Oooc oc

Introns (continued)

exon shuffling and, 2:30-31 function, 1:12-13, 2:52, 2:53,

3:181, 4:45, 4:110 gene expression role, 2:62, 2:63 in higher eukaryotes, 2:115, 4:128 lacking in bacteria, 2:31, 4:128 lacking in mitochondria and chloroplasts, 2:196, 3:56 lacking in mRNA, 1:154, 1:157, 1:224, 2:53, 3:124, 3:211, 4:51-52, 4:57-59 lacking in retropseudogenes, 4:10 point mutations of, 2:27 removal in transfer RNA, 4:59 triplet repeats, 4:149, 4:150 See also Splicing, alternative; Splicing, RNA Inversions, and chromosomal aberrations, 1:122, 1:124-125, 1:124, 3:97

IP-3, signal transduction role,

4:89-90 IQ (intelligence quotient) tests Down syndrome, 1:79 as eugenics tool, 2:18 Flynn effect, 2:209 FSIQ, 2:208 history, 2:207-208 MENSA, 2:208 PIQ, 2:208

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 2:208 VIQ, 2:208

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, 2:208

Iris origin of term, 2:32 structure, and eye color, 2:31-33 IS (insertion sequence) elements, prokaryotes, 2:116, 2:117, 4:144-145, 4:144 Ishihara color vision test, 1:172 Isoelectric focusing, 2:48, 3:208 Isoforms, protein, 1:13, 1:14, 1:14,

2:31, 2:53, 3:160 Isohaemagglutinin alleles, 3:82 Isoleucine (Ile), genetic code, 2:85,

2:87, 4:137 Isoleucine-valine operon (ilv), 3:134 Isotretinoin (Accutane), 1:80-81 IUCN (International World Conservation Union), categories of threatened populations, 1:186

Jacob, Francois, 3:105, 3:131 Jacobs, P.A., 1:119, 4:80

JAK-STAT signaling pathway,

4:75-76, 4:77 Janus kinase gene, 4:75-76 Jefferson, Thomas, Y chromosome analysis, 3:65 Jellyfish genes as bioremediation tool, 1:62 escaped, 1:68

green fluorescent protein, 3:17 Jennings, Herbert Spencer, 2:20 Jews evolutionary origin, 3:66 Hasidic, founders effect, 2:37 killed by Nazis, 2:20 Jews, Ashkenazic breast cancer, 1:91 cystic fibrosis, 1:202 diabetes, 1:210

idiopathic torsion dystonia, 2:38 Tay-Sachs disease, 2:37, 2:99-100, 3:174, 4:98, 4:101-102 Johansson, Wilhelm, 1:130, 2:50, 3:101

Johnston, Stephen, 1:255 Jost, Alfred, 4:79-80, 4:81 Jumping genes. See Transposable genetic elements Juvenile-onset diabetes (diabetes type 1), 1:209-210, 2:202

Kaback, Michael, 4:101

The Kallikak Family (H. Goddard),

2:18, 2:19 Kallman, Franz, 4:83 Kaposi's sarcoma, 2:151, 4:169 Kappa bacteria, as intracellular sym-

bionts, 2:198 Kappa constant regions, antibodies,

2:179, 2:179, 2:180 Karyotype analysis to diagnose birth defects, 1:79 human chromosomes, 1:127, 3:108

spectral (chromosome painting), 3:183

Turner's syndrome, 1:122 See also Chromosomal banding Karyotype, defined, 1:79 Kaufman, Matthew, 4:126 Kearns-Sayre syndrome, 3:53 Kellogg's, genetically modified ingredients, 4:130 Kendler, Kenneth, 4:83 Kennedy disease (spinobulbar muscular atrophy), 1:26, 4:150, 4:151

Khorana, Har Gobind, 1:193,

1:252-253 Kidney disorders cancer, 1:93

and diabetes, 1:209, 1:212 metabolic diseases, 3:42 mitochondrial diseases, 3:54 Kiedrowski, Gunter von, 2:24 Kilobases, defined, 3:7 Kinase enzymes

CAM/kinases, 4:90 cyclin-dependent, 1:105-108 defined, 1:105, 3:153, 4:38 Janus, 4:75-76 MAP, 4:90, 4:91 phosphorylation by, 3:178, 4:87,

pre-replicative complex enzymes, 4:18

repetitive DNA sequences,

serine/threonine, 4:87, 4:89-90 tyrosine, 4:87-89 Kinetochores defined, 1:144

structure and function, 1:114, 1:115, 3:25-26, 3:27, 3:28, 3:29, 3:58-59 Kirk, Katherine, 4:83 Klinefelter's syndrome cause and symptoms, 1:79,

1:121-122, 3:111, 4:80, 4:174 progeroid aspects, 1:2 Knight, Margaret, 1:15 Knock-in mutants embryonic stem cell research, 2:5 gene targeting, 2:73, 3:91 Knock-out mutants

Arabidopsis transformation studies, 1:35 DAT gene, 1:41 "Disease Model" mouse strains, 3:62

embryonic stem cell research,

2:4-5 FMR-1 gene, 2:42 gene targeting, 2:72, 2:73, 3:91,

4:54, 4:125-126 Hox genes, 1:208 pigs, for organ transplants, 4:140,

4:142-143 PrP genes, 3:188 SCID studies, 4:75 technology for creating, 4:124

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