Orchid Growing Training Course

Orchid Care Tips

The Internet's Original Orchid Growing Training Course. Discover the #1 most important step you should take to keep your orchid plants healthy, brilliant and insect-free. How do you know if your orchid plant it truly dead or just in a dormant state preparing to bloom again for you? Youll find out in our free course! A simple, easy method for knowing exactly when its time for repotting your orchids and giving them the best orchid propagation chances possible. Heres Just a Small Sampling of What Youll Discover in this Amazing Resource: Discover the common mistake everyone makes about epiphytic orchids and how to avoid it! Discover the 3 capacities of the labellum and why they are critical to your orchids survival. Learn the amazing prediction Darwin made about Xanthopan morgani praedicta. Here are 3 simple ways to insect-proof your greenhouse. When your orchid has exhausted its compost these 3 signs appear. Think all orchids offer nectar to insects? Find out why this common misconception is false and the Real trait all orchids share. These are the 7 crucial, life-giving minerals your orchid needs to survive. Learn why your pods might just contain over 186,300 seeds for propagation! Ever find your orchid blushing violently and then wilting? Put an end to it once you read page 4. Having problems feeding your epiphyte? This very special technique will solve your problems once and for all. Got Pests? Diseases? Spotted Flowers? This might be the silent killer youre facing. Learn the light trick and find out if your orchids Really have no more buds. How to tell the difference between monopodial and sympodial groups (and why the difference is important to your future as an orchid grower.) Read more here...

Orchid Care Tips Summary


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Complete Orchid Fertilizers Homemade Recipes

John Perez shares with you 50 years of major experiences, never told methods and Instantly Valuable recipes that brought him a Complete Triumph! You'll discover how to unlock your orchids' full potential. Youll know exactly how to feed your orchids to quickly, easily and inexpensively get (force) astonishing results. When you discover John's exclusive Complete Orchid Fertilizer that Safely increases orchid's growth rate up to 250%. You know how to skyrocket your orchids up to new mind-blowing levels of beauty and value.

Complete Orchid Fertilizers Homemade Recipes Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: John Perez
Official Website: ww25.getmatureorchids.com
Price: $29.95

Early Purple Orchid

(Orchis mascula) The commonest of the British native orchids. The tubers (and those of most of the Orchis species of Europe and Northern Asia), when prepared, yield salep, which had, at least according to the doctrine of signatures (the word orchid means testicle) a reputation for curing impotence (Pliny gemina radice, testiculus simili), a reputation flourishing in eastern countries particularly, though it is represented too in north-east Scotland, where the root was used as an aphrodisiac, the old tuber being discarded, and the new one used. It would be dried, ground, and secretly administered as a potion (Anson). John Moncrieff of Tippermalloch (in the 18th century) went further The word 'salep', sometimes spelt salop, is Turkish (most of the tubers for its manufacture were imported from Turkey (Coats. 1975)), from an Arabic original, sahlab (Emboden. 1974), apparently meaning fox orchid. The substance was imported at one time from the East. It was used as an article of diet,...

Molecular Genetic Testing

The systems available and in use at this time include reverse dot blots (Inno-LiPA CFTR33 Probe Array, Innogenetics Linear Array CF Gold 1.0, Roche), amplification refractory mutation detection system (ARMS Elucigene CF29, Orchid), and the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA CF V3.0, Abbott Celera). More recent additions to the CFTR testing arena include the invader assay (Third Wave Technologies) and various microarray platforms (e.g., Nanochip CFTR, Nanogen). Other emerging technologies include matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (Sequenom) and real-time PCR (Light-Typer, Roche). In addition, a handful of research and clinical laboratories offer complete sequencing of the CFTR gene, which can be used to identify rare mutations and polymorphisms and resolve ambiguities not defined by the allele-specific methods. 13 Several of the more

Root Endophytes Pathogens

In addition to the facultative necrotrophic abilities of fairy ring fungi, other agarics, e.g. P. semilanceata, are able to colonize healthy cortical tissues of grasses but without clear evidence of any deleterious symptoms in the host (Keay and Brown, 1990). Similarly colonization of grass roots has been observed under field or microcosm conditions by species such as Melanoleuca grammopodia and Con-ocybe dunensis (McKay, 1968). In both there was some evidence of host specificity, with P. semilanceata exhibiting a preference for Agrostis tenuis and Poa annua over L. perenne, and infection rates by basidiomycete (clamped) hyphae being much higher for Ammophila arenaria than other sand dune grasses. Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph Rhizoctonia solani) is commonly isolated from grassland and arable soil (Garrett, 1951 Warcup and Talbot, 1962) and is a capable cellulolytic saprotroph. It is also an economically important necrotrophic pathogen in grassland, causing various diseases (e.g....

Growing Ferns Indoors

Growing Ferns Indoors

Sacks of fern-specific soil, usually containing various combinations of peat, sterilized compost, and perhaps sand, pumice, and or perlite, are easily purchased from most garden centers and are in general ready to use. I find many somewhat heavy, however, and prefer to cut them with a gritty amendment, so as to improve drainage. Well-washed pumice is always excellent, but perlite (which I find unaesthetic) and other inorganic additives may be used as well. Some growers amend with an orchid media. Assorted ferns share the stage with orchids at Longwood Gardens. Assorted ferns share the stage with orchids at Longwood Gardens.


Calanthe Society

Acriopsis javanica Reinw. is an epiphyte orchid that grows in Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. The pseudobulbs are 5 X 1.5 cm and develop thick roots. Each pseudobulb produces three leaves, which are linear and 25 cm X 9 mm. The influorescences are 60 long and branched panicles. The flowers are 7 mm long and pale purple (Fig. 56). Bulbophyllum vaginatum Reich. f. is an epiphytic orchid that grows in Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The stems are 3 mm in diameter. The petiole is 2 X 6 mm, swollen, and deeply channeled. The blade is elliptic, thick, spongy, and 8 X 3 cm. The flowers are arranged in clusters of 12-15 pale yellow, 5-cm-long flowers with elongated corollas (Fig. 57). In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the plant is warmed and instilled in the ear to mitigate earache. The pharmacological potential of this orchid is unexplored. Note that an interesting development in Bulbophyllum species, and Orchidaceae in general, is the search for...

Carcharias megalodon See Megatooth shark

A 'Darwin CD-ROM,' edited by Ghiselin and Goldie (1997), is available which contains the full text of (i) most of CD's major books ( Journal,* Zoology, *Coral Reefs, Cirripedia, 'Origin, Orchids, *Descent, *Expression), (ii) a few of his shorter papers (including Strickland et al. 1843), and (iii) Ghiselin (1969). The CD-ROM also contains a Darwin Biographical Dictionary, a Darwin Bibliography, pictures, and some fluff (details in Provine (1997) and at www.lbin.com).

Host Range and Transmission

BCMV naturally infects P. vulgaris (kidney bean), P. acutifolius (tepary bean), P. atropurpureus, P. coccineus (runner bean), P. mungo (black gram), Glycine max (soybean), Macroptilium lathyroides (horse gram), Pisum sativum (pea), Rhynchosia minima, Vicia faba (broad bean), Vigna radiata (mung bean, green gram), V. angularis (azuki bean), and V. unguiculata (cowpea). Peanut stripe isolates naturally infect Arachis hypogea (peanut), Dolichos lablab (hyacinth bean), Indigofera amoena, G. max, Lupinus albus (lupin), Pueraria phaseoloides, Sesamum spp. (sesame), Stylosanthes capitata, and S. craba. Soybean isolates are adapted to soybean, and rarely infect peanuts. Dendrobium mosaic isolates infect Dendrobium orchids, while guar green sterile isolates infect guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). In addition to its natural hosts, BCMV has a wide experimental host range, infecting about 100 species from 44 genera over nine families including Amaranthaceae, Chenopo-diaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae,...

Headspace Techniques

Headspace Sample Collection

The first headspace technique used to collect the scent of a flower was a static technique developed by Dodson and Hill in 1966 (8), who were trying to identify the aroma chemicals responsible for attracting Euglossine bees to several species of orchids. They placed the orchid in a sealed jar. After 30 minutes, a gaseous sample was removed with a syringe and injected directly into a GC. They were able to identify the different components of the orchid's scent using this headspace analysis technique. Their simple experiments started a new path of research that ultimately transformed the approach of fragrance scientists studying flower scents.

Evolution Of Mutualism

For each mutualist, the interaction has both a benefit and a cost. Legumes, for example, obtain nitrogen from rhizobia, but expend energy and materials on the symbionts. Excessive growth of the rhizobia would reduce the plant's growth to the point of diminishing its fitness. Likewise, excessive proliferation of mitochondria or plastids, which originated as symbiotic bacteria, would reduce the fitness of the eukaryotic cell or organism that carries them. Thus, selection will always favor protective mechanisms to prevent overexploitation by an organism's mutualist. Whether selection on a mutualist favors restraint depends on how much an individual's fitness depends on the fitness of its individual host. When a mutualist can readily move from one host to another, as pollinating insects can from plant to plant, it does not suffer from the reproductive failure of any one host, and selfishness or overexploitation may be favored. For example, many pollinating insects cheat. The larvae of...


(Narthecium ossifragum) It is said in the Highlands that this plant (what Otta Swire called the little golden bog orchid, if that is correct identification, for she may have had in mind the rare Bog Orchid, Hammarbya paludosa) first grew by the Falls of Ragie, Strathpeffer, when the Virgin Mary, walking over the moor, stopped at some marshy ground to tuck up her robe. As she undid her golden girdle it slipped through her fingers into the peat bog and sank out of sight. Where it had fallen, the orchids grew (Swire. 1963).


The testicle-suggesting tubers of EARLY PURPLE ORCHID would ensure that Salep, a preparation made from them, enjoyed a reputation for curing impotence. Salep, which has medicinal value, was extremely popular, particularly in eastern countries, for the purpose. It was treated as an aphrodisiac. ANISE was used as a Greek cure for the condition ointments were made of the root of narcissus mixed with the seeds of anise or nettles (Simons). The early Persian and Arabian doctors prescribed GINGER for impotence


The evidence for the existence of psychopharmaceutical principles in the Liliopsida is strong, and it seems likely that further research on neuroactive substances from the monocots might pay off sooner or later. An interesting development from Liliopsida is the search of GABAergic and dopaminergic agents from Orchidaceae and Araceae, respectively. A water extract of the dried rhizome of Acorus gramineus Soland. dose-dependently inhibits the locomotor activity and the intensity of apomorphine-induced stereotypic behavior, and potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in rodents at dose 0.5-5.0 g kg. Receptor binding assays showed that the extract displaced 3H SCH-23390 and 3H YM-09151-2 for specific binding to striatal dopamine D1 and D2 and competed with 3H muscimol for specific binding to the GABA binding site of cortex GABAa receptors (139).


Schizaea pusilla, the curly grass fern, is noteworthy not as a candidate for the landscape but as an exotic attraction for curious plantfolks and botanical tourists in the Pinelands of New Jersey, Long Island, and similar but more isolated sites on the eastern North American seaboard. Minute squiggles of curled threads, most certainly unrecognizable as fern fronds, swirl in wet peat bogs in the company of exotic orchids and assorted showy, carnivorous companions. The tiny 2- to 4-in. (5- to 10-cm) fertile heads, appearing in midsummer, stand upright and look like the closed petite jaws on a Venus fly trap (Dionaea muscipula). A good viewpoint for visitors is at the Websmill Bog site in southern New Jersey.

Thorns And Splinters

A poultice used to be made in the Highlands from HEATH SPOTTED ORCHID (Dactylorchis maculata) for drawing out thorns or splinters from the flesh (Beith). One of the wonders ascribed to SCARLET PIMPERNEL was that it had the power of drawing out thorns and splinters (C J S Thompson. 1897), and PRIMROSES too had the power - it draweth forth of the flesh any thorne or splinter, or bone fixed therein (Gerard). A 15th century leechdom reckoned that a plaster of southernwood with fresh grease will draw out stub or thorn, that sticketh in the

Woody Nightshade

(Solanum dulcamara) Most plants with red berries have some kind of magical association, rowan being the prime example. The connection may be with lightning, and the consequent protective faculty, or it may be with the fairies. Like honeysuckle, woody nightshade used to have names in Germany that fixed it firmly in the latter category - names like Alprauke, Alpkraut, etc., - elfwort, that is (Grimm). In Lincolnshire, collars made from the branches of this plant were hung around pigs if it were reckoned they were overlooked , and elsewhere, garlands of the flowers, with holly, were put round the necks of horses if they were hag-ridden (Wright. 1913). To quote John Aubrey A receipt to cure a horse of being Hag-ridden - take Bittersweet woody nightshade , and Holly. Twist them together, and hang it about the Horses neck like a Garland it will certainly cure him . Culpeper thought so, too it is excellent good to remove Witchcraft both in Men and Beasts . In the Warwickshire villages of...


RASPBERRY leaf tea is a general country drink taken to ensure easy childbirth. They say it should be started three months before the birth is due, and taken two or three times a week (Page. 1978). Highland women used it too as a means of strengthening the womb muscles (Beith). The tea was an old remedy for relieving morning sickness, and powdered leaves can be bought in tablet form (Addison. 1985) they are said to ensure relaxation in childbirth, a function that the fresh fruit will perform just as well. African women grind the bark of AKEE and mix it with locally made black soap to wash with during pregnancy. This is supposed to ensure easy delivery when the time comes (Soforowa), while other African peoples recommend that seven seeds of MELEGUETA PEPPER, with a piece of paw-paw root, should be chewed during labour. It is supposed to cause immediate delivery (Soforowa). Gypsy women used to drink LINSEED tea during pregnancy to ensure an easy birth (Vesey-Fitzgerald), and a Swedish...

Love Charms

At one time, CARAWAY was an essential ingredient in love philtres (so was CHICORY seed), because it was supposed to induce constancy (Clair). It was thought, too, to confer the gift of retention (including retention of husbands - even a few seeds in his pocket would prevent the theft of a husband (Baker) ). CORIANDER is another spice that had this reputation. Albertus Magnus (de virtutibus herbarum) includes it among the ingredients of a love potion, but then coriander was one of the many plants that were supposed to be aphrodisiac (Haining). If the identification is correct, HEATH SPOTTED ORCHID was used in a gypsy love philtre. The roots were dried and crushed, and then the girl mixed this with her menses, and the result introduced somehow into the man's food (Leland. 1891). Another doubtful identification is WATER GERMANDER, involved in a French belief. It was said that if a woman wanted to make a man love her, she had to put a piece of this plant in his pocket without his knowing...


Shredded Osmunda

Osmunda roots are black, fibrous, and wiry and are popularly shredded for use in specialized potting mixes designed for orchids and assorted epiphytes. They thread through the trunklike rhizomes that support the stubble of persistent old stipe bases. The stipe is frequently winged. The new growth is fleetingly downy, a down that is welcomed by hummingbirds for lining their nests. Fall color is yellow.


Belvisia spicata is quite a lot of fun for its nudey, possum-tail-like attachment, a foot (30 cm) or more long, at the end of each simple frond. The underside of the tail is heavily coated with cinnamon-colored spores. Similar to B. mucronata, a species described in Encyclopaedia of Ferns (Jones 1987), B. spicata is native to old duff-covered tree branches in Malaysia, tropical Africa, Sri Lanka, Indochina, Queensland, New Caledonia, Luzon, Fiji, and Tahiti. I grow it on a shingle of tree fern wood in morning sun and afternoon shade, where it is watered every day in warm sunny weather and is fertilized every couple of weeks along with the rest of the fern-shingle garden (78 orchids, ferns, and others hung on a screen of bamboo-like runo grass) using a 15-15-30 wettable powder with added trace elements well diluted. (Description by George Schenk.)


Trichomanes reniforme (kidney-shaped) is one of Mother Nature's gifts of elegance to New Zealand where it is an endemic filmy fern and as such only one cell thick. But what a filmy fern it is. The long-creeping rhizomes produce brilliant green, round to kidney-shaped, 3-in. (7.5-cm), translucent garlands of fronds. Sori held in distinctive tubular indusia stand shoulder to shoulder trimming the pinnae margins. Often in the company of native orchids, the species forms thick curtains on trees and floors of damp forests, and carpets rocks throughout the country. It seems tolerant of most every habitat except, regrettably, those of cultivated gardens. It is a must see for fern lovers traveling to New Zealand. Attempts at cultivation are attended with hopeful expectations, but, as with most filmy ferns, usually result in short-lived displays of struggling and straggling bits and pieces of the desired fern. Give it instead the attention of your camera along with your respectful admiration.

Mounted Ferns

Shingles (also known as slabs or plaques) cut from tree fern trunks and usually sold as mounts for epiphytic orchids serve equally well as supports for epiphytic ferns and fern relatives including Drynaria, Lycopodium, Belvisia, Pyrrosia, Asplenium nidus, Polypodium, and Davallia.

Conception aids to

Women who wanted children were told to eat LEEKS, and not only in Wales, though Evelyn noted that the Welch, who eat them much, are observed to be very fruitful , and the Welsh medical text known as the Physicians of Myddfai lists among the virtues of leeks that it is good for women who desire children to eat (them) . Perhaps the reason for such claims lies in the Germanic peoples' belief that leeks contribute to manly vigour (Wimberley), clearly derived from their upstanding growth. CARAWAY, at least according to Gerard, helpeth conception , but he did not go into details. BIRTHWORT must obviously be included here. The doctrine of signatures, from the shape of the flowers which constrict into a tube that opens into a globular swelling at the base, interpreted as the womb and the birth passage, ensured its use to help delivery, etc., The generic name is Aristolochia, which comes from two Greek words meaning 'best birth'. As well as helping delivery, it was said to encourage conception...


Who would ever have thought of POTATOES as aphrodisiacs But Shakespeare was only echoing popular belief when he had Falstaff say Let the sky rain Potatoes and hail Kissing-comfits, and snow Eringoes . Almost certainly he was referring to sweet potatoes, but no matter, for the idea lingered after the introduction of our potato, and all because of a fundamental error. Being a tuber, it was mistaken by the Spanish who first came across both the potato (papa) and sweet potato (batata), for a truffle, and the truffle was the trufa, eventually meaning testicle, and so an aphrodisiac (Wasson). The other Spanish term for the truffle was turma de tierra, even more explicitly 'earth testicle'. In the same way, the testicle-suggesting tubers of EARLY PURPLE ORCHID ensured that the root would be regarded as aphrodisiac, the old tuber being discarded, and the new one used. It would be dried, ground, and secretly administered as a potion (Anson). Another orchid with the same reputation, among the...

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