Flow Chart For Appendicitis

Compression of blood vessels Ischemia Ulceration of epithelial lining of appendix Perforation of appendix Abscess of appendix site Rupture of appendix Surgical drainage of peritoneal cavity Abdominal decompression Peritonitis intestinal obstruction Hypovolemic shock COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. STAT Ref Online Electronic Medical...

NIC Self Esteem Enhancement

Provides opportunity to vent feelings and reduce negative feelings about changes in appearance. Reveals responses to body image changes and possible poor adjustment to chances. Promotes trust and demonstrates respect for child. Encourages acceptance of the child with special needs (must deal with long-term steroid therapy and its side effects, lifelong activity restrictions). Provides correct information to assist in dealing with negative feelings about body. Promotes child's sense of wellbeing...

Hypospadiasepispadias Introduction

Hypospadias and epispadias are congenital defects of the penis that result in incomplete development of the anterior urethra. The congenital defect results in an abnormal urethral opening at any place along the shaft of the penis and may even open onto the scrotum or perineum. The incidence of this defect in the United States is approximately 3.2 in 1,000 live male births or about 1 in every 300 male children. The etiology of this defect is unknown but is associated with a higher familial...

NOC Thermoregulation

Assess temperature via axillary method in infants and children to age 5 years, oral in children 5 to 6 years and older, depending on the individual child's ability to safely and accurately keep the thermometer in their mouth check for malaise or lethargy and compare to normal ranges for age or low grade or high elevations associated with specific microorganisms or diseases. Provides information about temperature changes caused by high susceptibility to fluctuations in infants and young children...

Additional Nursing Diagnoses Anxiety

Related to (Specify threat of death, threat of or change in health status, threat of change in environment hospitalization .) Defining Characteristics (Specify parent increased apprehension that condition might worsen into life-threatening situation, increased concern and worry about possible hospitalization, increased tension and uncertainty, chronic worry. Child unhappy and sad attitude withdrawn or aggressive behavior somatic and fatigue complaints failure to thrive and participate in...

Additional Nursing Diagnoses Risk For Injury

Related to (Specify hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia.) Defining Characteristics (Specify hyperglycemia fatigue, irritability, headache, abdominal discomfort, weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, dehydration, blurred vision hypoglycemia nervousness, sweating, hunger, palpitations, weakness, dizziness, pallor, behavior changes, uncoordinated gait.) Goal Client will not experience injury from hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Outcome Criteria V Blood glucose levels remain between 60 mg dL and...

Insulindependent Diabetes Mellitus Introduction

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of insulin. The deficiency is thought to occur in those individuals who are genetically predisposed to the disease and who have experienced a precipitating event, commonly a viral infection or environmental change, that causes an autoimmune condition affecting the beta cells of the pancreas. It is treated by injection of insulin and regulation of diet and activity that maintain body functions....

NOC Respiratory Status Gas Exchange

Assess respiratory rate, depth, and Reveals respiratory effort, rate and ease, (count for one minute), depth (baselines or deviations), presence of dyspnea, tachypnea, chest symmetry of movements, and use of movement, periods of apnea (specify accessory muscles, which affect the frequency). amount of air that reaches the Monitor SaO2 continuously with pulse oximeter alarms turned on (specify if using TCM to obtain TcPa02 and TcPaC02 levels). Assess ABGs for 0 pH, D Pa02, D PaC02 as obtained....

Dysfunctional Grieving

Related to Loss of child as result of (specify accident, SIDS, absence of anticipatory grieving). Defining Characteristics (Specify expressed distress anger guilt over loss difficulty in expressing loss sadness crying sudden, unexplained Promotes comfort and minimizes emotional distress related to invasive procedures (action of EMLA). Promotes comfort and love of child to reduce anxiety. Promotes interactions and attitude of caring within family. Promotes understanding of physical needs of...

Flow Chart For Kawasaki Disease

COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. STAT Ref Online Electronic Medical Library 5 5 2006 6 51 38 AM PST (GMT -08 00) Delmar's Pediatric Nursing Care Plans - 3rd Ed. (2005) 12 21 2006 5 49 01 PM PST (GMT -08 00) 123& docid 13 DELMAR'S PEDIATRIC NURSING CARE PLANS - 3rd Ed. (2005) UNIT 2 - CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM CHAPTER 2.6 - KAWASAKI DISEASE Send Feedback Teton Server (4.5.0) - 2006 Teton Data Systems...

Risk For Deficient Fluid Volume

Defining Characteristics (Specify vomiting, diarrhea, excessive renal excretion, dry skin and mucous membranes, weight loss, decreased urinary output, altered intake, sunken fontanels in infant, decrease of tears and saliva, sunken soft eyeballs, nasogastric suction, fistula.) Related to Factors influencing fluid needs. Defining Characteristics (Specify hypermetabolic states, temperature elevation diaphoresis , increased insensible loss respirations, perspirations , failure to absorb or...

Flow Chart For Fractures

Allows for movement without disturbing traction. Provides and promotes social interactions. Provides information to assist with coping with immobility. Ensures that amount of activity is not exceeded and will not affect traction. Promotes positive response to treatment. Associated soft tissue contusion Rupture of vessels and bleeding into tissues and around bone Periosteum torn Swelling Hematoma Diminished function Rough handling Pulling or twisting Physical abuse Surgical realignment and...

Impaired Urinary Elimination

Related to (Specify mechanical trauma urethroplasty .) Defining Characteristics (Specify dysuria, frequency, urgency, retention, bladder spasms, inadequate output, edema of the urethra.) Goal Client will experience improved urinary elimination by (date and time to evaluate). Outcome Criteria V Client voids through new or corrected urinary meatus after catheter is removed. V Unable to palpate bladder after voiding. NOC Urinary Elimination Provides information and skill in caring and maintaining...

Additional Nursing Diagnoses Pain

Related to Inflammatory process (dry mucous membranes, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, fever, joint pain, swollen hands and feet). Defining Characteristics (Specify crying, extreme irritability, refusal to play, cries when being touched or moved, increased rating on pain scale.) Goal Child will experience less pain by (date time to evaluate). V (Specify, e.g., client is not crying, is playing, has relaxed facial features, allows touch, pain rating is less than before interventions give number .)...

Nursing Diagnoses Ineffective Airway Clearance

Related to (Specify tracheobronchial infection, obstruction, secretions.) Defining Characteristics (Specify, e.g., abnormal breath sounds fine or coarse crackles, rhonchi, wheezes, changes in rate or depth of respirations, tachypnea, cyanosis, fever, provide data.) Related to Decreased energy and fatigue. Defining Characteristics (Specify, e.g., ineffective cough with or without sputum, labored respirations, inability to feed self, sleeplessness, lack of activity, weakness.) Goal Infant child...

Glomerulonephritis Introduction

Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is an alteration in renal function caused by glomerular injury, which is displayed by the classic symptoms of gross hematuria, mild proteinuria, edema (usually periorbital), hypertension, and oliguria. AGN is also classified as either a primary disease, associated with group A, beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection or a secondary disease, associated with various systemic diseases (i.e., systemic lupus erythema, sickle cell disease, Henoch's chorea purpura). The...

Delayed Growth And Development

Related to Separation from significant others (specify, parents, siblings, peers and or primary caretaker). Defining Characteristics Ages 6 to 30 months (specify, crying, screaming, withdraws from others, inactive, sad, detachment behaviors, regressive behaviors) 3 to 6 yrs. (specify, temper tantrums, refusal to comply with hospital routine treatments, crying, refusal to eat) 6 to 12 yrs. (specify, express feelings of loneliness, boredom, isolation, depression, worry about absence from school)...

NOC Risk Control

Assess CBC lab values assess CD4 T-lymphocyte counts assess blood culture for opportunistic infections assess vital signs, as ordered, to identify changes in respirations or lung sounds. Assess for fever, malaise, fatigue, night sweats, weight loss, chronic diarrhea, oral infection or lesions, pain in joints and muscles, lymphadenopathy, upper and lower respiratory infections. immunosuppressed child use gloves, mask, and gown for visitors and during care, proper handwashing when needed. Wear...

Ineffective Breathing Pattern

Defining Characteristics (Specify shortness of breath, tachypnea, fremitus.) Related to Decreased lung expansion. Defining Characteristics (Specify apnea, dyspnea, respiratory depth changes.) Related to Tracheobronchial obstruction. Defining Characteristics (Specify dyspnea, head bobbing in infant, drooling, tachypnea, abnormal arterial blood gases, cyanosis (skin, circumoral, mucous membranes), nasal flaring, respiratory depth changes, use of accessory muscles and retractions, altered chest...

Risk For Suffocation

Defining Characteristics (Specify supraglottic edema obstruction dysphasia hypoxia cyanosis extreme anxiety, with struggle to breathe.) Goal Child will not experience suffocation by (date time to evaluate). Outcome Criteria V Preventive measures taken to ensure patent airway. V Child's airway remains open either naturally or by means of ET tube or tracheostomy. NOC Risk Control Assess for changes in skin color from pallor to cyanosis, severe dyspnea and sternal and intercostal retractions,...

Additional Nursing Diagnoses Fear

Related to Diagnostic tests, procedures, treatments, diagnosis and prognosis. Defining Characteristics (Specify child crying, screaming, combative behaviors, anger, withdrawn behaviors, and verbalized fears parents fear, guilt, depression, anxiety.) Goal Child will experience decreased fear by (date and time to evaluate). Outcome Criteria V Child reports feeling less afraid. NOC Fear Control Assess child and parents' level of Provides information about fears. Explain to the child what will take...

Flow Chart For Glomerulonephritis

Post-stneptococcal infection (group A, beta-he molytic) Release of material from the organism into the circulation (antigen) Proliferation of endothelial cells lining glomerulus and cells behveen endothelium and Swelling of capillary membrane and infiltration with leukocytes Increased permeability of base membrane + Occlusion of the capillaries of glomeruli Decreased glomerular filtration rate Decreased ability to fomi filtrate from Retention of water and sodium Reduced circulatory volume...

Flow Chart For Burns

Nursing Burns

Child some control over the situation. Promotes social acceptance by peers and support by parents. Encourages acceptance of the child with special needs, long-term rehabilitation needs, lifelong activity restrictions. Provides correct information to assist in dealing with negative feelings about body. Promotes well-being of child and sense of belonging and control of life events by participating in normal activities for age and enhancing developmental task achievement. Prevents stigmatization...

NIC Family Integrity Promotion Evaluation

(Has goal been met Not met Partially met ) and individualizing the approach promotes better understanding. Provides parents accurate information on growth and development. Provides for an optimal level of care at home parental input into that plan of care may serve to increase compliance and foster positive adaptation. Prevents potential asthma exacerbation when allergen induced. Prevents and or minimizes asthma exacerbation by early identification. Prevents and or minimizes asthma...

See Imbalanced Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements

Related to (Specify loss of appetite and or pain in mouth induced malabsorption or enteropathy caused by abdominal radiation, chemotherapy, abdominal surgery, or frequent antibiotic use and anorexia-inducing substances secreted by tumor cells xerostomia (irreversible dryness of mouth , destruction of microvilli of taste buds and or lining of salivary glands all can be caused by radiation therapy .) Defining Characteristics (Specify anorexia, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, mucositis, decreased...

Deficient Knowledge

Related to Lack of information about long-term medical regimen. Defining Characteristics (Specify request for information about medication, dietary regimen, care of colostomy or ileostomy.) Promotes independence and control over care and situations. changes that are congruent with health status changes. Promotes maximal use of personal resources and acceptance of support systems. Promotes understanding of disease and effect on lifestyle. Provides information that may begin to lead to acceptance...

Flow Chart For Meningitis

Physician Flow Chart

COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. STAT Ref Online Electronic Medical Library 5 5 2006 6 51 38 AM PST (GMT -08 00) Delmar's Pediatric Nursing Care Plans - 3rd Ed. (2005) 12 21 2006 6 14 16 PM PST (GMT -08 00) 123& docid 63 DELMAR'S PEDIATRIC NURSING CARE PLANS - 3rd Ed. (2005) UNIT 7 - NEUROLOGIC SYSTEM CHAPTER 7.4 - MENINGITIS Title...

Moral Development Kohlberg

Based on cognitive development theory and consists of 3 major levels. Preconventional Level (2 to 7 years) Parallels Piaget's preoperational level of cognitive development and intuitive thinking. Characterized by development of cultural values sense of right and wrong integrate things in terms of physical or pleasurable consequences of their actions. Initially, determines goodness or badness in terms of its consequences (attempt to avoid punishment). Later, determines right behavior consists of...

NIC Urinary Elimination Management Evaluation

(Has goal been met Not met Partially met ) (Is bladder palpable above symphysis after voiding What is intake and output Provide cc's and amount of time.) (Revisions to care plan D C care plan Continue care plan ) Provides information about effect of motor weakness that travels upward from extremities. Provides monitoring for I& O ratio and presence of urinary retention, UTI as paralysis progresses. Promotes urine elimination and return to normal pattern as soon as possible. Promotes urinary...

Flow Chart For Hypertension

Provides specialized guidance if needed to ensure compliance and success. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. STAT Ref Online Electronic Medical Library 5 5 2006 6 51 38 AM PST GMT -08 00 Delmar's Pediatric Nursing Care Plans - 3rd Ed. 2005 12 21 2006 5 48 31 PM PST GMT -08 00 123 amp docid 12 DELMAR'S PEDIATRIC NURSING CARE PLANS - 3rd Ed. 2005 UNIT 2 - CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM CHAPTER 2.5 - HYPERTENSION...

Compromised Family Coping

Defining Characteristics Specify family expresses concern and fear about infant's apnea episodes, displays protective behavior disproportionate to infant's need to grow and develop, describes a preoccupation with monitoring of infant apnea, chronic anxiety. Goal Family will demonstrate adequate coping by date time to evaluate . Outcome Criteria V Family members are able to express feelings and needs to each other. V Family members identify three healthy coping mechanisms.

Flow Chart For Cardiac Dysrhythmias

COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. STAT Ref Online Electronic Medical Library 5 5 2006 6 51 38 AM PST GMT -08 00 Delmar's Pediatric Nursing Care Plans - 3rd Ed. 2005 12 21 2006 5 48 17 PM PST GMT -08 00 123 amp docid 11 DELMAR'S PEDIATRIC NURSING CARE PLANS - 3rd Ed. 2005 UNIT 2 - CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM CHAPTER 2.4 - CARDIAC DYSRHYTHMIAS Send Feedback Teton Server 4.5.0 - 2006 Teton Data Systems Title...

Cultures of Blood Urine Cerebrospinal Fluid Nasopharynx reveal causative organism

Lumbar Puncture reveals cloudy or purulent appearance, increased WBC predominant polymorphonuclear leukocytes, increased protein, decreased glucose in bacterial type clear, normal or slight elevation of WBC with predominant lymphocytes, slight increased glucose, slight protein, normal lactate dehydrogenase in viral type. Electrolyte Panel reveals decreased K and increased Na , changes indicating dehydration. Serum Osmolality reveals increase if antidiuretic hormone secretion increased. Complete...

Pediatric Asthma Case Study

A 14-year-old African-American female is brought to the pediatrician's office by her mother. She has just started running on her high school track team, but has been complaining to her mother that her running feels different this year. When she ran in middle school she could race longer distances without becoming winded. She now says her chest burns and she is running fewer miles before she has to stop to catch her breath. Her girlfriend told her she could hear her wheezing and she should go to...

NOC Mobility Level

Assess muscle tone, strength, mass joint mobility, pain, stiffness, swelling ability to move and activity level in performing ADL specify when . restrictions, imposed immobility by braces, casts, traction, splints. Assess sensory diminished sensation and numbness and motor gait and balance function of extremities presence of paralysis, fracture, surgical correction of musculoskeletal abnormalities. immobilization on body systems constipation, skin breakdown, urinary retention, hypercalcemia,...

Flow Chart For Asthma

COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. STAT Ref Online Electronic Medical Library 5 5 2006 6 51 38 AM PST GMT -08 00 Delmar's Pediatric Nursing Care Plans - 3rd Ed. 2005 12 21 2006 5 50 34 PM PST GMT -08 00 123 amp docid 17 DELMAR'S PEDIATRIC NURSING CARE PLANS - 3rd Ed. 2005 UNIT 3 - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CHAPTER 3.2 - ASTHMA Title Updates User...

Disorganized Infant Behavior

Related to Environmental stimulation. Defining Characteristics Specify, e.g., alterations in heart rate, respirations, color changes, erratic body movements, difficulty with feedings or prolonged periods of wakefulness. Goal Infant will display increased organization of behavior by date time to evaluate . Outcome Criteria V Infant demonstrates quiet alert state and ability to habituate to environmental stimuli. V Color changes with handling and movement are decreased. V Demonstrates smoother...

Flow Chart For Gastroenteritis

For enteritis as a basis for treatment reveals occult blood in stool in severe inflammation of bowel. Prevents additional irritation to rectum. Prevents use of medications that may exacerbate condition. Treats vomiting and additional fluid loss and promotes rest. Prevents possible fluid imbalance complication which leads to dehydration. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar...

NOC Urinary Elimination

Bladder, degree of incontinence, potential for rehabilitation, age of child. Assess urine for cloudiness, foul odor, fever, lethargy, dysuria, retention. Offer and encourage intake of 30 ml lb day including acid-containing beverages and dietary inclusion of foods high in acid content. Maintain clean genital and anal area after each elimination episode or as needed if incontinent. condition for use in plan of establishing urinary elimination routine. infection caused by urinary retention or...

Bibliography

Critical thinking in nursing A practical approach 3rd ed. . Philadelphia W.B. Saunders Co. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2000 . Pickering, L. Ed. . 2000 Red book Report of the committee on infectious diseases 25th ed. . Elk Grove, IL Author. Ball, J. W., amp Binder, R. C. 2002 . Pediatric nursing Caring for children 3rd ed. . Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall. Barnum, B.S. 1999 . Teaching nursing in the era of managed care. New York Springer Publishing. Behrman,...

Flow Chart For Osteomyelitis

Flow Chart Nursing

Promotes exposure to various activities and changes of environmental stimuli. Promotes independence and allows some control over the situation. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. STAT Ref Online Electronic Medical Library 5 5 2006 6 51 38 AM PST GMT -08 00 Delmar's Pediatric Nursing Care Plans - 3rd Ed. 2005 12 21 2006 6 08 48 PM PST GMT...

Common Nursing Diagnoses Decreased Cardiac Output

Related to Mechanical factors alterations in preload alterations in afterload alterations in inotropic function of heart. Defining Characteristics Variations in hemodynamic readings BP, CVP hypovolemia jugular vein distention oliguria decreased peripheral pulses cold, clammy skin crackles dyspnea specify . Related to Electrical factors alterations in rate alterations in rhythm alterations in conduction. Defining Characteristics Arrhythmias, ECG changes, bradycardia, changes in contractility...

Flow Chart For Sensory Deficits

Nursing Care Plan Sensory

COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. STAT Ref Online Electronic Medical Library 5 5 2006 6 51 38 AM PST GMT -08 00 Delmar's Pediatric Nursing Care Plans - 3rd Ed. 2005 12 21 2006 6 14 36 PM PST GMT -08 00 123 amp docid 64 DELMAR'S PEDIATRIC NURSING CARE PLANS - 3rd Ed. 2005 UNIT 7 - NEUROLOGIC SYSTEM CHAPTER 7.5 - SENSORY DEFICITS Title...

Flow Chart For Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome Flow Chart

Provides safety measure to prevent complications in a child that is immunosuppressive. Prevents risk of infection that may precipitate a relapse. Positive reinforcement enhances desire to learn new skills. Promotes return to usual patterns of living. disease process and importance of compliance with therapy to prevent exacerbation. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar...

Flow Chart For Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Bronchopulmonary Displasia

COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. STAT Ref Online Electronic Medical Library 5 5 2006 6 51 38 AM PST GMT -08 00 Delmar's Pediatric Nursing Care Plans - 3rd Ed. 2005 12 21 2006 5 51 09 PM PST GMT -08 00 123 amp docid 19 DELMAR'S PEDIATRIC NURSING CARE PLANS - 3rd Ed. 2005 UNIT 3 - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CHAPTER 3.4 - BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA...

Psychosexual Development Freud

Oral Stage birth to 1 year Characterized by infant-seeking pleasure via oral activities such as biting, sucking, chewing, and vocalizing. Anal Stage 1 to 3 years Characterized by interest in the anal region and sphincter muscles child is able to withhold or expel feces toilet training is a major milestone method of parent discipline, may have lasting effects on child's personality development . Phallic State 3 to 6 years Characterized by interest and recognition in differences between the...

Flow Chart For Leukemia And Lymphoma

Nurse With Chart

Allows for venting of feelings to determine need for information and support, and relieves guilt and anxiety. Enhances family understanding of medical regimen and Promotes understanding of importance of making child one of the family and the adverse effects of overprotection of the child. Empowers the clients to take control of coping methods and find alternatives. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Flow Chart For Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive Heart Failure Flow Chart

COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. COPYRIGHT 2005 by Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. STAT Ref Online Electronic Medical Library 5 5 2006 6 51 38 AM PST GMT -08 00 Delmar's Pediatric Nursing Care Plans - 3rd Ed. 2005 12 21 2006 5 48 02 PM PST GMT -08 00 123 amp docid 10 DELMAR'S PEDIATRIC NURSING CARE PLANS - 3rd Ed. 2005 UNIT 2 - CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM CHAPTER 2.3 - CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Send Feedback Teton Server 4.5.0 - 2006 Teton Data Systems...

Developmental Theories Psychosocial Development Erickson

Trust Versus Mistrust, Infant birth to 1 year Characterized by taking in through all the senses loving care of a mothering person is essential to develop trust must have basic needs met attachment to primary caretaker. The favorable outcome is faith and optimism. Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt, Toddler 1 to 3 years Characterized by increasing ability to control bodies, themselves, and their environment seek independence, negativism, threatened by changes in routine, curious explorer. The...

Spiritual Development Fowler

Five stages of development of faith four are closely associated with parallel cognitive Piaget and psychosocial Erickson development in childhood. Stage 0, Undifferentiated Characterized by infant period of development, in which the infant is unable to determine concept of right or wrong. Development of basic trust lays the foundation for beginning faith. Stage 1, Intuitive-projectile Characterized by toddler period of development, in which the primary behavior is referred to as imitating...