How To Start A Pest Control Business

Pest Control Profits

Nate Heller invested years in the pest business and started and sold a number of pest control businesses. He now operates his well-known Pest Control Profits website in which he teaches people exactly how to grow, manage and start and benefit from their very own pest control business. Getting your pest control business up and running can take a lot of time and energy, but it is also not really nearly as complex because many people make it out to be. Essentially, there are 3 actions to starting a pest control business. With Nate Hellers Pest Control Profits Guide youll discover probably the most lucrative business design you can begin along with, the 3 large errors to steer clear of whenever starting away, the huge marketplace that other companies do not focus on, and more. Nate will educate you on the lawful necessities of setting up a business and also the resources and sources to help you manage your own business with ease. One of the most under used forms of a pest management business is joining up with other service businesses. The majority of pest businesses just put an ad in the yellow pages as well as watch for calls to come in. In this day time within age, if that is your own just marketing strategy, it wont be well before you are left out through the competition. Read more...

Pest Control Profits Summary

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Highly Recommended

The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this book are precise.

When compared to other ebooks and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

Juvenile Hormones And Insect Control

Subsequent efforts by several agrochemical companies have generated a variety of juvenoids, many with potent JH-like biological activity but with aryl rings substituted for isoprenoid units and without obvious similarities to natural JHs. These include fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen (Fig. 3). Juvenoids have proved to be commercially successful for insects that are pests in the adult stage. However, because they do not control insects in the immature stages, they have not proved useful for large-scale agricultural pest control. For this purpose, juvenile hormone antagonists are needed for induction of precocious metamorphosis. So far, that goal remains as elusive as the search for the JH receptor.

Partnership In Pest Control 1880 To World War I

The arrangement involved the agricultural constituency, lending political support to the agricultural colleges in return for their services. The colleges then aided the chemical industry by testing their products and giving their stamp of approval, which enhanced their marketability. A grateful chemical industry provided grants to the entomology departments, which were always short of operational funds. The deans at the agricultural colleges had the difficult task of being broker between the college faculty, with its leaning toward basic research, and the farm constituency seeking low-risk pest control programs. The arrangement was an American innovation that seemed to please everyone. Furthermore, the chemical industry was greatly stimulated by the economic and political activities of World War I. Food and fiber production was given high priority and new discoveries advanced the pesticide industry.

Economic Importance and Future Perspectives

Cides, ascoviruses are responsible for significant levels of natural pest suppression, particularly where parasitic wasps are abundant. Such findings would encourage even greater emphasis on the development of biological control and other more environmentally sound methods of pest control. With respect to the cytopathology of the disease and viral molecular biology, ascoviruses provide interesting models for the study of novel replication strategies. The unusual process of cell cleavage by which the virion-containing vesicles form probably involves highly specific virus-directed mobilization of the cell cytoskeleton and mitochondria. In addition, it is possible that the virion-containing vesicles will provide a unique anucleate cellular system for studying the replication of a complex type of enveloped dsDNA virus in vitro.

Virus Structure and Composition

Cantly accelerate the speed that the virus kills a target insect. Such recombinants may also have an extended host range because insect mortality is not dependent on a completed viral infection cycle. Therefore, NPVs may become more extensively used in future pest control programs.

Future Perspectives

As present, too little is known about ascoviruses to assess whether they are or will turn out to be of economic importance. Their poor infectivity per os makes it highly unlikely they will ever be developed as viral insecticides, especially given the successful advent of insect-resistant transgenic crops. However, as more entomologists become familiar with the disease caused by ascoviruses, it may be shown that in habitats rarely treated with chemical insecticides, such as transgenic crops, these viruses are responsible for significant levels of natural pest suppression, particularly where parasitic wasps are abundant. Such findings would encourage even greater emphasis on the development of biological control and other more environmentally sound methods of pest control. With respect to the cell biology of viral vesicle formation, ascoviruses provide an interesting model for how apopto-sis can be manipulated at the molecular level. Additionally, study of the unusual process by which...

Baculoviral Insecticides

The major impetus for the study of baculoviruses has been and continues to be their real and theoretical value as potent, biologically based insect pesticides. As these viruses already occur in nature, their use should leave less of an environmental imprint compared to the use of synthetic chemicals in the management of agricultural and forest pest insects. There are many examples of insect baculoviruses being effective in controlling pest populations. In Canada, for example, during the late 1930s, the 12 000 mi infestation of the European sawfly Gilpinia hercyniae was brought completely under control by an NPV specific to this pest, brought in from Finland, and by 1945, the pest was totally eradicated. In Brazil, and elsewhere, the velvetbean caterpillar anticarsia gemmata-lis is a major pest of soybeans. However, use of the native baculovirus anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV (AgMNPV) reduced the larval populations by 80 , the same level as for insecticide treatment and reduced the need...

Future Use Of Biological Control

Biological control can be implemented through four different approaches conservation of existing natural enemies, importation of new species for permanent establishment, temporary natural enemy augmentation, and use of microbial pesticides. The first two methods are most widely applicable and have produced the greatest benefits. Conservation biological control is the foundation of all insect control. Importation biological control is the method that is appropriate to combat exotic invasive pests (whose numbers are large and increasing). Augmentative biological control is limited by cost factors and largely restricted to high-value crops in greenhouses. Microbial pesticides are niche market tools useful in IPM programs but are limited by high production costs or the narrow host ranges of the pathogens. Biological control's greatest strengths are in public sector applications (conservation, importation) rather than private sector approaches (augmentative, microbial pesticides). Expanded...

Use Of Biotechnology For Management Of Insect Pests In Agriculture

Despite the progress made in recent years, a significant proportion of the world's food supply is lost to the activities of insect pests. The deleterious impact of chemical pesticides on the environment, combined with the emergence of technologies enabling plants to be transformed with foreign genes, has driven the seed industry to develop transgenic plants as novel, environmentally benign means of pest control. Insect-protected crops were among the first products of biotechnology to have a significant impact on crop protection, and at times their use has resulted in decreased application of classical chemical pesticides. Engineered Insect Pathogens for Pest Control Considerable progress has been made toward optimization of entomopathogenic viruses at the genetic level. The baculoviruses are arthropod-specific viruses that have been studied extensively both as protein expression vectors and as insect pest control agents. These viruses have been genetically engineered with genes...

Wholeorganism approaches

There are three main ways in which whole-organism biological pest control may be brought about. Classical biological control, as with the previously mentioned Cane Toad, requires the importation of natural predators and is principally of use when the pest in question is newly arrived in an area, often from another region or country, having left these normal biological checks behind. Another form of control involves conservation measures aimed at bolstering the predatory species, which may be a valuable approach when natural enemies already exist within the pest's range. However, the third method, augmentation, is more relevant to the concepts of biotechnology and refers to means designed to bring about the increase in effectiveness of natural enemies to a given pest. This may consist simply of artificially rearing them in large numbers for timed release or may extend to more intensive and sophisticated measures like the modification, either by selective breeding or genetic...

Inhibition Of Chitin Synthesis And Degradation

Because chitin is present in invertebrates (abundantly in arthropods) and absent from vertebrates and plants, it is a logical target for selective pest control. Acylurea compounds, discovered serendipitously by Dutch scientists in 1972, inhibit chitin synthesis, resulting in deformed and weak cuticles that cause molting failure and death by desiccation. Acylureas do not inhibit the catalytic step of polymerization, and their exact biochemical lesion is unresolved. It appears that the mode of action is associated with the process of chitin translocation from site of catalysis across cell membranes to the region of deposition and fibrillogenesis. The first commercial product reaching the market was diflubenzuron (Dimilin) (Fig. 3), which was followed by a large number of structurally similar bioactive molecules. The acylurea compounds, which act as insect growth regulators, are widely used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs.

Diagnosis Prevention and Control

Using a 2 bleach solution to interrupt animal-to-animal spread, and insect control measures can be introduced. Vaccines against VSIV and VSNJV have been used to control outbreaks in Central and South America. Although vaccination is not routinely practiced throughout the Americas, experiments demonstrate a substantive decrease in clinical infections in vaccinated animals.

Prerequisites Of Haccp

GMPs are the minimum sanitary and processing requirements necessary to insure the production of wholesome food (Harris and Blackwell, 1999). FDA requirements for GMPs are listed in Title 21, Part 110 of the Code of Federal Regulations. GMPs are written for the following plant areas building and facilities, equipment and utensils, employee practices, pest control, production and process controls, and warehousing practices. GMPs are broadly written, general in nature, and not intended to be plant specific. GMPs can be used to explain tasks that are part of many jobs (e.g., GMPs are written for personal hygiene and dress regardless of job title, management, production, quality assurance, maintenance, etc.).

Forest Pest Management

In populations of native and introduced forest insects, especially defoliators, it has been possible to identify viruses that are specific to their host insect. Rearing and release of these viruses offer promise for pest control in some situations, especially for defoliating Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. The nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer, has been applied to thousands of hectares of forests in Europe over the past 35 years. An NPV that infects gypsy moth has also been used in efforts to slow the spread of this species in North America. The accidental introduction of an NPV in the 1930s, along with a parasite of the European spruce sawfly, Diprion hercyniae, into eastern Canada has reduced this species to very low densities.

The Potential Of This Technology

Few of these future potential applications are directly related to insects or insect control. However, each of them is likely to create significant needs for entomological investigations. Traits such as abiotic stress tolerance, altered lignin content, altered macronutrient or micronutrient content, and metal accumulation are all likely to have profound effects on plant physiology and growth. Because insect herbivores and their natural enemies are very sensitive to changes in plant physiology, growth rates, and morphological structure, these new transgenic crops are likely to create new kinds of pest control problems that will require entomological solutions. Indeed, it may become necessary to devise variety-specific pest management systems for some of these novel plants.

Genetic Engineering In Drosophila Melanogaster

One cannot discuss the genetic manipulation of insects without describing the molecular genetic tools that are available in D. melanogaster. Traditionally, a gulf has existed between entomologists who view the harmless vinegar fly as being distant to the problems of insect control and Drosophila geneticists who utilize the many biological attributes of Drosophila to understand the basis of gene action. This gulf will close as comparative genomics reveals similarities and differences in the conservation of many genes and molecular pathways between Drosophila and other insect species. The power of this comparative approach to modern biology will offer insect scientists and traditional entomologists exciting opportunities to bring the power of genetics and molecular biology to the control of insects. The development and application of these tools is what insect scientists seek to achieve in pestiferous and beneficial insects.

History of Entomology

Led to a concept based on ecological principles which is referred to as integrated pest management (IPM). In this system, multiple control technologies are used, with the additive effect being to hold insect injury at acceptable levels while avoiding excessive environmental insult. The age-old struggle continues entomologists are now armed with the lessons of the past advances in insecticidal chemistry, bio logical control, and cultural methods and visionary new technologies based on genetic modification of plants and animals. Simultaneously, the rise of the environmental movement and ecological awareness has placed insects in a new context, highlighting their essential role in biodiversity on which the viability of the Earth depends. The vision for the 21st century calls for compatibility between insect control and conservation both are prerequisites to human well-being. Stewardship of the Earth is the greatest challenge ahead and one that places awesome responsibility on the...

Implications For Biological Control

The above-mentioned considerations illustrate the most important implications that host-seeking behavior in parasitoids has on practical biological control, but there is another dimension. As already mentioned, Trichogramma egg parasitoids intensively search areas in which scales from female moth hosts have been deposited. The main attractive material in these scales is tricosane. When tricosane is artificially deposited on foliage containing eggs of the host moth, the resulting parasitism by Trichogramma is higher than in areas not having tricosane. Thus, the direct use of such kairomones could improve pest control by manipulating the behavior of natural enemies. Although such schemes have so far not been economically viable, similar manipulations may prove to be workable in situations not yet tested. Continued research may well lead to some useful control methods. Semiochemicals Their Role in Pest Control. Wiley, New York. Vet, L. E. M., Lewis, W. J., and Card , R. T. (1995)....

Regulations Of Insecticide Uses

The projected use, the levels of acute toxicity of the agent contemplated, its effectiveness as an insect control agent (called efficacy), the intended modes of usage, and the availability of background knowledge, among other requirements. Occasionally, experimental use permits are given after this Tier 1 examination process (e.g., for insect pheromones, which are already known to be almost nontoxic and are to be used only for a specific pest in small areas). Usually, however, registrants are required to go through a much more extensive and rigorous process of registration, data procurement, and evaluation. For example, extensive tests are required for acute, chronic (such as carcinogenicity tests), genetic, pathogenic, reproductive, hormonal, and immune toxicities along with the environmental behavior of chemicals and limited wildlife toxicities. Such registration processes, which must be completed before a new chemical pesticide can be sold in the United States, typically require 7...

Economic Use and Future Perspectives

There is more interest in the economic use of tetraviruses, however, when the group is looked at through the lens of biotechnology. One major obstacle to their use for insect control has been the difficulty of producing them. However, the simplicity of the tetraviral genome makes production of viral particles in nonhost cells feasible (see above, Molecular Biology). The assembly of HaSV in plant

Evolution Of Concept Of

Through trial and error across centuries, humans gradually came to use tactics such as cultural control, host resistance, and biological control in efforts to protect themselves, livestock, crops, and forests against pests. By the latter half of the 19th century, some pest control strategies that blended these tactics could rightfully be considered to be precursors of modern IPM strategies. During the 20th century, efforts to maintain pests at tolerable levels became more formalized as they became more intensive these efforts can be considered as having progressed along the following four pathways. Pest control was the terminology used during the first half of the 20th century to describe the set of actions taken to avoid, attenuate, or delay the impact of pests. Early in the century, inorganic and botanical insecticides gained increasing prominence as a control tactic against pest insects. By mid-century, use of organosynthetic insecticides supplanted virtually all other tactics in...

Termite Controlmanagement

Surveys of pest control firms in the United States reveal that poor building practices, particularly wood in contact with soil and cracks in concrete foundations, lead to many of the subterranean termite infestations. Experimental efforts have been made to control soil-dwelling termites using biological control agents, such as argentine ants and nematodes. However, these methods have not yet been proven effective. Potter, M. F. (1997). Termites. In Mallis Handbook of Pest Control (A.

Prevention and Control of VSVs

The first step in controlling VS is rapid detection of clinical cases. Differential diagnosis particularly to distinguish VS from foot-and-mouth-disease is important. Diagnostic methods currently used include complement fixation, fluorescent antibody and isolation in cell culture. Other detection methods include antigen-capture ELISA and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Epithelium or vesicular fluid from fresh lesions are ideal samples for submission. In premises affected with VS in non-endemic areas, quarantine is usually established to avoid further spread of the disease. Within the affected premises, control measures include insect control and cleaning and disinfection with bleach of feed and water troughs, milking equipment and any utensils that could transfer the virus between animals. Since it has been suggested that scarification plays a role in virus entry, rough hay or overgrown pastures should be avoided.

Controlled Atmosphere Storage Of Cereals And Oilseeds

The main advantage of CA to disinfest grain is its potential to replace pesticides used in the grain industry. The CA-treated grain does not have any chemical residues which can cause considerable health concerns. In addition to providing an effective control of pests, CA storage prevents mold growth, preserves grain quality, and maintains a high level of germination in the stored grain.57 However, as with any other method of pest control, CA storage has limitations. The major limitation appears to be the high initial cost of air-tight storage structures, and the cost of sealing existing structures to the desired air-tightness.58,59 There is also the cost of the generation and transportation of the gas. The interaction of CA gases with the storage structure can cause some practical problems. The introduction of CO2 or N2 into airtight structures has the potential to increase the internal pressure on bin walls, and steps need to be taken to permit pressure equilibration. The only...

Viruses Occurring in Asia

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is found in a broad area from far eastern Russia, northeastern Asia through China and Southeast Asia to Papua New Guinea and the Torres Strait Islands of Australia and westward into India. One of the world's arthropod-borne encephalitides, JE causes the greatest number of clinical human cases - thousands annually - predominantly in children. It produces encephalitis in humans and horses, and acute febrile disease with abortion in swine, an amplifying host. Herons and egrets are wildlife amplifying hosts. The virus is transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes. The overwintering mechanism in temperate Asia is unknown. JE virus is a member of a complex of four related flaviviruses in the Togaviridae family. RNA oligonucleotide analysis indicates that there are differences in JE virus isolates from different vertebrate species, and between strains from different geographic areas. Diagnosis is by means of virus isolation or demonstration of JE virus genomic sequences...

Entomology Postworld War Ii Technologys Triumph

No field emerged with more exciting prospects than did the field of entomology. DDT, with its wartime secrecy removed, was hailed as the answer to insect control. Its employment in arresting an epidemic of typhus in Naples in 1943-1944 dramatically neutralized the lethal companion of armed conflict, vector-borne disease. Overnight the entomological community documented DDT's remarkable effectiveness in controlling insect pests of agricultural, medical, and veterinary importance. The race was on, and an old alliance assumed new vigor. The Land Grant Universities joined with industry and agriculture to exploit the new possibilities of chemical pest control. Although industrial grants to the Agricultural Experiment Stations to fund trials of mutual interest dated from the early 1930s, they assumed a greater role in Experiment Station research as the partnership geared up for a new era in the synthesis of pesticides. The chlorinated hydrocarbons, with DDT their prototype, yielded related...

Important Families Of Termites

Termite Life Cycle

Lower termite family depicted. (Adapted, with permission from FMC Corp., from The Mallis Handbook of Pest Control, 1997.) FIGURE 2 Life cycle of the termite. Lower termite family depicted. (Adapted, with permission from FMC Corp., from The Mallis Handbook of Pest Control, 1997.)

DNV Disease and Ecology

Although some DNVs inflict economical damage, others are considered as potential biological control agents. Some success has been reported using the virus as an insecticide. In Columbia, extracts of DNV-infected larvae were used to control the disease of palm trees caused by Sibine fusca, and in the Ivory Coast DNV has been highly successful in the eradication of Casphalia extranea, a pest of oil palm and coconut trees. The advantages of DNV as pest control agents are the high resistance of the virions to environmental conditions such as heat and organic solvents and their high infectivity ratios to susceptible insects. The major disadvantage is that the extreme sensitivity of these ssDNA-containing, nonenveloped virions to UV radiation imposes limitations on their use as insecticides.

Biological Control of Insect Pests

Biological control is a form of pest control that uses living organisms to suppress pest densities to lower levels. It is a form of ecologically based pest management that uses one kind of organism (the natural enemies) to control another (the pest species). Types of natural enemies vary with the type of pest. For example, populations of pest insects such as scales are often suppressed by manipulating populations of parasitoids, which are insects that develop in or on the pest insects they attack and kill. Populations of plant-feeding mites, such as the common twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) are often limited by predators, especially mites in the family Phytoseiidae. Populations of weeds can be suppressed by specialized herbivorous insects that feed on them. Finally, many insect populations have pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, or fungi) that infect them. Such pathogens, whether they occur naturally or are applied artificially as microbial pesticides, can locally and...

Biological Control Through Augmentation

Commercial augmentative biological control starts with the discovery of a natural enemy that research suggests may be effective. The natural enemy must attack an important pest efficiently, be able to be reared under mass production conditions, be easily harvested and able to survive transit stress, and be competitive in price with other forms of pest control available to growers. outdoor crops The scientific use of augmentative natural enemy releases in outdoor crops is best established in northern Europe for control of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) in corn. Use is greatest in Germany and France, where over 3200 ha is protected annually with Trichogramma releases. This fraction is, however, small compared with the total corn acreage in Europe, and use of biological control is concentrated principally where pesticide use is not allowed because of concern for health of people living near cornfields. Natural enemy releases for mite control have...

Honey Bee Diseases Parasites Predators and Poisoning

The development of large-scale agriculture has involved the use of insecticides, many of which are toxic to bees and can kill those taken to pollinate crops. In California alone, insecticides killed 82,000 colonies in 1962 in 1973 the number was reduced to 36,000, but in 1981 it had risen again, to 56,000. More attention is now paid to the use of practices that protect the bees, including selecting pesticides less toxic to beneficial insects, using pesticides in the forms least toxic to honey bees (e.g., granular instead of dust), spraying at night when bees are not flying, spraying only when the crop is not in flower, and using systemic insecticides and biological pest control. Possible actions by the beekeeper are less satisfactory moving hives away from areas to be treated, or confining the bees during spraying by placing a protective cover over each hive and keeping it wet to reduce the temperature.

Persistence

Cells, but it is also able to establish persistent infections in cell culture. The persistence of Hz-lV is mediated by DIPs and involves the expression of a single 2.9 kb viral transcript known as the persistently associated transcript (PATl). PAT1 is constitutively expressed in cells persistently infected with the virus and its expression is required for the establishment and maintenance of Hz-lV persistent infections. The unique biology of Hz-2V also involves a close association between the virus and its host with the virus remaining in a latent state throughout a major portion of the life cycle of the infected insect. The successful use of Or-lV for insect control is due largely to the close association it has with its host and its persistence in rhinoceros beetle populations. This success also suggests that other NOBs have potential for future use in insect pest control programs. Since the NOBs Hz-lV and Hz-2V can establish persistent associations with their hosts, these viruses...

Animal Care

Pest control measures used must also be documented. Any pesticides that can interfere with the study should not be used. This usually precludes the use of aerosol-based insecticides. Other means of vector control include adhesive traps for rodents, blue light with adhesive strips for flying insects, larvae-disrupting compounds for standing water and some wastewater applications, and other methods that generally do not require the use of chemical agents.

NPVSpecific Genes

See also Baculoviruses Apoptosis Inhibitors Baculoviruses Expression Vector Baculoviruses General Features Baculoviruses Molecular Biology of Granulo-viruses Baculoviruses Molecular Biology of Mosquito Baculoviruses Baculoviruses Molecular Biology of Sawfly Baculoviruses Baculoviruses Pathogenesis Insect Pest Control by Viruses.

Cockroach Control

When infestations occur, there are two main methods of control. Nonchemical methods include trapping and vacuuming cockroaches, both of which can significantly reduce the size of an infestation. In addition, freezing, overheating, or flooding structures with a nontoxic gas can be used to kill the pests. Some of the latter procedures require specialized equipment and are best done by professional pest control operators.

Spodx Lc

Baculoviruses do, however, also have a number of limitations that have prevented their widespread use as biological insect control agents. Thus they are currently rather expensive to produce, either in vitro (in cell culture systems) or in vivo (in insect larvae). Similarly, while their narrow host range is an advantage from a safety perspective (see above), it can also be a disadvantage when more than one pest species occurs on a crop. Further, these viruses are also highly susceptible to inactivation by UV light in sunlight, so that complex formulation strategies must be used. However, perhaps their principal disadvantage is their relatively slow speed of action. Most baculoviruses take 7 10 days to kill an infected host, and substantial damage can thus be caused to a crop between the time of virus application and the eventual death of the target pest. In recent years considerable efforts have been made on several fronts to decrease these limitations. One strategy being pursued to...

Conclusions

The advent of powerful techniques of molecular biology together with increasing environmental concerns over chemical pesticides have led to a resurgence of interest in the use of insect viruses in pest control regimens. The possibility of using EPVs, CPVs and tetraviruses has been greatly enhanced by advances in genetic engineering. However, it is the baculoviruses, and in particular the NPVs, that have been the subject of most dramatic progress. Recombinant baculoviruses with significantly enhanced speed of action are now available, and field trials using these have produced encouraging results.

Societal Growth

In 1956, Curtis Sabrosky published a near-exhaustive list of entomological societies that had existed and or were still in existence. By 1956, at least 70 entomological societies had begun, blossomed (or not), and then faded away. That year, there were 96 active regional or national entomological societies (not counting those devoted to applied aspects such as apiculture or pest control). Only 10 specialty societies, devoted to a taxonomic group or some other special, non-applied aspect, were listed 3 devoted to Coleoptera (in Austria, the United States, and Japan), 4 for Lepidoptera (3 in Japan and 1 in the United States), and 1 international society for the study of social insects. The post-1956 period has seen a huge development of specialty societies. Today, there are at least 92 specialty societies (including 1 for conservation of invertebrates in general and 1 devoted to young entomologists). There has been increased worldwide interest in Lepidoptera at least 22 new societies...

Insecticides

Paul Muller, a Swiss chemist, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1948 for his success in replacing a number of extremely dangerous chemicals then being used for pest control (arsenic, mercury, lead) with DDT, which he patented as a contact insecticide in 1939. Before the 1940s, because more than two thirds of the world's population lived in malaria-ridden areas, more than 200 million people worldwide were stricken yearly with malaria and 2 million malaria-related deaths occurred each year. DDT was heralded as one of the most important disease-preventing agents known to humans, highly lethal to insects and protecting field crops but remarkably harmless to human beings. DDT was used to dust people to kill lice, for which it was very effective. Figure 16.1 graphically shows the dramatic effect of DDT on saving lives. Ceylon, now Sri Lanka, provides examples of the positive impact of DDT on human health. Before the use of DDT, nearly 3 million cases of malaria were reported...

Genetic Engineering

The term genetic engineering is typically taken to refer to the direct manipulation of genes. It has become synonymous with a more general term, DNA technology, which has come to encompass all contemporary molecular-based techniques. However, many insect geneticists were using DNA technology before the development of recombinant DNA technology in the 1970s and 1980s, Genetic control approaches applied to such insect pests as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) (medfly), the mosquito (Culex tarsalis), and the Australian sheep blowfly (Lucilia cuprina) used genetics to develop new strains that could be used in insect control and or eradication programs. The tools of these pioneers were not DNA modification and restriction enzymes, thermocyclers, or DNA sequencers, but rather radiation sources, microscopes, and the knowledge that mutations and

Stinking Hellebore

(Helleborus foetidus) Poisonous, of course, like all the hellebores. Even so, it was a protective plant for the homestead in early times, when it was also believed to be an antidote against madness (Genders.1971). Considering the toxic nature of the plant, one wonders how it was used, and how many people were killed while being treated. Still, it did have its domestic uses, in pest control, for people used to powder the roots and mix them with meal to lay down and poison the mice (Drury. 1992). There were veterinary uses too, some of them lasting until quite recently, like using it to condition horses, and sheep too, apparently, in the Chipping Camden area (Brill). It was used for the same purpose in East Anglia, where the horsemen were proud to have their horses' coats shine (G E Evans. 1969). More seriously, cattle were treated with it when they coughed. It was done by making a

Transgenic Plants

Aside from their commercial prospects, insect-tolerant transgenic crops offer numerous potential benefits to agriculture. By affording constitutive expression of toxins in plant tissues throughout a growing season, the incorporation of Bt genes into crops could reduce dramatically the use of conventional broad-spectrum insecticides against insect pests, as well as remove the dependence of pest control on extrinsic factors such as climate and on the efficiency of traditional application methods. However, this high and persistent level of expression also introduces a considerable

Concluding Remarks

Corresponding protective adaptations in the fly. Another example of such coevolution comes from the use of semiochemical tools for pest control. In many parts of Asia, a synthetic pheromone is used to disrupt mating in the tea tortrix moth (Adoxophyes honmai), the larvae of which can cause severe damage in tea plantations. Researchers in Japan have recently reported the evolution of a new biotype of this species that exhibits reduced sensitivity to the pheromone. Such events make it clear that regardless of whether the major strategies for pest management continue to use conventional chemicals, the arms race between insect evolution and human ingenuity will continue to present major challenges.

Microbial pesticides

There are other Bacillus species which have also been used effectively as microbial insecticides. These are Bacillus sphaericus which produces a toxin more potent but more specific than Bt, and Bacillus popillae which although it does not produce a toxin, kills its host by weight of bacterial numbers. The latter is active against Japanese beetle, while the former is quite specific against mosquito larvae. Both the mosquito larvae and Bacillus sphaericus abound in heavily polluted water such as cesspits where the bacterium may exert control on the proliferation of mosquitoes. A different approach to microbial pesticides has been to examine the exploitation of Baculoviruses. The drive to use Baculoviruses as a means of biological pest control has dominated its research in the past, but currently these viruses are being recognised more as vectors to express proteins of various origins at a very high level indeed and so have become enormously useful tools in the major branches of...

Isoptera

A lower termite group, Reticultermes, is represented. A large queen is depicted in the center. A king is to the left of the queen. A worker and soldier are below. (Adapted, with permission from Aventis Environmental Science, from The Mallis Handbook of Pest Control, 1997.) FIGURE 1 Castes for Isoptera. A lower termite group, Reticultermes, is represented. A large queen is depicted in the center. A king is to the left of the queen. A worker and soldier are below. (Adapted, with permission from Aventis Environmental Science, from The Mallis Handbook of Pest Control, 1997.)

DNA Viruses

Although not an extensively studied virus group, several examples of successful pest control using DNV have been documented. For example, SfDNV has been successfully used to control S. fusca on Colombian palm oil trees In one trial, a dose of 1-5 infected larval equivalents per hectare was sprayed from the air, resulting in a dose dependent mortality rate of 73 97 at 15 days postapplication. A similar result was achieved in the control of Casphalia extranea in Ivory Coast palm oil and coconut plantations, using between 50 and 100 infected C. extranea larval equivalents per hectare. To date, the reported broad host range of DNVs for insects, together with their extreme sensitivity to UV light, has limited the development of these viruses as control agents. Ascoviruses contain a linear double-stranded DNA genome, and to date have been identified only as pathogens of the Noctuid family of Lepidoptera. The viruses cause a chronic infection, taking between 2 and 6 weeks to kill the host....

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