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McClintock, Barbara (continued) transposable genetic elements, 3:10, 3:21-22, 3:97, 4:143-144 McKusick, Victor, 3:10, 3:22-24, 3:23

MCM (mini-chromosome maintenance) proteins, 4:18 MD. See Muscular dystrophy MDR (multi-drug resistance), 1:26,

1:27, 1:28 Measles, German (rubella) and birth defects, 1:75, 1:81 vaccine, 4:129 virus, characteristics, 4:165 Measured (bottom-up) genotype strategy, 4:3 The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity, 3:76

Meconium ileus, 1:201

MeCP2 protein, and Rett syndrome,

3:48, 3:49, 3:78 Media (for bacterial cultures), defined, 3:50, 4:22 Medical genetics. See Clinical geneticists Medical records, privacy of,

3:191-192 Mediterranean heritage sickle-cell disease, 2:137, 2:148 thalassemias, 2:140, 2:148 Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, newborn screening, 3:176 MegaBase sequencer, 1:44-45 Megan the sheep, 1:163 Meiosis, 3:24-30

centromere role, 1:114-115,

3:25, 3:29 chiasmata role, 1:194, 1:195, 3:26 chromosomal aberrations, 1:79, 3:29

chromosome packaging errors,

1:257 cytokinesis, 3:29 defined, 1:194, 2:35, 3:5, 4:68 distinguished from mitosis, 3:24,

3:26, 3:29, 3:59, 3:60 early studies, 1:130, 1:149 gamete formation, 1:115, 2:33-34, 3:24-25, 3:75 independent assortment of chromosomes, 3:26, 3:29 kinetochore role, 3:25, 3:26,

3:27, 3:28, 3:29 microtubule role, 3:26, 3:27, 3:29 purpose, 3:24 spindle role, 1:135, 3:26, 3:111-112

See also Chromosomes, eukary-otic; Crossing over (recombination); Nondisjunction Meiosis I, 3:24-26

anaphase, 3:26, 3:27, 3:28 gamete dormancy, 2:34-35, 3:29 metaphase, 3:26, 3:27, 3:28 prophase, 3:25-26 telophase, 3:26 Meiosis II, 3:25, 3:29

gamete dormancy, 2:35, 3:29 metaphase, 3:27, 3:28 telophase, 3:27 Melanin and albinism, 2:32, 2:128, 2:200-201, 2:206 in iris, 2:32 Melanocytes, defined, 2:32 MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke), 2:202, 3:54 Melatonin, as extranuclear hormone, 2:161

Membrane proteins, structure, 3:201 Memory loss aging and, 1:7

Alzheimer's disease and, 1:7,

1:14-15, 1:180 psd-95 gene and, 2:5 MEN1 gene, and Multiple endocrine neoplasia, 4:153 Mendel, Gregor, 3:30-32, 3:30 Mendelian genetics, 3:32-37 character pairs, 3:101-102 current status, 2:111 dihybrid crosses, 3:35 eugenics applications, 2:16, 2:18 exceptions to, 3:35-36, 3:75 gene identification, 1:155 law of independent assortment, 1:130, 1:148, 3:5-6, 3:14-15, 3:26, 3:29, 3:31, 3:34-35, 3:60, 3:75

law of segregation, 1:130, 1:148,

3:31, 3:34 The Mechanism of Mendelian

Heredity, 3:76 meiosis and, 1:115 microsatellite inheritance, 1:189 monohybrid crosses, 3:33 procedures, 3:30-31, 3:32-34 Punnett squares, 1:148, 3:33, 3:35

trihybrid crosses, 3:35 See also Chromosomal theory of inheritance, history; Classical hybrid genetics; Gene nature, history; Inheritance patterns; Simple (Mendelian) traits

Mendelian Inheritance in Man (V.

McKusick), 3:23 Mendelism. See Mendelian genetics Mennonites, inbreeding studies,

2:190-191 Menopause, aging and, 1:7 MENSA, 2:208 Menstruation

AIS individuals, 1:25 apoptosis role, 1:32 and breast cancer risk, 1:90 normal development, 1:23 ovulation and, 2:34-35, 3:29 in vitro fertilization and, 4:21 Mental retardation eugenics to eliminate, 2:17-20 genetic components, 3:213 intelligence as inherited trait, 3:81 newborn screening to prevent,

2:98-99, 3:42-43 See also Down syndrome; Fragile X syndrome; Intelligence; Phenylketonuria Merck, drug development, 2:124 Mercuric reductase, 1:62 Mercury, hyperaccumulators of, 1:62 Meselson, Matthew, 1:251-252 Messenger RNA. See RNA, messenger (mRNA) Metabolic diseases, 3:37-46

amino acid metabolism disorders, 3:40

birth defects, 1:75 cofactor or vitamin enhancement, 3:39

detoxifying agents, 3:39, 3:45 diet modifications to treat, 3:39,

3:43, 3:44, 3:45 enzyme defects as cause, 3:38-39, 3:39

enzyme replacement therapy,

3:39, 3:45 fatty acid metabolism disorders, 3:40

gene therapy, 3:39 inheritance patterns, 3:38-39 organ transplants, 3:39, 3:45 organic acid metabolism disorders, 3:40 peroxisomal metabolism disorders, 3:41 prenatal genetic testing,

3:183-184, 3:186 purine and pyrimidine metabolism disorders, 3:40, 3:40-41 urea formation disorders, 3:41 Metabolism aerobic, 2:195

anabolic reactions, 1:110 ATP and, 1:110-111, 2:194,

3:51-52, 3:55-56, 3:117 by-products, DNA damage, 1:239

catabolic reactions, 1:110, 4:99 defined, 1:78, 1:110, 3:37 enzymatically controlled reactions, 3:37-38 of gangliosides, 4:99-100 hormonal regulation, 2:160 inborn errors of, 3:37 mitochondrial role, 1:111-112,

2:116, 2:194, 3:41, 3:55-56 normal vs. impaired gene sequences, 3:39 signal transduction role, 4:87 Metabolites, defined, 3:142, 3:218 Metageria, progeroid aspects, 1:2 Metallothioneins, 1:60 Metals (heavy)

bioremediation to remove, 1:60 plasmid resistance to, 3:151 Metamorphosis, apoptosis and, 1:32 Metaphase chromosomal banding techniques for, 1:126

prometaphase, mitosis, 3:59 Metaphase plate, 3:59 Metastasis, defined, 1:94, 1:227 Metazoans, axis development, 2:68 Methane produced by Archaea, 1:37 produced by eubacteria, 2:13 Methanobacterium thermoautotroph-icum, genome characteristics, 2:121 Methionine (Met)

4:137 oxidation of, 1:63-64 as start codon, 2:84, 4:4, 4:137, 4:138

Methylation, of DNA, 3:46-49 CpG islands, 3:47, 3:48 defined, 2:185, 4:31 gene imprinting, 3:48 gene repression role, 3:48, 3:77, 3:100

host defense function, 3:46,

3:47-48 and human disease, 3:49 imprinting role, 2:184, 2:185, 2:185

mutations and, 3:95, 3:100

process, 3:46-47, 3:47 restriction enzyme role, 3:47, 4:31

Methylation, of proteins, 3:203,

3:205, 4:111 Methyl-binding proteins, gene repression role, 3:48 Methylmalonic acidemia, symptoms and treatment, 3:40, 3:43 Methylmalonyl-CoA 3:43 MHC proteins. See Major histocompatibility complex Mice. See Rodent models Microbiologists, 3:50-51 Microcephaly, defined, 1:80 Microliters, defined, 3:156 Micrometers, defined, 1:108 Micronuclei, defined, 2:115 Micronucleus test, 3:92-93 Microsatellites. See Short tandem repeats Microscopes electron, to study viruses,

4:164-165 invention of, 1:130 Microtubules defined, 1:144

structure and function, 3:26, 3:27, 3:29, 3:59, 3:121 Microviridae, genome characteristics, 2:117

Miescher, Johann Friedrich, 1:249 Migration. See Immigration and migration Millennium Pharmaceuticals, gene mining by, 2:123 Miller, Stanley, 2:23 Miniature inverted-repeat transpos-

able elements (MITEs), 4:9 Mini-chromosome maintenance

(MCM) proteins, 4:18 Minimal-gene-set concept, 1:143 Mining, bioremediation tools, 1:60 Minisatellites. See Variable number of tandem repeats Minor histocompatibility genes,

4:140 Miscegenation defined, 2:17 eugenics and, 2:16, 2:17 Mismatch distributions (pairwise differences), 3:167-168, 3:168 Missense mutations, 2:127, 3:153 MITEs (miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements), 4:9 Mitochondria, 1:105, 1:111

defined, 1:33, 2:194, 3:135, 4:42 diseases, MIDD, 1:211

electron transport chain, 1:111, 2:194, 3:41-42, 3:51-53, 3:52 and oxidative base damage, 1:242 plasmids in, 3:150 ribosomes, 4:42 ribozymes, 4:44 in sperm, 2:35 structure and function, 1:111-112, 3:41-42, 3:51, 3:55-56, 3:56, 4:50 Mitochondrial diseases, 3:51-55 aging and, 3:80 genetic components, 3:52-53 inheritance of, 2:194, 2:198, 2:204

Kearns-Sayre syndrome, 3:53, 3:53

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, 3:53 Leigh's disease, 3:52, 3:54 MELAS, 2:202, 3:54 mosaicism, 3:79-80 multisystem, list of, 3:54 oxidative metabolism disorders, 3:41-42

Mitochondrial DNA. See DNA, mitochondrial (mtDNA) Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke (MELAS), 2:202, 3:54 Mitochondrial Eve, 3:63, 3:67-68 Mitochondrial genome, 3:55-57 base pairs, number, 2:116, 3:79 coding for ETC subunits,

3:52-53, 3:52 distinguished from eukaryotes,

2:195-196 evolutionary origin, 2:12, 2:86, 2:112, 2:116, 2:194-196, 3:52, 3:55, 3:56-57 as evolutionary study tool, 2:198,

3:66-67 exceptions to universal code, 2:86-87

heteroplasmic and homoplasmic,

2:197, 3:54 inheritance patterns, 2:195, 2:196-197, 2:204, 2:205, 3:51, 3:67-68, 3:69, 4:157 mutations, 3:42, 3:79-80 overlapping genes, 3:135-136 random partitioning, 2:195, 2:197

random replication, 2:195, 2:197, 3:56

repair mechanisms lacking, 3:79 vegetative segregation, 2:197 See also DNA, mitochondrial (mtDNA)

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