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Typical statistical geneticists spend much of their time working with computers, since much of the statistical analysis of data is now conducted using computer software instead of pencil and paper. Many statistical geneticists are actively engaged in developing new statistical methods for problems that are specific to genetics. Computers are invaluable tools, since much of the initial evaluation of new statistical methods is performed using computer simulations. That is, artificial data are...

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Hypertrophic muscles, 3 84 Hypervariable regions, antibodies, 2 179, 2 179 Hyphae, fungal, 2 115 Hypochondroplasia, characteristics, 2 130 Hypogonadism, defined, 1 79 Hypopituitarism, 2 129-130 Hypoplasia, characteristics, 2 130 Hypothalamus defined, 4 84 sexual orientation role, 4 84 Hypotheses alternate, 4 96-97 defined, 3 7, 3 18 null, 4 96-97 testing, 4 96-97 Hypothyroidism, population screening, 3 176-177 Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltrans-ferase (HPRT), 3 44 Ice ages, population...

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Rhabdoviruses are helical viruses and include the virus that causes rabies and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a common laboratory virus. The lipid-containing envelope is embedded with glycoprotein (G) spikes. A layer of a matrix protein (M) forms a bridge between G and the nucleocapsid proteins (N). Also included in the virion are several molecules of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Large or L protein) and its cofactor, the phosphoprotein (P). The genes for these proteins are arranged as...

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Amphibian cloning, 1 161-163 as gene therapy tool, 2 73 mammal cloning, 1 162, 1 163-164 transgenic animals, 4 124-126 See also In vitro fertilization Nuclease enzymes, 3 112-115 crossing-over role, 1 195, 1 196 defined, 1 31, 4 53 deoxyribonucleases, 3 112, 3 113-114 DNase, 1 201, 1 220, 3 221 endonucleases, 3 112-113, 3 113, 3 113-115, 3 113 function, 1 31, 3 112 hydrolysis reactions, 3 113, 3 114 lyase reactions, 3 113 ribonucleases, 3 112, 3 114-115 structure preferences, 3 112-113 See also...

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer

An alternative to IVF and intrauterine embryo transfer is gamete intrafal-lopian transfer (GIFT), introduced more than twenty years ago. In this procedure, the egg and sperm are collected as they would be for IVF procedures. However, instead of allowing fertilization to take place in a culture dish, the egg and sperm are transferred surgically into the woman's fallopian tube. This allows fertilization to occur in the fallopian tube, just as occurs in a natural pregnancy. The transfer can only...

Twin Studies and Concordance

Insight into such questions can be gleaned by several types of studies that compare twins. Comparison of MZ twins reared apart is one type of study but is hampered by the extreme rarity of such twin pairs. Another type of study, comparing MZ twins to DZ twins, is more commonly done, because there are many hundreds of thousands of such twin pairs worldwide. Data on twins have been collected by numerous research groups who have created large and growing databases (registries) that can be mined...

Retroviruses and Cancer

Retroviruses are among several types of viruses that can induce cancer in the host organism. So-called slowly transforming viruses are exemplified by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), which causes leukemia (a type of blood cancer) in humans. These viruses induce malignancy by a process called insertional mutagenesis. The initial event is thought to be retroviral integration near, and subsequent activation of, a cellular oncogene (c-onc). Examples of c-onc include genes for growth factors,...