Oooc oc

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK),

4:87-88, 4:89, 4:90 Recessive alleles defined, 2:133, 3:73, 4:69 distinguished from imprinted genes, 2:183-184 familial adenomatous polyposis,

1:168-169 genotype role, 2:127-128 heterozygote advantage role,

2:147-148 inheritance patterns, 1:147-148 maize, 3:9

Mendel's hypotheses, 3:31, 3:33, 3:35-36

molecular meaning of, 2:200-201 mutations as, 3:90, 3:93 in polyploids, 3:166 X-linked inheritance, 1:130-131, 3:73-74, 3:91-92 Recessive disorders, autosomal albinism, 2:32, 2:128, 2:200-201, 2:202, 2:206, 2:206 carrier testing for, 3:177 congenital generalized lipodys-

trophic diabetes, 1:211 endocrine disorders, 2:129-130 in founder populations, 2:37 gene therapy effectiveness, 2:74 genetic testing to identify,

2:99-100 Hardy-Weinberg predictions, 2:135

hemochromatosis, 2:203 inbreeding and, 2:189-190, 2:203 inheritance patterns, 2:200-201,

2:202-203, 2:205 insulin receptor gene defects, 1:211

Laron syndrome, 2:129 Leigh's disease, 3:54 loss-of-function diseases,

2:200-201, 3:96 metabolic diseases, 3:38-39, 3:45 muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, 3:86

parental guilt issues, 2:88-89 pituitary hormone deficiency,

2:129 SCID-X1, 4:75 selection for/against, 4:69 stop codon mutations, 3:96 wolfram syndrome, 1:212 See also Cystic fibrosis; Phenylke-tonuria; Sickle-cell disease; Tay-Sachs disease Recessive disorders, X-linked, 1:213, 2:203, 4:174, 4:175

Recipients (transplant), defined, 4:139

Recombinant DNA. See DNA, recombinant Recombinase enzymes, 3:17 Recombination. See Crossing over; Linkage and recombination (linkage analysis) Recombination enzymes transduction and, 4:119-120 transformation and, 4:121 Recombination fraction, 3:6-7, 3:12-13

Recombination nodules, 1:195 Recombining, defined, 4:174 Red cone pigment (RCP) genes, 1:171

Red-green color blindness,

1:171-172 Reduced penetrance, defined, 2:61 Refsum disease, 3:41 Regulatory elongation factors, 4:111 Rehabilitation Act of 1973, genetic discrimination and, 2:93 Relative risk ratios for disease prevalence, 1:214 gene-environment interactions, 2:56

Relaxosomes, 3:151 Release factors, translation, 4:138 Renal pelvis, cancer, 1:169 Reoviruses, replication, 4:167 Repeated extragenic palindromic

(REP) sequences, 2:117 Repetitive DNA elements. See DNA

repetitive sequences Replication cytokinesis, 3:29, 3:59 defined, 3:46 fission, bacterial, 3:152 of fruit fly salivary gland cells,

2:43-44 Hayflick Limit, 4:105 of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes, 2:195, 2:197, 3:56 of plasmids, 2:198 of prions, 3:187-190 of retroviruses, 4:36-37, 4:37,

4:168-169 RNA, without enzymes, 2:23-24 rolling, 1:184

telomere function, 4:104-105 of viroids, 4:162-163, 4:163, 4:164

of viruses, 1:204, 4:162 of virusoids, 4:164 See also DNA replication; Meio-sis; Mitosis

Replication fork, 4:13-15, 4:13, 4:14 Replicometer mechanism, 4:105 Replicons, 3:151 Reporter genes. See Screenable markers

Repressor (silencer) elements, 2:64,

4:111, 4:114 Reproduction, sexual in Hardy-Weinberg model,

2:133-134, 2:135 in plant propagation, 4:132 See also Fertilization Reproductive technology, 4:19-26 age concerns, 4:21, 4:23, 4:25 and creation of twins, 4:155 cryopreservation, 4:25 donor insemination, 4:24 egg donation, 4:24 gamete intrafallopian transfer, 4:23

intrauterine insemination, 4:24 surrogacy, 4:24 tubal embryo transfer, 4:23 zygote intrafallopian transfer, 4:23

See also Cloning organisms; In vitro fertilization; Stem cells, embryonic; Transgenic animals Reproductive technology, ethical issues, 4:25-26, 4:26-30 antidiscrimination laws, 4:29 cloning, 1:158-161 donor insemination, 4:28 embryonic stem cells, 2:3, 2:6,

3:186, 4:29, 4:30 forced sterilization, 2:16, 2:90, 4:69

gene therapy, 2:80-81, 2:82-83 personhood of ovum, 4:27-28, 4:29

surrogacy, 4:24, 4:29

in vitro fertilization, 1:69, 1:201,

2:3-4, 4:28-29 See also Eugenics Reptation, defined, 2:49-50 Reptiles, sex determination, 4:81 Resistance to antibiotics. See Antibiotic resistance Resistance to pesticides, agricultural biotechnology and, 1:11 Resistance to pests and pathogens Arabidopsis research, 1:35 breeding for, 1:149 disease-resistant animals, 2:106 See also Disease-resistant crops; Insect-resistant crops Respiratory tract disorders, birth defects, 1:75

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