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Contributors and Arrangement of the Material

To aid understanding and increase interest, most entries are illustrated with clear diagrams and dramatic photographs. Each entry is followed by cross-references to related entries, and most have a list of suggested readings and or Internet resources for further exploration or elaboration. Specialized or unfamiliar terms are defined in the margin and collected in a glossary at the end of each volume. Each volume also contains an index, and

Search and Response Behaviour

Figure 2 Patterns of mycelial outgrowth of four cord-forming basidiomycota across compacted soil in 24 x 24 cm trays from x cm (a-e) and y cm (f) Beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood inocula. (a) Coprinus picaceus, (b) Hypholoma fasciculare, (c) Phallus impudicus, (d) Resinicium bicolor and (e and f) Phanerochaete velutina. Digital images (a)-(d) courtesy Alaa Alawi, and digital images (e) and (f) from photographs taken by Rory Bolton. Figure 2 Patterns of mycelial outgrowth of four cord-forming basidiomycota across compacted soil in 24 x 24 cm trays from x cm (a-e) and y cm (f) Beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood inocula. (a) Coprinus picaceus, (b) Hypholoma fasciculare, (c) Phallus impudicus, (d) Resinicium bicolor and (e and f) Phanerochaete velutina. Digital images (a)-(d) courtesy Alaa Alawi, and digital images (e) and (f) from photographs taken by Rory Bolton.

Persistent Mycelial Networks Sit and Wait Strategy

Figure 3 Reallocation of mycelial biomass of Phanerochaete velutina following colonization of new wood resources. (a-c) Extending from a 0.5 cm3 beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood inoculum to an 8 cm3 wood resource, in 24 x 24 cm trays of non-sterile soil, after, respectively, 11, 15 and 20 days. Note regression of much of the mycelium not connected to a new resource, and thickening of connected cords (c). (d-g) Growth in 57 x 57cm soil trays, with four new wood resources (located half way along each microcosm side) added after 36 days in (e)-(g). (d) Control with no additional wood resources. Images were captured 78-85 days after adding the central wood inoculum. Note thickening of cords connecting inoculum with new resources (f and g), and thinning of other areas compared with 78 days control having no additional resources (e). Outgrowth from the newly colonized lower resource is evident from 78 days (Perspex blocks in the corners of trays were for support of other replicates in stacks)....

Disgusting Bright Simple And Contrasted Why And How To Advertise

FIGURE 3 Examples of gregarious warningly colored insects. (A) Gregarious Chromacris lubber grasshoppers nymphs (Orthoptera Romaleidae) feeding on a toxic Solanum mite. Although it is not a bright color, black is often used as a warning color by insects, presumably because it increases conspicuousness by contrast against green foliage. (B) Gregarious Morpho sp. caterpillars spending the day in a dense cluster. They disperse at night for feeding. Clusters of aposematic prey often create an emergent, enhanced pattern presumably perceived as a supernormal stimulus by the predators and therefore better memorized. Caterpillars about 10 cm long. (Photographs from the Peruvian Amazon, M. Joron, 1997.) FIGURE 3 Examples of gregarious warningly colored insects. (A) Gregarious Chromacris lubber grasshoppers nymphs (Orthoptera Romaleidae) feeding on a toxic Solanum mite. Although it is not a bright color, black is often used as a warning color by insects, presumably because it increases...

Virion Proteins and RNA Segments

Figure 1 Electron micrographs of vitrlfied-hydrated La Crosse virions. (A) Smalfttefocus value which demonstrates the membrane bllayer (B) large defocus value which demonstrates the glycoprotein spikes (see Elliott (1990) for further details). Bar 100 nm. The photographs were generously provided by Dr B. V. V. Prasad. Figure 1 Electron micrographs of vitrlfied-hydrated La Crosse virions. (A) Smalfttefocus value which demonstrates the membrane bllayer (B) large defocus value which demonstrates the glycoprotein spikes (see Elliott (1990) for further details). Bar 100 nm. The photographs were generously provided by Dr B. V. V. Prasad.

Pontinegeniculooccipital PGO waves preceding and during REM sleep

Figure 2.3 Changes in the membrane potential(MP) of a pontine tegmentalneuron over the sleep wake cycle in the cat. These EEG and neuronalrecordings illustrate the paucity of reticular activity during NREM sleep and the frenzy of activity during REM sleep. As well, the premonitory transition period of the approach of REM sleep is not visible in the corticalEEG. The first trace of the top panel(a) is EMG from the deep nuchalmuscles. The second trace is EEG from the frontalcortex. The third trace is LGN activity, showing PGO waves, which consist of high amplitude pre REM waves (REM T), irregular, high frequency waves during REM sleep, and rather high amplitude waves near the end of REM sleep. The fourth trace is EOG from the lateralrectus extraocular muscles. The fifth trace is the ink writer membrane potentialrecord of the pontine tegmentalneuron, in which the many single spike like deflections on the trace are prominent EPSPs, or compounds of EPSPs and actualaction potentials (the...

Introduction To The Atlas

The second page, hidden on the reverse side, describes the features of each case, beginning with those three aspects. The fields are discussed in further detail, and relevant points stressed. We also mention what confrontation field testing showed in most cases, so that the reader may obtain a sense of which defects are detectable and which are likely to be missed in the clinic or at the bedside. Photographs, further fields or imaging are provided to illustrate the clinical problem. We also provide a brief discussion about clinical points related to the case. All fields belong to patients with problems. Since we expect that most of the readers of this work are engaged in the clinical care of these patients, we believe that the diagnostic and management issues that arise from these fields should be of interest to the audience.

Research submarines and remotely operated vehicles ROVs

A research submarine is comparable in size to a delivery truck. Those in service typically carry a pilot and one or two scientists in a pressure sphere about 2 m in diameter. Surrounding the sphere is equipment for life support, propulsion, ascent and descent, and scientific purposes (manipulator arms, cameras, specialized payload in a carrying basket) (Heirtzler and Grassle, 1976). Research submarines bring the ecologist into the deep sea and thereby confer large benefits by correcting the tunnel vision that deep-sea scientists acquire from the study of deep-sea photographs. Further, research submarines permit a wide range of ecological experiments. For example, trays of defaunated sediment have been placed on the seabed for study of colonization rates (Snelgrove et al., 1992), and dyed sediment has been spread and subsequently sampled for estimates of sediment mixing rates (Levin et al., 1994).

Digital Image Analyses

Digital images may be collected by a wide range of options, digital camera or digital video on wide field epifluorescence microscope, 1P-LSM, and 2P-LSM. Collection and analyses of synchrotron images is a specialized area not covered in detail in this chapter.25,26 Once an image series or image stack is generated there are many options to analyse these images and depending on the specific requirements many commercial or freeware systems can be chosen. Key points to consider include gray level resolution, programming language, capacity for modification, design of macros or plug-ins, and memory requirements, capacity to perform operations on serial image stacks produced in confocal microscopy, or to perform object-based image analysis. Software may be from the microscope company directly or special software companies. All the major companies constantly extend the features on

Creativity and Left Hand Preference

We do not know why there is a higher proportion of creative visual artists who are right handed. As I mentioned, studies of brain-damaged people have revealed that damage to the right hemisphere impairs visual-spatial, visual-perceptual, and visual-constructive processes (see Benton & Tranel, 1993, for a review). For example, in a face-matching test, participants are asked to determine if two faces are the same or different. In this test the photographs of the two faces are taken at different angles such that the participant cannot determine if the two pictures are the same or different people by making point-to-point comparisons, but instead, the subject must develop an object-centered or face-centered perceptual representation. Patients with right-hemisphere injury are often impaired on this face-matching test. Patients with right-hemisphere disease are also impaired in a test where they are shown a series of cards with two line segments and are asked to study and recall the...

Physical Studies of Viruses

In Germany, on the eve of World War II, Ruska and his colleagues had produced electron microscopic photographs of the particles of TMV, bacteriophages and poxviruses, noting the extraordinary 'sperm-shaped' particles of bacteriophage. Technical improvements in instrumentation after the war, and the introduction of negative staining for studying the structure of TMV and other viruses by Cambridge scientists Huxley in 1957 and Brenner and Home in 1959 resulted in photographs of the particles of virtually every known kind of virus. These demonstrated the variety of their size, shape and structure, and the presence of common features such as the helical particles of many plant viruses and the icosahedral symmetry of many other viruses.

Phylogeny And Classification

FIGURES 28-31 (28) Female black fly adult (Simuliidae) taking a blood meal. (29) Female mosquito adult (Culicidae Anopheles) taking a blood meal. (Photographs by R. W. Merritt.) (30) Female sand fly adult (Psychodidae) taking a blood meal. (Photograph by B. Chaniotis.) (31) Female horse fly adult (Tabanidae). (Photograph by R. W. Merritt.) FIGURES 28-31 (28) Female black fly adult (Simuliidae) taking a blood meal. (29) Female mosquito adult (Culicidae Anopheles) taking a blood meal. (Photographs by R. W. Merritt.) (30) Female sand fly adult (Psychodidae) taking a blood meal. (Photograph by B. Chaniotis.) (31) Female horse fly adult (Tabanidae). (Photograph by R. W. Merritt.)

System Change Control

Clearly, it is important to keep track of and document changes to automated systems just as scientists document changes in work they perform manually. Records should be kept of the software and hardware used during specific projects or during a specific time frame. Systems with open software allow annotations to be written, dated, and initialed directly in the text by appropriate personnel. Software may be stored in electronic and or printed form and should be stored in a location that is safe from chemical hazards and electromagnetic radiation . Hardware configurations may be stored as drawings, lists of components, photographs, and videotapes. These records should be documented and archived in a manner and according to a schedule that is appropriate to the needs and practices of the laboratory and the analytical application. Instrument logbooks are commonly used to document, store, and archive these records.

The Preliminary Observation of Enzyme Activity in Organic Solvents

The results were recorded photographically after the enzyme mixtures were stirred for 10 min. Figure 6 shows the photographs of three enzymes suspended in vinyl acetate and 2-methyl-2-propanol vial 1 lipase N vial 2 lipase P-1, vial 3 alcalase 2.5 L in vinyl acetate and vial 4 alcalase 2.5 L in 2-methyl-2-pro-

Functional assessment of visual tests and ERG

Retinal reflectance changes in response to photic stimulation carry information about metabolic processes underlying light responses in the retina. High-resolution, contrast agent-free optical imaging based on intrinsic signals in vivo has significantly contributed to understanding of the functional architecture of the neocortex (Grinvald et al., 1986). It reveals activity dependent changes in light reflectance, recorded using a digital camera with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such functional signals are usually small, originating from activity-dependent metabolic, hemodynamic, and fast and slow light-scattering changes (Frostig, et al., 1990, Malonek & Grinvald, 1996).

Analysis of FISH Images and Mounting of Immunostaining and FISH Pictures

Select the best chromosomes for image analysis. In cases where the antibody staining survives FISH, from the digital camera attached to the microscope acquire three pictures for every selected chromosome with appropriate filter sets one for the antibody staining, one for the FISH signal, and one for DAPI staining. If the antibody staining does not survive FISH, image acquisition of immunostained chromosomes at marked slide coordinates will already have been done as described in Subheading 3.2., and at this stage of the experiment, separate acquisition of the FISH and DAPI images is performed on the same chromosomes.

EM In Situ Hybridization to Polytene Chromosomes

Cessful (24), perhaps because the antibodies conjugated to the gold particles penetrated poorly into the epoxy resin (25). This possibility is supported by our observation that the hybridization signal is differentially distributed along the chromosome thickness in pre-embedding in situ hybridization experiments. When DNA is detected in large condensed bands, gold particles are seen mainly on the chromosome surface in the first sections of a series (see Fig. 5D,E) when it is detected in the decompacted regions, such as puffs or interbands, the gold label is more or less evenly distributed along the chromosome thickness and it is seen in all of the serial sections (see Fig. 5C,F,G). Fine mapping of DNA probes with respect to chromosome banding pattern is facilitated when photographs obtained by both EM in situ hybridization and the conventional

The prophylactic mastectomy protocol

After a psychological assessment, a more detailed surgical consultation is arranged to discuss the type of procedure best suited to the woman and whether a one- or two-stage procedure is preferable. This would usually involve discussion of three basic options (1) total bilateral mastectomy, (2) bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction, either with implants or tissue flaps, and (3) bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy that retains the overlying skin and nipple areolar complex. The potential complications are also discussed together with the expected cosmetic result. Surgeons will usually have photographs available for women to view if they wish.

Lpcrrflp Performance and Analysis

Amplifying large DNA fragments requires high-fidelity DNA polymerase enzymes, e.g., TAKARA LA (Takara). The conditions for LPCR amplification require optimizing primer, magnesium ion, and enzyme concentrations as well as thermal cycling number and timing. In a typical LPCR reaction protocol, 1-100 ng of template DNA is amplified in the presence of 1 mM of each primer, 300 mM of dNTPs, 2.5 mM MgCl2, and 1.5 U of TAKARA LA polymerase. The amplified LPCR products are purified on agarose gels, then are digested with a restriction enzyme, e.g., Clal. The digested DNA fragments are then electro-phoresed on 6 polyacrylamide gel for a constant period of time at constant voltage. A reference DNA marker is run along with the digested DNAs in the first, middle, and last lanes to help identify the size of the restricted DNA fragments. After staining with ethidium bromide, the restriction pattern is visualized and photographed with a digital camera.

Silver Spring Monkeys

In the early summer of 1981, an animal activist named Alex Pacheco asked Taub for a job at IBR. Taub told Pacheco that there was no paying job available at the institute, but that he was welcome to work at the laboratory on a volunteer basis. Taub was not aware that Pacheco was one of the founding members of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). During his five months at IBR, Pacheco took photographs of the conditions in the facility. In addition, while Taub was away on vacation, he brought five scientists (two zoo veterinarians* and three animal activists, two of whom were primatologists) into the facility to witness the conditions in the laboratory. On September 22, 1981, in response to the affidavits of the five scientists alleging grossly unsanitary conditions and inadequate care and the photographs provided by Pacheco, the Montgomery County police raided IBR, confiscating the primates and seizing laboratory records. Taub was subsequently charged with cruelty to...

Calibration and Shading Correction for Fluorescence Microscopes

Cell fluorescence, just like any light reaching a digital camera, is quantified in units of the gray scale. Such quantitation permits reliable comparison between samples only if they are all imaged within a short time interval and on the same instrument however, any change in microscope alignment or camera settings, let alone moving the sample to a different microscope, is likely to affect the measured gray level.

Analysis of the Questioned Item

The analysis involves the dissection of an item into its component parts, properties, and characteristics that can be directly observed and measured. The analysis of the questioned item is always performed before any examination on the known item. In pedal evidence, one is evaluating a bloody footprint or sock liner image to determine the quantity and quality of the image and whether it is sufficient for comparison purposes. A good number of marks or images may be present, but is there sufficient clarity (detail) to use them all Every aspect must be evaluated and then recorded using photographs and casts of impressions, where applicable, as needed for comparison. Measurements can be taken to estimate, for example, possible height of the perpetrator, foot and or shoe size. Once the findings are noted, they are compared with known standards to make a final determination.

Results of clinical studies

Formation and improved visual acuity (Salama Benarroch et al., 1977). A double-blind crossover clinical trial performed on 18 diabetics, the results of which were published in the same year, investigated the effect of calcium dobesilate on capillary resistance and background retinopathy in comparison with placebo. Each treatment lasted 8 months. The study gave no evidence of a significant beneficial effect of calcium dobesilate on the capillary resistance in diabetics or on the course of the diabetic retinopathy (Larsen et al., 1977). The additional two independent, double-blind, controlled studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy of calcium dobesilate for the treatment of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. In the first suty, forty-two patients underwent a six-month crossover evaluation while receiving calcium dobesilate (750 mg per day) and placebo in random order. In the second ome, thirty-six patients received calcium dobesilate (1,000 mg per day) or placebo for one...

Economic Importance Injurious Families

Injurious Domestic Animals

FIGURES 40-43 (40) Cecidomyiid gall on grape leaves. (Photograph by R. Isaacs.) (41) Hessian fly (Cecidomyiidae Mayetiola destructor). (42) Cherry fruit fly adults (Tephritidae Rhagoletis cingulata) on cherry. (Photographs by Department of Entomology, Michigan State University.) (43) Onion maggot adult (Anthomyiidae Delia antiqua). (Photograph by J. Spencer.) FIGURES 40-43 (40) Cecidomyiid gall on grape leaves. (Photograph by R. Isaacs.) (41) Hessian fly (Cecidomyiidae Mayetiola destructor). (42) Cherry fruit fly adults (Tephritidae Rhagoletis cingulata) on cherry. (Photographs by Department of Entomology, Michigan State University.) (43) Onion maggot adult (Anthomyiidae Delia antiqua). (Photograph by J. Spencer.)

Evaluation of Eyelid Malpositions

Basal Cell Carcinoma Eyelid

Appropriate documentation of all eyelid malpositions with photographs and formal perimetry showing the relative impact of the eyelid on vision have become mandatory by third party payers prior to approval of any surgical intervention for an eyelid malady. A current refraction should be documented since any change in the height or tone of the eyelid can result in a postoperative change in corneal astigmatism. Finally, the patient's expectations for both visual and cosmetic improvement should be carefully elicited as this may impact the technique of surgical repair selected.

Examination and investigation of patients with PCOS and secondary amenorrhoea

Signs of hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, balding (alopecia)) are suggestive of the PCOS, although biochemical screening helps to differentiate other causes of androgen excess. It is important to distinguish between hyperandrogenism and virilization, which is additionally associated with high circulating androgen levels and causes deepening of the voice, breast atrophy, increase in muscle bulk and cliteromegaly (see Virilization p. 378). A rapid onset of hirsutism suggests the presence of an androgen secreting tumour of the ovary or adrenal gland. Hirsutism can be graded and given a 'Ferriman-Gallwey Score', by assessing the amount of hair in different parts of the body (e.g. upper lip, chin, breasts, abdomen, arms and legs). It is useful to monitor the progress of hirsutism, or its response to treatment, by making serial records, either using a chart or by taking photographs of affected areas of the body.

Adiantum aleuticum Western maidenhair

Balancing Fern Canyon

Ault on Washington State's Olympic Peninsula. Farther south one of nature's most spectacular temperate fern displays is in Fern Canyon in northern California's Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park. Trails from a visitor's center wander towards the Pacific Ocean with a flourishing finale in a narrow half-mile (0.8-km) stretch of a gorgeous gorge. Here flowing sheets of maidenhairs cascade down 50-ft. (15-m) plus walls impressing even the least fern inclined or informed visitor. Companion plants include big trees and huge specimens of Woodwardia fimbriata luxuriating in the coastal comfort of their optimal habitat. Look too for the Roosevelt elk that graze the beach at the canyon's outflow. Bring your camera.

Central or Peripheral Cone Dystrophy

Progressive Cone Dystrophy

Fundus photographs (top) and fluorescein angiograms (bottom) of three patients with peripheral cone dystrophy. Cases 1 and 2 show slight temporal pallor of the optic disk, but otherwise their fundi appear normal. (From Kondo et al. 15 , with permission) Fig. 2.100. Fundus photographs (top) and fluorescein angiograms (bottom) of three patients with peripheral cone dystrophy. Cases 1 and 2 show slight temporal pallor of the optic disk, but otherwise their fundi appear normal. (From Kondo et al. 15 , with permission)

Occult Macular Dystrophy

The fundus photographs and fluorescein angio-grams from three affected members of Family C 1 are shown in Fig. 2.130 the fundus and angiograms were normal. Full-field ERGs were normal in all these patients, but the focal macular ERGs were absent, indicating that the pathological basis for the depressed visual acuity lies in the macula. Recently, this localized dysfunction in the macula was confirmed by multifocal ERGs, which showed depressed responses in the central areas (Fig. 2.131). Our recent studies 4 of many patients indicated that the amplitudes of the multifocal ERGs are markedly reduced in the central 7 of the retina. Fig. 2.130. Fundus photographs (left) and fluorescein angiograms (right) of three patients with occult macular dystrophy in Family C of Fig. 2.128. Cases 1,2, and 3 are a 29-year-old woman, a 19-year-old man, and a 55-year-old man, respectively. (From Miyake et al. 1 ) Fig. 2.130. Fundus photographs (left) and fluorescein...

Are Complete and Incomplete Cases of CSNB Really Nonprogressive

Complete Incomplete Csnb

Fundus photographs of another two brothers 26 are shown in Fig. 2.80. The younger, 56-year-old brother (Fig. 2.80A,B) had optic atrophy, attenuated retinal vessels, and slightly diffuse pigmentary atrophy in both eyes. The older, 64-year-old brother (Fig. 2.80C,D) had optic atrophy and severe chorioretinal degeneration in both eyes. Both patients had progressive decline of visual functions and had an in-frame mutation with deletion and insertion in exon 4 of the CACNA1F gene. In both patients, the mixed rod-cone ERG had a negative configuration, which is characteristic of incomplete CSNB. However, OPs were absent, and the rod and cone ERGs, which are not usually seen in patients with incomplete CSNB, were unrecordable (Fig. 2.81, cases 1, 2). Fig. 2.79. Fundus photographs (A, B), fluorescein angiograms (C, D), and Goldmann kinetic visual fields (E) of the patient with a CACNA1F gene mutation shown in Fig. 2.78. Right eye (A, C) and left eye (B, D) show an atrophic retinal region...

Sociometric Assessment

There are a variety of sociometric assessment techniques. The most widely used is peer nominations, in which children in a social group or school classroom anonymously identify social preferences for their classmates. For example, children may be asked to provide a list of three classmates with whom they would most like to play and three with whom they would least like to play. Another peer nomination technique is to provide a list of names of the children in a classroom along with social acceptance items (e.g., Who do you like to play with Who is most likely to be alone during recess Who gets into trouble the most ). The children are asked to place an 'X' next to the name of one to three classmates who they perceive best fits the item description (Figure 1). An alternative for early readers is to use photographs rather than a list of names and to read the items aloud in either an individual or group classroom setting. In either method, the numbers of nominations are summed for each...

Discovery And Characterization Of Cave Arthropods

Malfj Ril Larv

FIGURE 1 Cave and surface cixiid planthoppers. (A) Rain forest Oliarus species from Maui Island note large eyes, dark color, and functional wings. (B) Adult female cave-adapted OOliarus polyphemus from Hawaii Island note absence of eyes, enlarged antennae, and reduced wings and pigment. (Photographs by W. P. Mull, used with permission.) FIGURE 1 Cave and surface cixiid planthoppers. (A) Rain forest Oliarus species from Maui Island note large eyes, dark color, and functional wings. (B) Adult female cave-adapted OOliarus polyphemus from Hawaii Island note absence of eyes, enlarged antennae, and reduced wings and pigment. (Photographs by W. P. Mull, used with permission.)

Molecular Methods For Analyzing Uncultured Bacteria

Semi-automated quantification techniques, which combine FISH or other fluorescence staining methods with digital image analysis, are less tedious than manual cell counting and can accurately quantify planktonic cells as well as clustered bacteria in flocs and biofilms. Epifluorescence microscopes equipped with digital cameras and confocal laser scanning microscopes are used to acquire images of fluorescing bacterial cells. Sharp confocal images, which contain only objects located in the current

Pathophysiology and Macular ERGs

Relation between the size of the macular hole,the size of the stimulus spot,and focal macular ERG responses.Fundus photographs (top),stimulus spot on the fundus (middle),and focal macular ERGs recorded from the affected eye and the normal fellow eye (bottom). A When the stimulus spot is smaller than or equal to the macular hole, the macular ERG is absent. B When the stimulus spot is slightly larger than the macular hole, the b-wave amplitude is smaller and the implicit time is longer than that in the normal fellow eye. This indicates that the response is elicited from the cuff surrounding the macular hole. C When the stimulus spot is much larger than the macular hole, the amplitude of the b-wave is slightly smaller and the implicit time is normal. This ERG response is evoked from the normal retina outside the cuff Fig.4.19. Relation between the size of the macular hole,the size of the stimulus spot,and focal macular ERG responses.Fundus photographs (top),stimulus spot on the...

Crystalline Retinopathy Bietti

Solutions Cone Rid Dystrophy Robots

Photographs of the fundus and the cornea as seen by specular microscopy in two patients with crystalline retinopathy are shown in Fig. 2.14. Fluorescein angiography revealed diffuse atrophy of the RPE, and atrophy of the choriocapillaris is occasionally present in the areas corresponding to the depigmented areas.

Polygenic Industrial Melanism

However, if it is correct, the recent decrease in pollution should lead to a reversal of this trend, with ground colors lightening and patterns becoming more clearly defined again. Novel, digital methods of measuring the spectral reflectance of surfaces and storing data should allow measurement without reliance on museum specimens or photographs, both of which may fade with time.

Genetic Considerations

The course of acromegaly is slow, with very gradual changes over 7 to 10 years. Reviewing a patient's old photographs may reveal the progressive changes in facial features. Determine if the patient has had a change in hat, glove, ring, or shoe size because of an overgrowth of the hands and feet. Ask the patient if he or she has had headaches or visual disturbances, which in acromegaly are caused by the growth of the adenoma, which exerts pressure on brain tissue and cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. Establish a history of altered sexual function, which may be an indicator of decreased gonadotropin production. Ask about the presence of pain in the hands, feet, and spine, which is probably caused by bone growths also ask about problems with chewing, swallowing, or talking, which may be caused by tongue, jaw, and teeth enlargement. Note the presence of a deepening of the voice, recurrent bronchitis, excessive sweating, heat intolerance, fatigue, and muscle weakness. Check for a...

Red lesion detection algorithm

In this work an algorithm for the detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs is proposed. The method performs in three stages, as depicted in Fig. 2. In the first stage, working on the green channel of the input (color) image, several correlation filters are applied, each with a different resolution, detecting this way a wider spectrum of features and getting the initial set of candidate lesions. The output of this stage serves as input for the second stage, where a region growing process is used to preprocess the red lesion candidates set obtaining a more accurate set. Finally, in the third stage the previous set of candidates is filtered by means of four filtering processes a shape (circularity) filter, which rejects regions with low circularity , an intensity filter, which removes from the set the candidates which does not fulfill the intensity criteria, a correlation mean filter, which removes the candidate areas which represent an outliers in the correlation...

Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptora in Vascular Biology Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

Effect of oxidized EPA on leukocyte adhesion in mesenteric venules in wild-type and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a-deficient mice. Several lines of in vitro and in vivo evidence suggest omega-3 fatty acids may exert their effects at least in part through PPAR-a activation. In the experiments shown here, wild-type or PPAR-a-deficient mice (PPARa- -) were given an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (Veh) alone native EPA, or oxidized EPA (oxEPA), 1 hour prior to injection of a potent inflammatory stimulus (lipolysacharide). Five hours later, the adhesion of leukocytes to the gut microvasculature in anesthetized mice was examined using intravital microscopy. (A) Adherent leukocytes were determined (n 5-7 for each group of mice). *p 0.03 compared to Veh + LPS (wild-type) and oxidized EPA + LPS (PPAR-a - -). Similar results were seen for leukocyte rolling. (B) Representative photographs of leukocytes interacting with the vessel wall (arrows) in LPS stimulated...

Molecular Genetics

Fundus photographs (A,C,E) and fluorescein angiograms (B,D,F) of patients with mutations of the GUCY2D gene. Family and case numbers in parentheses correspond to those shown in Fig. 2.97. (From Ito et al. 13 , with permission) Fig.2.99. Fundus photographs (A,C,E) and fluorescein angiograms (B,D,F) of patients with mutations of the GUCY2D gene. Family and case numbers in parentheses correspond to those shown in Fig. 2.97. (From Ito et al. 13 , with permission)

Colorimetric Sensors

There is emerging interest in sensitive colorimetric biosensor methods that do not require specialized instruments for signal detection. Nanoparticles, nanovesicles, and optical thin film have been used to transduce complementary hybridization into a color change. Aggregation of probe-labeled nanoparticles in the presence of complementary target is associated with a color shift that can be monitored using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. This system was coupled in an array format with a chemoresponsive diffraction grating detector to show realtime detection of a synthesized 27-mer DNA target. The experimental detection limit was 0.8 fmol (1 pM in 800 mL), and an extrapolated detection limit of 33 attomol was calculated. 14 In a system using a dye-encapsulated nanovesicle label, Baeumner and colleagues 15 showed that sandwich hybridization in solution could be detected simply and with high sensitivity. Target DNA, capture probe, and labeled probe were mixed for 20 min, sampled with a...

Definitions

Although most great artists have never studied the brain and how it functions, they appear to have implicit knowledge about how the brain functions and they use this knowledge when painting, allowing the people who view their art to obtain closure. For example, Banich, Heller, and Levy (1989) noticed that most paintings are right-left asymmetrical. These investigators wanted to learn if the right-left position of the objects in the painting made a difference in how people would judge the quality of the painting. They photographed many paintings by respected artists. These painting, however, were not well-known to the general population. They made slides from these photographs and showed them to people who had never seen these paintings before the study. They showed one half of the participants a slide of each painting as portrayed by the artist and the other half of the participants saw a mirror image of each painting, so the right-left was

Cameras

Cameras have also been important in documenting the behavior of deep-sea megafauna, and in the discovery of rates of some deep-sea processes. For these purposes, cameras are mounted in frames (vertically or obliquely) and left for times ranging from hours to months, taking photographs at preset intervals (Paul et al., 1978). At the appropriate time, ballast weights are released, and the buoyant instrument package rises to the surface for recovery. This free-vehicle approach (Rowe and Sibuet, 1983) has been used, for example, to document the date of appearance of phytodetritus on the seafloor (Lampitt, 1985), the rates of mound-building by an echiurid (Smith et al., 1986), and megafaunal activity rates (Smith et al., 1993). Stationary cameras with bait placed in the field of view have been crucial to the discovery and study of food-parcel-attending species in the deep sea (Hessler et al., 1972).

Nutrient Capture

Figure 2 Some fruit bodies of saprotrophic basidiomycota, illustrating a range of sizes and resources (a) the solitary Macrolepiota rhacodes with a coin size marker (20 mm diameter) (b) a fruit body of Marasmius setosus with the same coin size marker (c) even smaller Marasmius specimen on the petiole of a beech cupule (d) Collybia peronata on a pine cone (e) the decidedly caespitose Psathyrella multipedata (f) Terence Ingold posing with Fomes fomentarius on a beech tree in Knole Park, Sevenoaks, Kent, 1969 (see Ingold, 2002). Photographs (a)-(e) by David Moore of specimens collected by members of the mid-yorkshire fungus group at Harlow Carr Gardens. (See Colour Section)

Methods of Analysis

Once cleaned, all bones should be observed macroscopically and under low-power magnification and with oblique lighting (9,10). Defects that may have been obscured by decomposing flesh or moisture are often revealed at this time. Low-power magnification and lighting techniques are particularly important in revealing sharp force injuries, incomplete fractures, and pathological fractures. Photo documentation with and without a scale is essential to show both the overall location and the close-up views of such defects, following the basic protocol set forth for other forensic disciplines (11). Photographs should be taken at a 90 angle to the surface of the bone to minimize distortion. Close-up views are linked to the overall photos in which scales and labels are included. In addition, all bone abnormalities should be charted with notations of length and characteristics.

Clinical features

Long-standing effects of GH hypersecretion on acral and soft tissues, as well as on several vital organ systems and metabolic function, result in the characteristic clinical manifestations of acromegaly (Fig. 2). The slow insidious change in appearance results in a mean delay from time of onset of symptoms to diagnosis of 9 yr (1,16). Acromegaly is frequently diagnosed incidentally when patients seek care for dental, rheumatologic, or orthopedic disorders (17). Acral enlargement results in the physical features of acromegaly including coarsening of facial features, bulbous nose, fleshy lips, frontal bossing, spade-like hands, and widened feet. Mandibular overgrowth causes widening of the maxilla, with prognathism, teeth separation, jaw malocclusion and overbite (Fig. 3). These slowly progressive subtle physical changes can often be appreciated by serial review of old photographs. Patients volunteer or admit to increase in shoe, ring or hat size on direct questioning. GH excess also...

Rod Monochromacy

Fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms for two siblings with rod monochromacy. (From Miyake 2 ) Fig. 2.108. Fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms for two siblings with rod monochromacy. (From Miyake 2 ) Fig. 2.109. Full-field ERGs recorded from two siblings with rod mono-chromacy whose fundus photographs are shown in Fig. 2.107. (From Miyake 2 ) Fig. 2.109. Full-field ERGs recorded from two siblings with rod mono-chromacy whose fundus photographs are shown in Fig. 2.107. (From Miyake 2 )

Risk Factors

Of all the above-mentioned risk factors for melanoma, nevi (especially atypical) have by far the greatest clinical implication. Also apparent as precursor lesions both in sporadic and familial melanoma, many groups have reported the co-occurrence of a nevus phenotype with familial melanoma. Throughout the years familial melanoma has been referred to by many different names, which may reflect the difficulty to reach consensus on defining the associated nevus phenotype B-K mole syndrome (initials of described families) dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS), familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome, and atypical mole syndrome (AMS). Each of these definitions includes atypical nevi as the most predominant feature of the phenotype. Atypical nevi are defined as nevi that have a size of 5 mm or larger, have a flat component, and fulfill at least two of the following three criteria 1) variegated pigmentation, 2) ill-defined border, and 3) irregular shape. The photographs in Fig. 1...

Written Language

On an untimed writing sample, Sam was asked to choose one of several photographs to write about. He was then provided with unlimited time to write as much as he wanted about the picture. Sam chose a picture of a boy with a falcon over his head. He created a 10-word story that described what was happening in the picture and what the bird was doing. There were 4 spelling errors (60 spelled correctly) in the passage, and Sam did not include any punctuation in the story. Sam also used capital letters in the middle of the sentence and at times put capital letters in the middle of words.

Surgical technique

At a second procedure some months later after tissue expansion in the clinic, the infra-mammary fold is recreated on each breast and the tissue expander replaced with permanent implants. This second procedure affords the best chance to adjust the aesthetic quality of the breast reconstructions such that, ideally, the woman will look as near-normal as possible, not only when wearing a bra but also when undressed. Pre- and postoperative photographs are mandatory.

Specimens

In recent years, concern has been raised about the morality of killing animals for this collecting of specimens. In response to this concern, and as a consequence of space limitations in museums, the labor intensity of caring for collections, and declining populations in the wild, collecting has become far more conservative. In addition, alternatives to collecting in certain situations are being discussed. These include photographs of animals to document distributions of easily identifiable animals, and blood and or tissue samples to access genetic information.

Ceneiic DislANCt

Fixation is not very satisfactory. Gel contract and whiten, weak bands may be lost, and it is difficult to store large numbers of fixed gels. Photographing the stained gel to produce a permanent record is the method of choice. Photographing gels with a digital camera and storing the resulting images on a computer is a very useful way of cataloguing large numbers of gels.

Methodology

Initial contact was in June 1998 by the case detective, at which time an evaluation of the questioned shoes was performed. There appeared to be sufficient quality and quantity of the footwear for podiatric medical evaluation to continue. The suspects were taken into custody and standards were collected including photographs, inked bare footprints with foot outlines, impressible foam foot impressions that were cast with dental stone to create positive molds of the feet, and foot measurements. Biomechanical and structural problems were observed at this time. The laboratory personnel produced examination quality photographs as requested, including photographically enhanced images of the sock liners of the questioned footwear. Eleven pairs of shoes were examined. The questioned shoes were a brand name canvas off-court casual sneaker size 5.5, and a designer athletic type shoe with a thick outsole, the left shoe measuring 5.0 and the right shoe measuring 5.5. Other shoes included two pairs...

Field of Vision

Although the visual field provides clinicians with important diagnostic information for many neurologic and ophthalmologic conditions, its evaluation is often perceived as difficult or mysterious. In Field of Vision A Manual and Atlas of Perimetry, neuro-ophthalmologist Jason J.S. Barton, md, phd, frcp(c), and neurologist Michael Benatar, mbchb, dphil, provide a comprehensive overview of the use of both perimetric devices and bedside testing, and how to interpret the results. The authors focus on the clinically relevant points, providing enough technical detail and anatomic knowledge for the physician to competently examine patients with a perimeter. To develop the clinician's skill in interpretation, the authors include an atlas of 100 reallife cases arranged in anatomic order from retina to striate cortex. Each case contains a brief clinical vignette, a visual field, and a description of the field and its causal lesion, most with photographs of the pathology. The accompanying...

Harts tongue ferns

Worldwide the distribution is extensive and includes Europe, Asia, North Africa, the Middle East, and North America. Universally these ferns are primarily associated with limestone rocks and substrates. The rare North American native, Phyllitis scolopendrium var. americana, grows almost exclusively in shaded quarries and limestone-rich habitats frequently in hardwood forests. Alert visitors to Europe and Britain will find their native species, and an occasional variation, in mortared rubble on antiquities, faces of buildings, and in chinks on roadside walls (and can amuse the locals by taking close-up photographs of their flora ). Garden specimens do acclimate in circumneutral soil as well but appreciate an amendment of ground oyster or eggshells, concrete pebbles, limestone chips, or other additives that offer a steady and slow release of lime. Powdered supplements of dolomite or lawn sweeteners are not recommended. However, fellow enthusiasts give an endorsement to pelleted...

Growth

The disparity between the results of Turekian et al. (1975) and those from shallow water are not as great as originally thought. For example, the growth rates of some deep-sea bivalve species are comparable to those of shallow-water bivalves (Gage, 1991). Following the work of Turekian et al. (1975), the growth rates of deep-sea benthic organisms have been estimated by other indirect methods. If the assumptions made are correct, the growth rates of deep-sea invertebrates are lower than, but not markedly different from, growth rates of shallow-water species (Gage, 1991). Direct measurements from time-lapse photographs have shown that the growth of a deep-sea hard-bottom barnacle was almost as rapid as that of similar, shallow-water barnacles (Lampitt, 1990) and that the volume of three xenophyophore individuals increased by a factor of 310 in 8 months during these 8 months, periods of rapid growth were interspersed with periods of no growth (Gooday et al., 1993) (Fig. 2.23)....

Fundus Appearance

Retinal Hypopigmentation

The fundus photographs of patients with complete and incomplete CSNB, which was verified by molecular genetics 10, 11 , are shown in Figs. 2.54 and 2.55. The fundus in both types of CSNB is essentially normal. However, because complete CSNB is often associated with high myopia, most patients with this disorder display the characteristics of a myopic fundus

The eScreen System

By 1997, machine-vision systems were appearing in a variety of applications. Eyeball-type video cameras had dropped in price to unimaginable levels, and were appearing on every desktop, even though there were few applications for them, and less than adequate bandwidth to transmit quality video. Low-cost digital video charge-coupled device (CCD) processors were migrating into digital cameras, plant automation, and a myriad of machine-vision applications in medicine, logistics, inspection, quality systems, and robotics.

Morphology

FIGURES 1-6 Adult head of (1) Tipulidae, (2) Blephariceridae, (3) Asilidae, (4) Empididae, (5) Tachinidae, (6) Syrphidae. (Photographs by G. Courtney.) FIGURES 1-6 Adult head of (1) Tipulidae, (2) Blephariceridae, (3) Asilidae, (4) Empididae, (5) Tachinidae, (6) Syrphidae. (Photographs by G. Courtney.)

Helmuth Schmick

Xeric specialist David Schwartz provided welcome observations and photos to expand the coverage of those challenging ferns. Pictures from Nils Sundquist of Sundquist Nursery, Poulsbo, Washington, give the reader a look at successful professional growing, and those from Naud Burnett and Kent Kratz of Casa Flora in Dallas, Texas, illustrate stages in tissue culture. Jim Baggett of Corvallis, Oregon, provided the detailed black-and-white photographs of rock garden ferns. Willanna Bradner offered her special art and computer skills to scan the two hand-colored prints. Thanks too to Graham Ackers, Joan Eiger Gottlieb, Richard Lighty, and Alan Ogden, all of whom donated photos.

Crypsis

FIGURE 1 Crypsis illustrated for different insects. (A) An individual of the dry season form of the evening brown, Melanitis leda, resting among dead leaves on the forest floor in the Shimba Hills, Kenya. The insect is at the center with head pointing to the right forewing length is ca. 4.5 cm. (B) A small moth that resembles a dead patch on a large leaf in a forest in Costa Rica (wing span is ca. 3 cm). (C) The caterpillar of a moth of the family Lasiocampidae resting on a tree trunk in the Shimba Hills, Kenya it is ca. 6 cm in length and is positioned horizontally, head to the right, in the center of the photo (image has been rotated 90 degrees). (D) The same larva when actively moving in the same direction along a twig. See text for further details. (Photographs by the author.) FIGURE 1 Crypsis illustrated for different insects. (A) An individual of the dry season form of the evening brown, Melanitis leda, resting among dead leaves on the forest floor in the Shimba Hills, Kenya....

Habitats And Habits

FIGURE 4 Collembolans discovered in various habitats in Reading, UK. (A) Podura aquatica (Poduridae), from the surface of a garden pond. (B) Kalaphorura burmeisteri (Onychiuridae), from soil. (C) Dicyrtoma fusca (Dicyrtomidae), from leaf litter. (D) Entomobrya nicoleti (Entomobryidae), under surface debris. (Photographs by Steve Hopkin.) FIGURE 4 Collembolans discovered in various habitats in Reading, UK. (A) Podura aquatica (Poduridae), from the surface of a garden pond. (B) Kalaphorura burmeisteri (Onychiuridae), from soil. (C) Dicyrtoma fusca (Dicyrtomidae), from leaf litter. (D) Entomobrya nicoleti (Entomobryidae), under surface debris. (Photographs by Steve Hopkin.)

Adult Behavior

FIGURES 17-22 Leaf mines. (17) Stigmella variella (Nepticulidae) on Quercus agrifolia (18) mature larvae of Coptodisca arbutiella (Heliozelidae, Incurvarioidea) and their abandoned mines, on Arctostaphylos (19) Cameraria gaultheriella (Gracillariidae) on Gaultheria shallon (20) Marmara arbutiella (Gracillariidae) on Arbutus menziesii (21) Phyllocnistis populiella (Phyllocnistidae, Gracillarioidea) on Populus tremuloides (22) Epinotia nigralbana (Tortricidae) on Arctostaphylos (photographs by J. Powell, all California, except Fig. 21, Alaska). FIGURES 17-22 Leaf mines. (17) Stigmella variella (Nepticulidae) on Quercus agrifolia (18) mature larvae of Coptodisca arbutiella (Heliozelidae, Incurvarioidea) and their abandoned mines, on Arctostaphylos (19) Cameraria gaultheriella (Gracillariidae) on Gaultheria shallon (20) Marmara arbutiella (Gracillariidae) on Arbutus menziesii (21) Phyllocnistis populiella (Phyllocnistidae, Gracillarioidea) on Populus tremuloides (22) Epinotia nigralbana...

Conclusions

Acknowledgements We thank Zhidong Zhang, Melvyn Quan, Ciara Murphy, Raza Ahmed and Jeanette Knight for their contributions and Steven Archibald for artwork. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), Animal Health Office, Carlisle, is thanked for providing photographs of FMD in cattle. The research was supported by DEFRA and The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), UK.

Photo Credits

Unless noted below or within its caption, the illustrations and tables featured in Genetics were developed by Richard Robinson, and rendered by GGS Information Services. The photographs appearing in the text were reproduced by permission of the following sources Accelerated Aging Progeria (p. 2), Photo courtesy of The Progeria Research Foundation, Inc. and the Barnett Family Aging and Life Span (p. 8), Fisher, Leonard Everett, Mr. Agricultural Biotechnology (p. 10), Keren Su Corbis Alzheimer's Disease (p. 15), AP Wide World Photos Antibiotic Resistance (p. 27), Hank Morgan Science Photo Library, Photo Researchers, Inc. Apoptosis (p. 32 ), Microworks Phototake Arabidopsis thaliana (p. 34), Steinmark Custom Medical Stock Photo Archaea (p. 38), Eurelios Phototake Behavior (p. 47), Norbert Schafer Corbis Bioinformatics (p. 53), T. Bannor Custom Medical Stock Photo Bioremediation (p. 60), Merjenburgh Greenpeace Bioremediation (p. 61), AP Wide World Photos Biotechnology and Genetic...

Trichomanes

Trichomanes reniforme (kidney-shaped) is one of Mother Nature's gifts of elegance to New Zealand where it is an endemic filmy fern and as such only one cell thick. But what a filmy fern it is. The long-creeping rhizomes produce brilliant green, round to kidney-shaped, 3-in. (7.5-cm), translucent garlands of fronds. Sori held in distinctive tubular indusia stand shoulder to shoulder trimming the pinnae margins. Often in the company of native orchids, the species forms thick curtains on trees and floors of damp forests, and carpets rocks throughout the country. It seems tolerant of most every habitat except, regrettably, those of cultivated gardens. It is a must see for fern lovers traveling to New Zealand. Attempts at cultivation are attended with hopeful expectations, but, as with most filmy ferns, usually result in short-lived displays of struggling and straggling bits and pieces of the desired fern. Give it instead the attention of your camera along with your respectful admiration.

Summary

The forensic anthropologist can play a crucial role in the medicolegal investigation of the skeleton. Anthropological evaluation requires careful preparation and documentation to include photographs, written records, and charts. The report must reflect the progress of the analysis, beginning with a descriptive list of perimortem defects, followed by a linking of defects by insults, an explanation of the biomechanics causing bone fracture, and culminating in the sequencing of defects and inference about body position (if possible). Antemortem and postmortem defects and damage must also be documented and reported.

Clinical assessment

The characteristics of diabetic macular edema are best assessed by a combination of slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and more recently optical coherence tomography (OCT). The basic pathophysiologic lesions discussed above may be readily apparent in the posterior pole on fundoscopic examination with contact or noncontact lenses. Macular edema is detected as a thickening in the retinal layers with stereoscopic, binocular viewing. Mild retinal edema may escape detection whereas frank macular edema is typically quite apparent, particularly with coexisting intraretinal hemorrhage and hard exudate. Stereoscopic fundus photographs have been the standard method of quantifying diabetic macular edema in clinical trials (Davis 2008). In ophthalmoscopically normal eyes, early changes in diabetic retinopathy may be detected by fluorescein angiography. A fluorescein angiogram is obtained when information about the structure and integrity of the retinal...

Digital Camera and Digital Photography

Digital Camera and Digital Photography

Compared to film cameras, digital cameras are easy to use, fun and extremely versatile. Every day there’s more features being designed. Whether you have the cheapest model or a high end model, digital cameras can do an endless number of things. Let’s look at how to get the most out of your digital camera.

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