Test yourself

1 Reactions which involve the breakdown of compounds are collectively termed_and synthetic (building up) ones are termed__

2 Enzymes lower the_ _of a reaction.

3 The__of an enzyme is the part that is actually involved in catalysis.

4 At pH values away from the optimum,_of 'R' groups causes denat-

uration of proteins.

5 When a molecule_an electron, it is said to be oxidised.

6 Compounds which are good electron donors have a strongly_redox potential.

7 The energy 'currency' of cellular metabolism is _ _

8 The first step in glucose metabolism is_, which can occur with or without__

9 ATP may be formed from ADP by_phosphorylation, _

_phosphorylation or_phosphorylation.

10 Before entering the TCA cycle, pyruvate must be converted to the two-carbon compound__This type of reaction, in which a molecule of carbon dioxide is removed, is called a__

11 The main product of the TCA cycle is reducing power, in the form of_

12 The role of oxygen in aerobic respiration is to act as the__

in the electron transport chain.

13 As envisaged by the chemiosmotic theory of Peter Mitchell, protons are pumped out across a membrane, generating a____

14 _anaerobes are able to utilise anaerobic respiration if oxygen is unavailable.

15 The two commonest products of fermentation reactions are_and

16 Fermentation yields far less ATP than aerobic respiration because it does not involve an____

17 Fatty acids are broken down_carbons at a time by the process of

18 _are organisms that can derive their energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as ammonia or reduced iron.

19 Photosynthesis carried out by green and purple bacteria differs from that carried out by algae and cyanobacteria in that no_is generated.

20 In the light reactions of photosynthesis, light energy and an electron donor are used to generate_and__

21 In the dark reactions that make up the_cycle, carbon dioxide is assimilated into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, which is then converted to glucose in a series of steps that are the reverse of__

22 Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria are unable to use_as an electron donor, and therefore use compounds such as hydrogen sulphide or suc-cinate.

23 Organisms unable to synthesise glucose from inorganic carbon must derive it from other organic compound by the process of__

24 In amino acid synthesis, -NH2 groups may be transferred between compounds in_reactions.

25 The inhibition of a metabolic pathway by its final product is termed end-product or_inhibition.

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