Hog cholera (synonym: classical swine fever) is a highly contagious virus disease of swine. The infection can run an acute, subacute, chronic or inapparent course, mainly depending on the virulence of the virus. High-virulent virus causes acute disease and high mortality, whereas infections with low-virulent virus often go unnoticed.

The first description of a cholera-like disease among pigs that was later considered to have been hog cholera was from Tennessee, about 1810. Other outbreaks were reported from Ohio in the early 1830s. Hog cholera may possibly have occurred in France in 1822 and in Germany in 1833, but other reports suggest the disease first appeared in the UK in 1862 and subsequently spread to the European continent. The infection was reported from South America in 1899 and from South Africa in 1900.

In 1903, De Schweinetz and Dorset proved the disease was caused by a virus. During the epizootic in the USA in 1914, approximately 90% of the pigs in infected herds died, which was estimated to be a loss of 100 million dollars. Hog cholera was the most host cell is thought to be located near the floor of the canyon. This location would protect the crucial cell attachment site from structural variation influenced by antibody selection in hosts, as the canyon is too narrow to permit deep penetration of antibody molecules.

We anticipate many new developments as investigators delve deeper into the structure of the enteroviruses and their mode of replication and survival in nature.

See also: Coxsackieviruses (Picomaviridae); Echo-viruses (Picornaviridae); Enteric viruses; Enteroviruses (Picomaviridae): Human enteroviruses (serotypes 68-71); Hepatitis A virus (Picoma-viridae); Polioviruses (Picomaviridae): General features.

[This article is reproduced from the 1st edn (1994).]

devastating disease of pigs and consequently eradication programs were implemented, which have been successful in many countries.

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