Dissolution of gases in sea water

Gases, such as oxygen, nitrogen and CFCs that do not react with water generally have low solubilities, whereas those that do, such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ammonia, are highly soluble. Carbon dioxide reacts relatively slowly with water to form carbonic acid, and is usually considered to have a low solubility. However, its solubility is complicated by the chemical equilibria governing the dynamic balances between dissolved carbon dioxide and bicarbonate and carbonate ions. These...

Growth

The growth of demersal fishes appears to be slow in the deep sea Beamish and Chilton, 1982 Merrett, 1989 , as might be expected from their low metabolic rate. The rate of growth of the deep-sea infauna is less clear. Turekian et al. 1975 used a radioisotope technique to study the growth rate of a deep-sea clam. Their best estimate was that the largest size class 8 mm was about 100 years old and that reproductive maturity was reached in 50-60 years. Although the confidence limits around these...

The distribution of biomass

By far the greatest part of primary production, the production of organic matter from carbon dioxide, is restricted to the upper sun-lit layers of the ocean which are sufficiently brightly illuminated for photosynthesis to occur chemosynthesis at hydrothermal vents is thought to account for c. 0.3 . Thus, virtually all life in the ocean is based on primary production in the upper 100 m or so, some of which is subsequently exported into deep water. As discussed above, the sinking organic matter...

Organicmatter Flux And Benthopelagic Coupling

Abyssal Plains

General patterns of primary production Apart from spatially limited areas of hydrothermal vents and seeps see Chapter 4 , almost all food available to the deep-sea benthos is derived from primary production in the euphotic zone. The 'Dahlem map' Berger, 1989, fig. 11 provides an overview of estimated primary production for the Atlantic Ocean based on previous maps and remote-sensed satellite data. For the North Atlantic, more precise data on new primary production i.e., production depending on...