Redox Memory

The above studies are discussed in a developmental context, as it is this context that currently provides our clearest understanding of a likely in vivo relevance, but possible relevance for the analysis of inflammation also needs to be considered. The idea that different precursor cells of the same lineage may have profound differences in their biological properties is a new concept that needs to be examined more broadly in respect to other lineages, to precursor cells of the adult CNS, and...

Oligodendrocytes And Their Ancestry

As this chapter will be concerned not only with oligodendrocytes, but also with the precursor cells that give rise to them, we first briefly summarize current views on the oligodendrocyte lineage and at least some of the signaling molecules that modulate their differentiation. We will use the term precursor cell generically to include both neuroepithelial stem cells (that can give rise to all of the cell types of the CNS) and lineage-restricted progenitor cells (that only give rise to...

Redox Modulation Of The Function Of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells

Cytotoxic agents such as TNF-a cause oxidative stress as an important component of their activity. As we have discussed, pharmacological manipulation of redox state can be used to modify the action of these molecules and protect cells. Such analysis, however, treats cells as though redox state was a homogeneous property, with all cells being equal in this regard. In the following sections, we will consider evidence demonstrating that it is overly simplistic to view intracellular redox state as...

Editors

Etty (Tika) Benveniste is professor and chairman of the Department of Cell Biology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. She received her Ph.D. in immunology from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1983, and was a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Jean Merrill, Department of Neurology, UCLA, from 1983 to 1986. Dr. Benveniste has received numerous honors and awards, including NIH Training Grant Fellowships (1982-1983, 1984-1985) a postdoctoral fellowship award from...

Prion Diseases

Human prion diseases include Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD), variant CJD, Kuru, and Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome 211 . These disorders are characterized by a spongiform encephalopathy, deposition of prion protein (PrP) in plaques in the brain, and rapidly progressive dementia 212 . An important neuropathologic feature of prion disease is the accumulation of microglia surrounding prion amyloid plaques 213 . Astrogliosis is also present. The identity of the infectious agent that causes prion...

Antiinflammatory Cytokine Profiles In

During the course of CNS autoimmunity, IL-10 can be produced by macrophages, Th2 cells, B cells and DCs, in addition to astrocytes and microglia 19,53,119,120 . IL-10 has well-documented inhibitory effects on Th1 proliferation and effector cytokine production and is also a potent inhibitor of APC function through its ability to decrease MHC Class II and B7 expression and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production 121-123 . In contrast, IL-10 is also known to promote B cell...