Effective protective immunity against AMDV infection, or immunity leading to virus clearance, has not been reported. Although AMDV replication is restricted in mink in the presence of high titers of circulating antiviral antibodies, the virus is not neutralized. The lack of neutralization is due to apparent protection of the virus by a coating of phospholipids or by viral aggregation, and AMDV virus is readily neutralized by antiviral antibody after detergent or organic solvent treatment.
Whereas vaccination with recombinant AMDV capsids had no effect or even enhanced disease, vaccination with the major nonstructural protein NS1 resulted in milder disease, suggesting a role for cell-mediated immunity in the control of the infection in animals.
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