Natural and Vaccine Induced Immunity to FMD

Merial Animal Health Ltd., Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NQ, UK tim.doel merial.com 1 Natural Immunity 104 104 1.2 Sheep and Goats 105 106 1.4 Serum Antibody Response 106 1.5 Mucosal Antibody Response and the'Carrier State' 108 1.7 Viral Antigens and Epitopes 111 2 Vaccine-Induced Immunity 112 2.1 FMD Vaccines and Vaccination 113 2.2 Serum Antibody Response 114 2.3 Maternally Derived Immunity 116 2.5 Mucosal Antibody Response and the'Carrier State' 119 2.6 The Secondary Immune...

FMD Vaccines and Vaccination

With modern FMD vaccines made under European standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), the virus is produced in large-scale suspension cultures of baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21) and the clarified product is inactivated with an aziridine, binary ethyleneimine, with a double-dose, two-tank process (Bahnemann 1990). In the author's company, the inactivated antigen is concentrated by ultrafiltration and then purified2 by industrial scale chromatography to remove extraneous proteins...

The Secondary Immune Response and Duration of Immunity

One of the more striking variations in the immune response to FMD vaccines is the extent to which it is boosted by subsequent vaccinations. The increase in neutralising antibody titre may often exceed 1.5 log10 (Pay 1984) whereas little or no boosting of the immune response is apparent in the data from some other reports (Francis et al. 1983 Rocha et al. 1983), suggesting that the initial and subsequent vaccinations did not stimulate the development of immunological memory. This prompts the...

References

Abu Elzein EME, Crowther JR (1981) Detection and quantification of IgM, IgA, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus from bovine sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Hyg. Camb 86 79-85 Ahl R, Haas B, Lorenz RJ, Wittmann G (1990) Alternative potency test of FMD vaccines and results of comparative antibody assays in different cell systems and ELISA. In Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission...