia, 4:153 Mendel, Gregor, 3:30-32, 3:30 Mendelian genetics, 3:32-37 character pairs, 3:101-102 current status, 2:111 dihybrid crosses, 3:35 eugenics applications, 2:16, 2:18 exceptions to, 3:35-36, 3:75 gene identification, 1:155 law of independent assortment, 1:130, 1:148, 3:5-6, 3:14-15, 3:26, 3:29, 3:31, 3:34-35, 3:60, 3:75

law of segregation, 1:130, 1:148,

3:31, 3:34 The Mechanism of Mendelian

Heredity, 3:76 meiosis and, 1:115 microsatellite inheritance, 1:189 monohybrid crosses, 3:33 procedures, 3:30-31, 3:32-34 Punnett squares, 1:148, 3:33, 3:35

trihybrid crosses, 3:35 See also Chromosomal theory of inheritance, history; Classical hybrid genetics; Gene nature, history; Inheritance patterns; Simple (Mendelian) traits

Mendelian Inheritance in Man (V.

McKusick), 3:23 Mendelism. See Mendelian genetics Mennonites, inbreeding studies,

2:190-191 Menopause, aging and, 1:7 MENSA, 2:208 Menstruation

AIS individuals, 1:25 apoptosis role, 1:32 and breast cancer risk, 1:90 normal development, 1:23 ovulation and, 2:34-35, 3:29 in vitro fertilization and, 4:21 Mental retardation eugenics to eliminate, 2:17-20 genetic components, 3:213 intelligence as inherited trait, 3:81 newborn screening to prevent,

2:98-99, 3:42-43 See also Down syndrome; Fragile X syndrome; Intelligence; Phenylketonuria Merck, drug development, 2:124 Mercuric reductase, 1:62 Mercury, hyperaccumulators of, 1:62 Meselson, Matthew, 1:251-252 Messenger RNA. See RNA, messenger (mRNA) Metabolic diseases, 3:37-46

amino acid metabolism disorders, 3:40

birth defects, 1:75 cofactor or vitamin enhancement, 3:39

detoxifying agents, 3:39, 3:45 diet modifications to treat, 3:39,

3:43, 3:44, 3:45 enzyme defects as cause, 3:38-39, 3:39

enzyme replacement therapy,

3:39, 3:45 fatty acid metabolism disorders, 3:40

gene therapy, 3:39 inheritance patterns, 3:38-39 organ transplants, 3:39, 3:45 organic acid metabolism disorders, 3:40 peroxisomal metabolism disorders, 3:41 prenatal genetic testing,

3:183-184, 3:186 purine and pyrimidine metabolism disorders, 3:40, 3:40-41 urea formation disorders, 3:41 Metabolism aerobic, 2:195

anabolic reactions, 1:110 ATP and, 1:110-111, 2:194,

3:51-52, 3:55-56, 3:117 by-products, DNA damage, 1:239

catabolic reactions, 1:110, 4:99 defined, 1:78, 1:110, 3:37 enzymatically controlled reactions, 3:37-38 of gangliosides, 4:99-100 hormonal regulation, 2:160 inborn errors of, 3:37 mitochondrial role, 1:111-112,

2:116, 2:194, 3:41, 3:55-56 normal vs. impaired gene sequences, 3:39 signal transduction role, 4:87 Metabolites, defined, 3:142, 3:218 Metageria, progeroid aspects, 1:2 Metallothioneins, 1:60 Metals (heavy)

bioremediation to remove, 1:60 plasmid resistance to, 3:151 Metamorphosis, apoptosis and, 1:32 Metaphase chromosomal banding techniques for, 1:126

prometaphase, mitosis, 3:59 Metaphase plate, 3:59 Metastasis, defined, 1:94, 1:227 Metazoans, axis development, 2:68 Methane produced by Archaea, 1:37 produced by eubacteria, 2:13 Methanobacterium thermoautotroph-icum, genome characteristics, 2:121 Methionine (Met)

4:137 oxidation of, 1:63-64 as start codon, 2:84, 4:4, 4:137, 4:138

Methylation, of DNA, 3:46-49 CpG islands, 3:47, 3:48 defined, 2:185, 4:31 gene imprinting, 3:48 gene repression role, 3:48, 3:77, 3:100

host defense function, 3:46,

3:47-48 and human disease, 3:49 imprinting role, 2:184, 2:185, 2:185

mutations and, 3:95, 3:100

process, 3:46-47, 3:47 restriction enzyme role, 3:47, 4:31

Methylation, of proteins, 3:203,

3:205, 4:111 Methyl-binding proteins, gene repression role, 3:48 Methylmalonic acidemia, symptoms and treatment, 3:40, 3:43 Methylmalonyl-CoA 3:43 MHC proteins. See Major histocompatibility complex Mice. See Rodent models Microbiologists, 3:50-51 Microcephaly, defined, 1:80 Microliters, defined, 3:156 Micrometers, defined, 1:108 Micronuclei, defined, 2:115 Micronucleus test, 3:92-93 Microsatellites. See Short tandem repeats Microscopes electron, to study viruses,

4:164-165 invention of, 1:130 Microtubules defined, 1:144

structure and function, 3:26, 3:27, 3:29, 3:59, 3:121 Microviridae, genome characteristics, 2:117

Miescher, Johann Friedrich, 1:249 Migration. See Immigration and migration Millennium Pharmaceuticals, gene mining by, 2:123 Miller, Stanley, 2:23 Miniature inverted-repeat transpos-

able elements (MITEs), 4:9 Mini-chromosome maintenance

(MCM) proteins, 4:18 Minimal-gene-set concept, 1:143 Mining, bioremediation tools, 1:60 Minisatellites. See Variable number of tandem repeats Minor histocompatibility genes,

4:140 Miscegenation defined, 2:17 eugenics and, 2:16, 2:17 Mismatch distributions (pairwise differences), 3:167-168, 3:168 Missense mutations, 2:127, 3:153 MITEs (miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements), 4:9 Mitochondria, 1:105, 1:111

defined, 1:33, 2:194, 3:135, 4:42 diseases, MIDD, 1:211

electron transport chain, 1:111, 2:194, 3:41-42, 3:51-53, 3:52 and oxidative base damage, 1:242 plasmids in, 3:150 ribosomes, 4:42 ribozymes, 4:44 in sperm, 2:35 structure and function, 1:111-112, 3:41-42, 3:51, 3:55-56, 3:56, 4:50 Mitochondrial diseases, 3:51-55 aging and, 3:80 genetic components, 3:52-53 inheritance of, 2:194, 2:198, 2:204

Kearns-Sayre syndrome, 3:53, 3:53

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, 3:53 Leigh's disease, 3:52, 3:54 MELAS, 2:202, 3:54 mosaicism, 3:79-80 multisystem, list of, 3:54 oxidative metabolism disorders, 3:41-42

Mitochondrial DNA. See DNA, mitochondrial (mtDNA) Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke (MELAS), 2:202, 3:54 Mitochondrial Eve, 3:63, 3:67-68 Mitochondrial genome, 3:55-57 base pairs, number, 2:116, 3:79 coding for ETC subunits,

3:52-53, 3:52 distinguished from eukaryotes,

2:195-196 evolutionary origin, 2:12, 2:86, 2:112, 2:116, 2:194-196, 3:52, 3:55, 3:56-57 as evolutionary study tool, 2:198,

3:66-67 exceptions to universal code, 2:86-87

heteroplasmic and homoplasmic,

2:197, 3:54 inheritance patterns, 2:195, 2:196-197, 2:204, 2:205, 3:51, 3:67-68, 3:69, 4:157 mutations, 3:42, 3:79-80 overlapping genes, 3:135-136 random partitioning, 2:195, 2:197

random replication, 2:195, 2:197, 3:56

repair mechanisms lacking, 3:79 vegetative segregation, 2:197 See also DNA, mitochondrial (mtDNA)

All About Alzheimers

All About Alzheimers

The comprehensive new ebook All About Alzheimers puts everything into perspective. Youll gain insight and awareness into the disease. Learn how to maintain the patients emotional health. Discover tactics you can use to deal with constant life changes. Find out how counselors can help, and when they should intervene. Learn safety precautions that can protect you, your family and your loved one. All About Alzheimers will truly empower you.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment